Rudolfina exuberata

Paiero, Steven Mark & Marshall, Stephen A., 2020, A revision of the genus Rudolfina Roháček (Sphaeroceridae: Limosininae), European Journal of Taxonomy 593, pp. 1-48: 19-27

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.593

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B08C59C9-6F91-4F3B-B595-5C6E7E6710D0

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3665075

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F18781-FFB8-FF87-FD92-7D73FC3EFB58

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Rudolfina exuberata
status

sp. nov.

Rudolfina exuberata  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C4509588-8528-4024-A87C-67A845A8157E

Figs 1BView Fig, 9–10View FigView Fig, 21DView Fig

Etymology

The specific name, which has been a manuscript name since Marshall (1982), is from the Latin for ‘abundant’: of the 1933 specimens examined for this study, 1649 were R. exuberata  sp. nov.

Material examined

Holotype

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA • ♂; Florida, Marion Co., Ocala National Forest ; 14–18 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; creekside, dung; DEBU debu01087005. 

Paratypes

ARGENTINA • 4 ♂♂; Misiones , 5 km E of Puerto Iguazú  ; 2–7 Feb. 1992; S.A. Marshall leg.; FIT/pans/ dung pans; DEBU. BELIZE – Cayo • 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Caves Branch ; 23–29 Aug. 1972; S. and J. Peck leg.: forest, dung; DEBU  2 ♂♂; Belmopan ; 26–30 Jul. 1972; S. and J. Peck leg.; palm forest, carrion; DEBU  2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; San Ignacio, Maya Mountain Lodge; 17°09′ N, 89°04′ W; 2 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; Atta  mound trail; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; San Ignacio, Maya Mountain Lodge; 17°09′ N, 89°04′ W; 7–8 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♂; San Ignacio, Maya Mountain Lodge; 17°9′ N, 89°4′ W; 7 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; Malaise; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♂, 11 ♀♀; Mountain Pine Ridge, Hidden Valley Inst.; 2500 ft a.s.l.; 10–15 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; broadleaf forest, dung traps; DEBU  1 ♀; Mountain Pine Ridge, Hidden Valley Inst.; 2500 ft a.s.l.; 14 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; pine–jungle edge, sweep; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Mountain Pine Ridge, Hidden Valley Inst.; 2500 ft a.s.l.; 14 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung traps in pine; DEBU  10 ♂♂, 18 ♀♀; Mountain Pine Ridge, Hidden Valley Inst.; 2500 ft a.s.l.; 10–15 Jan. 1991; S.A. Marshall leg.; grass–pine dung traps; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Beaver Dam, 39 mi. W of Belize City ; 6–10 Aug. 1972; S. and J. Peck; swamp forest, dung trap; CNCI  .

BOLIVIA – La Paz • 1 ♀; Heath River Wildlife Centre, ~ 21 km SSW of Puerto Heath; 12°40′ S, 68°42′ W; 5–7 May 2007; Marshall and Kits leg.; treefall, yellow pans; DEBUGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Heath River Wildlife Research Centre; 12°40′ S, 68°42′ W; 5–9 May 2007; Paiero and Kits leg.; treefall, yellow pans; UASCGoogleMaps  1 ♀; San Antonio, ca 8 km S of Mapiri; 15°20′56″ S, 68°13′31″ W; 11 Apr. 2001; S.A. Marshall; secondary forest, dung pans; DEBUGoogleMaps  .

BRAZIL – Minas Gerais • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; 1 km E of Lavras ; 18–20 Feb. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung traps in ditch; DEBU  . – Paraná • 4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Londrina ; 1–2 Feb. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; carrion pan traps; MZSP  2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; Londrina, Mata dos Godoy ; 28–31 Jan. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; MZSP  1 ♂, 1 ♀; 30 km SE of Curitiba, BR 277; 6–9 Feb. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung traps; DEBU. – Rio de Janiero   3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Tijuca Forest Reserve ; 1–28 Feb. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; Malaise; MZSP  1 ♂; Nova Friburgo, Sítio Edelweiss ; 26 Jan. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; Malaise; DEBU  . – São Paulo • 1 ♂; Estación Biologica Boracea ; 2 Dec. 2008; G.F.G. Miranda leg.; dung trap; MZSP  1 ♀; Sao Paulo, Jaragua ; 8 Feb. 1990; S.A. Marshall leg.; DEBU  8 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; USP Biology Station ; 5–6 Feb. 1979; R. Woodruff and J. Runnacles; human dung; MZSP  .

