Petalophthalminae

Wittmann, Karl J., 2020, Lophogastrida and Mysida (Crustacea) of the “ DIVA- 1 ” deep-sea expedition to the Angola Basin (SE-Atlantic), European Journal of Taxonomy 628, pp. 1-43: 33-35

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.628

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DFA628B3-900F-493E-98E4-C9B28CC7CDFD

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3806810

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F087F6-2A31-FFAD-B3D2-FBAAFA8F219A

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Petalophthalminae
status

 

Key to genera and species of the subfamily Petalophthalminae 

Distribution data modified and updated from San Vicente et al. (2014).

Petalophthalmidae  with mandibular palp long, powerful, and prehensile; thoracopods 1–2 without exopod, thoracopods 3–8 with well-developed exopods; powerful subchelae formed by thoracic endopods 1–2; merus of endopod 1 with large endite; ischium of endopod 2 with again larger, subquadrangular endite; endopod 5 normal-sized or elongate; endopods 3–4, 6–8 normal or reduced to different degrees; female pleopods uniramous or biramous, male pleopods biramous; exopods of uropods with subterminal suture. Subfamily Petalophthalminae Czerniavsky, 1882  (panoceanic, depth 0–5500 m, mainly 100–500 m) ............................................................................................... 1

1. Outer margin of antennal scale with smooth portion ending at a single spine; eyes well developed .......................................................................................................................................... 9

– Antennal scale setose all around; cornea well developed or reduced ............................................... 2

2. Eyes without or with strongly reduced visual elements; terminal margin of telson without setae, with spines and in most species also with small teeth. Genus Petalophthalmus Willemoës-Suhm, 1874  . ........................................................................................................................................................... 6

– Cornea well developed, functional; terminal margin of telson with setae, spines, and with small teeth in between. Ipirophthalmus  gen. nov............................................................................................... 3

3. Antennal scale 2-segmented; disto-lateral corner of the basal segment of the exopod of uropods with spines only, without seta; coxa of thoracic endopod 1 without endite ............................................... Ipirophthalmus liui ( Wang, 1998)  gen. et comb. nov. (northern South China Sea, depth 194–219 m)

– Antennal scale unsegmented; disto-lateral corner of the basal segment of the exopod of uropods with several spines and one seta; coxa of thoracic endopod 1 with endite ............................................... 4

4. Telson mid-terminally emarginated by, if at all, up to 1% of its length, lateral margins with 21–22 spines each, terminal margin with two long setae, nine large, toothed spines and small teeth in between ..................................................... Ipirophthalmus macrops (Tchindonova & Vereshchaka, 1991)  gen. et comb. nov. (W-Indian Ocean: off Madagascar, benthopelagic, depth 360–555 m)

– Telson mid-terminally emarginated by, if at all, up to 5% of its length, lateral margins with less than 20 spines each, terminal margin with four long setae, seven large, toothed spines and small teeth in between ............................................................................................................................................. 5

5. Telson mid-terminally emarginated by about 5% of its length, lateral margins with 12–15 spines each; eyestalk without ocular papilla; female pleopods biramous ............................ Ipirophthalmus caribbeanus (O.S. Tattersall, 1968)  gen. et comb. nov. (Caribbean, mesopelagic, depth 329–366 m)

– Telson mid-terminally emarginated by about 2% of its length; lateral margins with 17–18 spines each; eyestalk with ocular papilla; female pleopods uniramous ...................................................... ................................................................ Ipirophthalmus oculatus ( Illig, 1906)  gen. et comb. nov. (NW-Arabian Sea, W-Indian Ocean, off Japan, mesopelagic to bathybenthic, depth Ĺ 1200 m according to Illig 1906, compatible with 220–430 m indicated by San Vicente et al. 2014)

6. Anterior margin of carapace truncate, without rostrum; eyes without or with some small, scattered visual elements .................................................................................................................................. 8

– Anterior margin of carapace with triangular rostrum forming a longitudinal crista; eyes without visual elements .................................................................................................................................. 7

7. Eyes leaf-like; merus of thoracic endopod 2 with outer margin smooth, carpopropodus with three short setae on outer margin; thoracic endopod 5 with subequal praeischium, ischium and merus; carpus not shorter than propodus ........................................... Petalophthalmus armiger  Willemoës- Suhm, 1875 (panoceanic, 56 ° N to 46° S, bathypelagic to abyssobenthic, depth 900–4572 m)

– Eyes elongate ovoid, dorsoventrally flattened by a factor of 1.4; merus of thoracic endopod 2 with five large setae on outer margin, carpopropodus with three long and six short setae on outer margin; merus of thoracic endopod 5 longer than combined praeischium and ischium; carpus less than half length of propodus .............................................................................................................................. ............................ Petalophthalmus cristatus  sp. nov. (SE-Atlantic: Angola Basin, depth Ĺ 5497 m)

8. Eyes without eyestalks and without visual elements. Merus of thoracic endopod 2 with outer margin smooth, carpopropodus with three setae on outer margin; thoracic endopod 5 with subequal ischium, merus and carpus, each longer than praeischium, propodus 2-segmented with proximal segment half length of the distal one; telson with 25–37 spines on distal ¾ of each lateral margin ....................... .................................................................................... Petalophthalmus papilloculatus  San Vicente, Frutos & Cartes, 2014 (NE-Atlantic: Galicia Bank off Iberian Peninsula, depth 1536–1809 m)

– Eyes with definite eyestalks, globular cornea containing some scattered visual elements not forming a compound sensory organ; merus of thoracic endopod 2 with outer margin bearing seven setae, carpopropodus with three long and six short setae along outer margin; endopod 5 with subequal praeischium, ischium and merus, carpus ¾ length of propodus; telson with 20–22 spines on distal half of each lateral margin ...................................................................................... Petalophthalmus papuaensis  San Vicente & Corbari, 2015 (tropical W-Pacific: Bismarck Sea, depth 800–1065 m)

9. Thoracic endopods 6–8 rudimentary, with only 1–2 segments; thoracic endopods 3–4 terminating in two setae ......................................monotypic genus Parapetalophthalmus Murano & Bravo, 1998  ; species P. suluensis Murano & Bravo, 1998  (central Indo-Pacific: Sulu Sea, depth 285–306 m)

– Thoracic endopods 3–8 with more than four segments terminating in strong claw. Genus Pseudopetalophthalmus Bravo & Murano, 1997  .......................................................................... 10

10. Claw of thoracic endopods 1–2 fused with dactylus; thoracic endopods 3–5 with carpopropodus longer than merus; lateral margins of telson with four spines ..................... Pseudopetalophthalmus australis ( Panampunnayil, 1982)  (west coast of Australia, nocturnal surface to subsurface plankton)

– Claw of thoracic endopods 1–2 not fused with dactylus; thoracic endopods 3–5 with carpopropodus shorter than merus; lateral margins of telson with 7–8 spines ..................... Pseudopetalophthalmus japonicus Bravo & Murano, 1997  (east coast of central Japan, epibenthic, depth 74–130 m)