CHILE • 2 ♀♀; Valparaíso, La Campana National Park ; 22 Nov. 2006; S.A. Marshall leg.; MNNC  .

COLOMBIA • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; N of Santander, 20 mi. S of Cucuta Quebrada de Honda ; 2500 ft a.s.l.; 13–15 May 1974; S. Peck leg.; carrion trap; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; 2 mi. N of Chinacota ; 3000 ft a.s.l.; 12–14 May 1974; S. Peck leg.; carrion; DEBU  .

COSTA RICA – Alajuela • 1 ♀; Volcán Tenorio, N slope near Bijagua Biological Station ; 700 m a.s.l.; 18 Jun. 2000; Buck and Marshall leg.; pan traps in tree fall; DEBU  1 ♀; Río Peñas Blancas ; 700 m a.s.l.; 18 Aug. 1986; L. Masner; DEBU  1 ♂; Florencia Forest ; 28 Feb. 1980; H. Howden leg.; dung trap; DEBU  . – Cartago • 7 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; Turrialba , CATIE; 600 m a.s.l.; 26 Feb. 1980; H. and A. Howden leg.; CNCI  6 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; Turrialba , CATIE; 600 m a.s.l.; 26 Feb. 1980; H. and A. Howden leg.; INBC  6 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; Turrialba , CATIE; 600 m a.s.l.; 28 Feb. 1980; H. and A. Howden leg.; DEBU  1 ♂; Turrialba, CATIE, Florence Forest ; 600 m a.s.l.; 28 Feb. 1980; H. and A. Howden leg.; cup traps; DEBU  . – Guanacaste • 1 ♂; Guanacaste Conservation Area, Pitilla Field Station ; 29 Jan. 1996; J. Noyes leg.; Malaise; DEBU  . – Heredia • 1 ♀; La Selva; 2 Feb. 1990; N. Grieg leg.; around dung ball rolled by Canthon moniliatus Bates, 1887  ; DEBU  . – Limón • 4 ♀♀; Estrella Valley, Pandora ; 20 Feb. 1984; H. Howden leg.; carrion trap; CNCI  1 ♂, 1 ♀; 4 km NE of Bribri ; 50 m a.s.l.; Dec.1989 – Mar. 1990; P. Hanson leg.; INBC  .

CUBA • 1 ♀; Santiago , Gran Piedra Meteorological Radar; 1100 m a.s.l.; 6–17 Dec. 1995; S. Peck leg.; elfin forest, carrion traps; DEBU  .

ECUADOR – Napo • 2 ♂♂; Tiputini Biodiversity Station, vicinity Yasuní National Park ; 0°38′ S, 76°0′ W; 14–19 Feb. 1998; D.C. Darling leg.; human dung pitfalls; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Yasuní National Park, Yasuní Research Station ; 0°38′ S, 76°36′ W; 3–20 Nov. 1998; Pape and Viklund leg.; rain forest, Malaise trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  4 ♀♀; Jatun Sacha Reserve , 6 km E of Misahuallí; 1°04′ S, 77°37′ W; 450 m a.s.l.; 30 Apr.–7 May 2002; Buck et al. leg.; landslide in forest, Malaise trap; QCAZGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂; Tena ; 500 m a.s.l.; 21–27 May 1987; Brown and Coote leg.; secondary rainforest, Malaise head; DEBU  3 ♂♂; 12 km SW of Tena ; 500 m a.s.l.; 8–11 Aug. 1976; S. Peck leg.; dung trap; QCAZ  1 ♂; S side of Rio Piocullin , SW Puerto Napo, S of Limonchicta; 600 m a.s.l.; 23–27 May 1987; primary lowland rainforest, Malaise head; ROME  . – Pichincha • 8 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; Rio Palenque Station , 47 km S of Santo Domingo; 250 m a.s.l.; 17–25 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung; DEBU  7 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Rio Palenque Station , 47 km S of Santo Domingo; 250 m a.s.l.; 17–25 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; QCAZ  1 ♂; Rio Palenque ; 25 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; carrion; QCAZ  1 ♀; Rio Palenque ; 27 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; carrion; DEBU  1 ♂; Palenque ; 24–25 Feb. 1975; S. Peck leg.; day 3, trap 35; DEBU  13 ♂♂, 23 ♀♀; Rio Palenque ; 25 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung; DEBU  4 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀; Rio Palenque ; 27 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung; DEBU  5 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀; Rio Palenque ; 27 Feb. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung; QCAZ  1 ♂; Rio Palenque ; 22–23 Feb. 1976; S. Peck leg.; dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂; Rio Palenque ; 25–26 Feb. 1976; S. Peck leg.; dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂; Rio Palenque ; 22 Feb. 1976; S. Peck leg.; DEBU  .

GUATEMALA – Baja Verapaz • 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; 6.6 km W of Chilasco ; 1700 m a.s.l.; 30 May 1991; H. Howden leg.; dung; DEBU  . – Guatemala • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; Santa Catarina Pinula ; 1840 m a.s.l.; 11–13 Jun. 1991; B.D. Gill leg.; dung traps; DEBU  . – Petén • 11 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; Tikal ; 28–30 Jul. 1978; Helava and Kukal leg.; dung trap; DEBU  . – Sacatepéquez • 1 ♀; 5 km SE of Antigua ; 14°32′14″ N, 90°41′41″ W; 2125 m a.s.l.; 10–13 Jun. 2009; hardwood forest, Malaise trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  . – Zacapa • 1 ♂; 3.5 km SE of La Unión ; 1500 m a.s.l.; 26 Jun. 1993; R. Anderson leg.; cloud forest litter; DEBU  3 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; 25–27 Jun. 1993; Ashe and Brooks leg.; FIT #128; DEBU  .

GUYANA – Mazaruni-Potaro • 1 ♀; Takutu Mountains ; 6°15′ N, 58°55′ W; 8–10 Dec. 1983; Perkins and Steiner leg.; window trap in montane rainforest near logging area; DEBU. – Potaro-SiparuniGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Mount Wokomung ; 5°06′35″ N, 59°49′15″ W; 1234 m a.s.l.; 27 Oct.–1 Nov. 2004; B. Hubley leg.; primary rainforest, human dung, pitfall trap; ROMEGoogleMaps  . – Rupununi  GoogleMaps  3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; Kurupukari, Essequibo River ; 200 ft a.s.l.; 9 Oct. 1990; B. Hubley leg.; primary forest, dung traps; ROME  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Kabocalli, Iwokrama Forest Res.; 60 m a.s.l.; 3–5 Jun. 2001; Brooks and Falin leg.; FIT; DEBU  .

HONDURAS • 1 ♀; Olancho; 23 May 1995; R. Cordire leg.; FIT; DEBU  .

MEXICO – Campeche • 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Chicanna , 10 km W of Xbuzi; 300 m a.s.l.; 12–14 Jul. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; tropical seasonal forest, carrion traps; CNCI  4 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Chicanna , 10 km W of Xbuzi; 300 m a.s.l.; 12–14 Jul. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; tropical seasonal forest, carrion traps; UNAM  3 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; 53 mi. E of Escárcega ; 500 ft a.s.l.; 8–14 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; tropical semi-evergreen, dung; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; FMNH  7 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; 87 mi. E of Escárcega ; 800 ft a.s.l.; 8–14 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; semi-evergreen, human dung; DEBU  10 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; UNAM  2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; FMNH  . – Chiapas • 2 ♀♀; 21 mi. N of Bochil ; 5500 ft a.s.l.; 18–24 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; pine, oak, Liquidambar  L., human dung; DEBU  1 ♀; 4 km SE of Custepec ; 15°42′30″ N, 92°55′51″ W; 2100 m a.s.l.; 20 May 2008; cloud forest, Malaise trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Playón de la Gloria ; 16°08′53″ N, 90°53′48″ W; 180 m a.s.l.; 25 May 2008; mature wet forest, Malaise trap; UNAMGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Playón de la Gloria ; 16°09′37″ N, 90°54′7″ W; 160 m a.s.l.; 25 May–24 Jun. 2008; mature wet forest, Malaise trap; UNAMGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; 8 km SE of Salto de Agua ; 17°30′45″ N, 92°17′40″ W; 60 m a.s.l.; 14–17 Jun. 2008; secondary wet forest, Malaise trap; UNAMGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; 8 km SE of Salto de Agua ; 17°30′58″ N, 92°18′05″ W; 100 m a.s.l.; 14 Jun. 2008; wet forest edge, Malaise trap; UNAMGoogleMaps  5 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; Palenque ; 100 m a.s.l.; 6–9 Jul. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; rainforest, carrion trap; DEBU  1 ♀; Parque Nacional Sumidero ; 1000 m a.s.l.; 1 Jun. 1990; H. and A. Howden leg.; CNCI  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; 15 mi. NW of Ocozocoautla ; 2800 ft a.s.l.; A. Newton leg.; rainforest, dung; DEBU  5 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; 11 mi. NW of Ocozocoautla ; 3400 ft a.s.l.; 19–25 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; oak-evergreen forest, human dung; FMNH  6 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; 4 mi. S of Palenque ; 600 ft a.s.l.; 7–15 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; rainforest, human dung; DEBU  10 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 700 ft a.s.l.; DEBU  11 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; FMNH  1 ♂; Palenque ; 80 m a.s.l.; 2–23 Jul. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; secondary vegetation; FIT; DEBU  1 ♂; Laguna Belgica , 16 km NW of Ocozocoautla; 970 m a.s.l.; 13 Jun. 1990; H. and A. Howden and B. Gill leg.; F.I.T.; DEBU  . – Guerrero • 1 ♂, 1 ♀; 9 mi. NE of Iguala ; 4400 ft a.s.l.; 29 Aug.–4 Sep. 1971; A. Newton leg.; deciduous forest, human dung; FMNH  . – Oaxaca • 5 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; 5 mi. S of Valle Nacional ; 1600 ft a.s.l.; 20 Jul.–1 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; tropical-oak-evergreen, dung; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; 12 mi. S of Valle Nacional ; 3200 ft a.s.l.; 22–31 Jul. 1971; A. Newton leg.; tropical montane forest, shrimp carrion; DEBU. – Pueblo •  1 ♂; 1 mi. S of Honey ; 6800 ft a.s.l.; 1–6 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; Pinus  L., Quercus  L., human dung; DEBU  . – Tabasco • 6 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; 46 mi. SE of Villa Hermosa , km74; 150 ft a.s.l.; 8–15 Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; secondary veg. rainforest, human dung; FMNH  . – Tamaulipas • 8 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀; Municipio Casas , 47 mi. E of Cuidad Victoria; Nov.–Dec. 1986; R. Jones leg.; carrion pitfall trap; TAMU  . – Veracruz • 1 ♂;, 33 km NE of Catemaco, Los Tuxtlas Biological Station ; 160 m a.s.l.; 6 Jul.–1 Aug. 1983; S. Peck leg.; ridge rainforest, FIT; DEBU  2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; Fortin , SW of Rio Metlas; 3250 ft a.s.l.; 13–18 Jul. 1971; A. Newton leg.; human dung, FMNH  3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; 10 mi. SW of Teocelo ; 4400 ft a.s.l.; 11 Jul. 1971; A. Newton leg.; oak, wet, human dung, FMNH  7 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; 8 mi. NNW of Sontecomapan ; Jul.–Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; rainforest, dung; DEBU  . – Yucatán • 1 ♀; 9 mi. SE of Santo Roso , km 137¼; 100 ft a.s.l.; Aug. 1971; A. Newton leg.; tropical sub-deciduous forest, human dung; DEBU  .

PARAGUAY – Caazapá • 18 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀; Hermosa, San Rafael Reserve, prop. Lopez family; 26°18′29″ S, 55°45′03″ W; 80 m a.s.l.; 1–3 Dec. 2000; Z.H. Falin leg.; FIT; DEBUGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Hermosa, San Rafael Reserve, prop. Lopez family; 26°19′15″ S, 55°44′55″ W; 90 m a.s.l.; 3–6 Dec. 2000; Z.H. Falin leg.; FIT; DEBUGoogleMaps  . – Itapúa • 1 ♀; Karonay , 17 km W of San Rafael Reserve; 26°45′53″ S, 55°50′37″ W; 90–110 m a.s.l.; 18–21 Nov. 2000; Z.H. Falin leg.; FIT; DEBUGoogleMaps  .

PERU – Junín • 2 ♀♀; Pampa Hermosa lodge, 22 km N of San Ramón; 10°59′18″ S, 75°25′30″ W; 1220 m a.s.l.; 24–27 Nov. 2007; D. Brzoska leg.; FIT; DEBUGoogleMaps  . – Cusco • 1 ♀; Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge , NE of Paucartambo; 13°03′18″ S, 71°32′42″ W; 1120 m a.s.l.; 4–9 Nov. 2007; D. Brzoska leg.; FIT; DEBUGoogleMaps  . – Lima • 1 ♂; Huaral, Chancay ; 15 Mar. 1951; Ross and Michelbacher leg.; river valley; CASC  . – Loreto • 1 ♂; Teniente López ; 24 Jul. 1993; R. Leschen leg.; FIT; DEBU  . – Madre de Dios • 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Zona Reserva Manu, Pakitza ; 11°57′ S, 71°17′ W; 400 m a.s.l.; 13–18 Feb. 1992; B. Brown and D. Feener leg.; Malaise trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  3 ♀♀; Pantiacolla Lodge, Alto Madre de Dios River; 12°39′18″ S, 71°13′54″ W; 420 m a.s.l.; 14–19 Nov. 2007; D. Brzoska leg.; FIT; DEBU.GoogleMaps  4 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; Amazonas Lodge , N of Atalaya; 12°52′12″ S, 71°22′36″ W; 480 m a.s.l.; 10–13 Nov. 2007; D. Brzoska leg.; FIT; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Los Amigos Biological Station ; 3–13 Jun. 2006; Paiero and Klymko leg.; Malaise; DEBU  .

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO – Tobago • 1 ♂; 10 km NE of Roxborough, Gilpin Trail ; 450 m a.s.l.; 26–30 Jun. 1993; S. and J. Peck leg.; rainforest, carrion traps; DEBU. – Trinidad  1 ♂; University of Santa Cruz , Gasparillo; 15 Nov. 1987; R. Borneo leg.; grassland/forest edge, Malaise trap; DEBU  .

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA – Alabama • 22 ♂♂, 32 ♀♀; Baldwin Co., Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge ; 30°14′48″ N, 87°49′45″ W; 5–7 Jun. 1994; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung traps in oak; DEBUGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; 5–7 May 1994; S.A. Marshall leg.; mushroom trap on oak; DEBUGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂; Jackson Co., Paint Rock ; 7–13 Jul. 1973; S. Peck leg.; dung; DEBU. – Arkansas  1 ♂; Johnson Co., Haw Creek Falls ; 22 May 1991; B.J. Sinclair leg.; DEBU  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; Logan Co., Ozark National Forest , Magazine Mountain; 23 May 1991; J.E. Swann leg.; mushroom baited pans; DEBU  2 ♀♀; Madison Co., 3 mi. S of Brashers ; 1600 ft a.s.l.; 19 Jun.–12 Jul. 1972; A. Newton leg.; hardwood forest, dung; DEBU  1 ♂; Polk Co., Rich Mountain , 13 mi. NW of Mena; 2800 ft a.s.l.; 1–3 Jun. 1979; S. and J. Peck leg.; mesic oak-hickory; DEBU  4 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Washington Co., 3 mi. S of Devils Den State Park ; 28–31 May 1979; S. and J. Peck leg.; oak-hickory; DEBU  1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; Washington Co., Devils Den State Park , Devils Den Cave; 28–31 May 1979; S. and J. Peck leg.; DEBU. – Florida  1 ♀; Alachua Co., Gainesville ; 20–30 Nov. 1986; W.R.M. Mason leg.; hardwood forest, Malaise trap; DEBU  1 ♀; Alachua Co., Rd 176; 10 May 1983; K.W. Vick leg.; carrion trap; DEBU  1 ♀; Alachua Co., Gainesville , DPI; 25–27 May 1983; D.S. Chandler leg.; Malaise trap; DEBU  1 ♀; Alachua Co., High Springs ; 15–16 Dec. 1999; S.A. Marshall leg.; on dung; DEBU  1 ♀; Alachua Co., Gainesville ; 12 Oct. 1976; Choate and Woodruff leg.; DEBU  16 ♂♂, 29 ♀♀; Alachua Co., Gainesville , Hogtown Creek; 12 Oct. 1976; Choate and Woodruff leg.; DEBU  2 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; Clay Co., Gold Head Branch State Park ; 4–14 Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; carrion; DEBU  2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Clay Co., Gold Head Branch State Park ; 14 Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; dung; DEBU  1 ♀; Collier Co.; 28 Dec. 1979; S.A. Marshall leg.; DEBU  3 ♀♀; Collier Co., Collier Seminole State Park ; Apr.1971; A. Newton; pine, palm, human dung; UCFC  1 ♂, 6 ♀♀; Dade Co., Everglades National Park , 1.5 km NW of Royal Palm; 1 Nov. 1984 – 3 Mar.1985; S. and J. Peck leg.; hardwood hammock forest, Malaise-FIT; UCFC  7 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 15 Nov. 1985 – 24 Feb. 1986; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 2 May–2 Aug. 1985; DEBU  5 ♀♀; Dade Co., Chekika State Recreation Area , 50 km SW of Miami, Grossman Hammock Forest; 1 May–2 Aug. 1985; S. and J. Peck leg.; Malaise-FIT; DEBU  1 ♀; De Land Co., Hwy. 40, near Barberville; 18–20 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; mushroom trap; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Hendry Co., La Belle, Captain Hendry Rd; Apr.1971; pine, hardwood near river, human dung; A. Newton leg.; DEBU  1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; Hernando Co., Withlacoochee State Forest , 1 mi. W of Croom; Apr.1971, A. Newton leg.; pine and hardwood, human dung; DEBU  1 ♂; Hernando Co., 1 mi. W of Croom ; Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; mixed forest; DEBU  1 ♀; Highlands Co., Archbold Biological Station ; 12–18 Dec. 1985; S.A. Marshall leg.; mushroom bait on sand; ABSC  2 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 17–21 Dec. 1985; scrub, dung; ABSC  2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 12–16 Dec. 1985; scrub, dung pitfall; DEBU  1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; scrub-sand, dung pan; DEBU  6 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 15–19 Dec. 1985; dung pan; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Highlands Co., Lake Placid , north shore; 14–16 Dec. 1985; S.A. Marshall leg.; palmetto, dung trap; DEBU  3 ♂♂ 8 ♀♀; Highlands Co., Highlands Hammock State Park , Cypress Swamp; 15–21 Dec. 1985; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung pan; DEBU  1 ♂; Highlands Co., Highland Hammock State Park ; 13–17 Apr. 1989; S.A. Marshall leg.; pans/maggot bait; DEBU  1 ♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 14–18 Jun. 1982; Woodruff and Rench leg.; orange grove, pig dung; UCFC  30 ♂♂, 41 ♀♀; Lake Co., 1 mi. W of Howey-in-the-Hills; Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; mixed hardwood forest, human dung; DEBU  5 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; Lake Co., Howey-in-the-Hills; Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; dung; CASC  5 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; CNCI  5 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; NMNH  1 ♂, 8 ♀♀; Liberty Co., Torreya State Park ; 6 Jun. 1982; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  5 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest ; 14–18 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; creekside, dung; DEBU  10 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; FMNH  10 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; CNCI  3 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 11–15 Jun. 1984; hardwood swamp, dung trap; DEBU  2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest ; 8–11 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; oak grove, mushroom trap; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest ; Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; dung; CNCI  3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; NMNH  3 ♂♂; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , near Lynne; 20–24 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; palm–oak, dung trap; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 12 ♀♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Oklawaha Swamp; 11–12 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung trap; DEBU  2 ♀♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Road 65; 18–20 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; sand–pine, human dung; DEBU  1 ♂, 6 ♀♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Road 65, 1.5 mi. W of State Road 19; 15–16 Mar. 1984; R.E. Woodruff leg.; dung; DEBU  1 ♂; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Silver Springs Woods; 6–23 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; oak, FIT; DEBU  1 ♀; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Silver Springs Woods; 12–14 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; sand-pine; human dung; DEBU  2 ♂♂; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Silver Springs Woods; 11–15 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; carrion FIT; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; same collection data as for preceding but 6–22 Jun. 1984; FIT; DEBU  2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 10–15 Jun. 1984; DEBU  1 ♂; Marion Co., Ocala National Forest , Zay Prairie; 14–18 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; carrion trap; DEBU  7 ♂♂, 17 ♀♀; Marion Co., Route 316, nr Eureka; 15–16 Mar. 1984; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂; Monroe Co., Everglades National Park , Royal Palm Hammock; 1 Nov. 1984 – 3 Mar. 1985; S. and J. Peck leg.; hammock forest, Malaise- FIT; DEBU  6 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; Nassau Co., golf course nr Amelia ; 3–15 Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; oak forest, dung; NMNH  2 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; DEBU  6 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; Nassau Co., Jacksonville , Cary State Forest; 10–18 Apr. 1989; Marshall and Swann leg.; dead squirrel, pan trap; DEBU  11 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; Nassau Co., nr Amelia ; 3–15 Apr. 1971; A. Newton leg.; dung; NMNH  8 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Okaloosa Co., Blackwater River National Forest , 1 mi. N of Holt, Turkey Oak; 23 Oct. 1978; L. Stange leg.; human dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂; Polk Co., Route 27, 7 mi. N of Route 14; 2–3 Nov. 1983; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Polk Co., 2 mi. N of Lake Wales ; 25–29 Apr. 1983; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  4 ♂♂, 23 ♀♀; Putnam Co., Ocala National Forest , Johnson Field Campground; Apr. 1972; A. Newton leg.; mixed hardwood, dung trap; DEBU  5 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Sarasota Co., Myakka River State Park ; 21 May 1982; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Putnam Co., Myakka River State Park ; 22–23 May 1982; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Volusia Co., Tomoka State Park ; 20 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung trap; DEBU  9 ♂♂, 13 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but mushroom trap; DEBU  1 ♀; Hernando / Sumter Cos , Withlacoochee St. Forest, Croom Reserve; 12Apr. 1989; K.N. Barber leg.; dung; DEBU  2 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Hernando / Sumter Cos , Withlacoochee St. Forest, Croom Reserve; 12 Apr. 1989; K.N. Barber leg.; dung vacuum; DEBU. – Georgia  15 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀; Charlton Co., 14 mi. N of Folkston ; 10–18 Apr. 1989; J.E. Swann leg.; pan trap, human dung; DEBU  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Clinch Co., US 441, 8 mi. S of Fargo ; 5–25 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung trap; DEBU  2 ♂♂; Rabun Co., Chatahoochee State Forest , US 441 N of Turnerville; 5–25 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; mushroom trap; DEBU  8 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀; Wilkinson Co., Big Sandy Creek , 4 mi. S of Irwinton; 5–25 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung trap; DEBU  13 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; FIT nr dung; DEBU. – Louisiana  1 ♂, 1 ♀; East Baton Rouge Parish ; 9 Apr. 1999; E.J. Watson leg.; swine carrion pitfall; DEBU  3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Grant Parish , Stuart Lake Campground, 18 km N of Alexandria; 19 May–17 Aug. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; forest, FIT; DEBU  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; “Jackson Co., LA, 1.5 mi. SE Paint Rock Nat. Cave ”; 9 Jul. 1967; S. Peck leg.; rat dung, Berlese #77; DEBU. – Missouri  1 ♀; Texas Co., 10.5 mi. NW of Licking , unnamed cave #1; 14 May 1980; J.E. Gardner leg.; DEBU. – Mississippi  5 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; Claiborne Co., Owen’s Creek , mi. 52, 19 km NE of Port Gibson; 18 May–16 Aug. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; forest, FIT; DEBU  37 ♂♂, 35 ♀♀; Forrest Co., Sweet Bay Bog, 6 mi. W of Wiggins; 5–8 May 1994; S.A. Marshall leg.; sphagnum, dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂; Scott Co., Forest ; 5–9 May 1994; S.A. Marshall leg.; pans in prairie edge; DEBU. – North Carolina  2 ♀♀; Jackson Co., Cullowhee , Cane Creek; 2300 ft a.s.l.; 5–25 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; riparian dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂; Jackson Co., Cullowhee ; 5–28 Jun. 1984; S.A. Marshall leg.; FIT; DEBU  1 ♂, 5 ♀♀; Samson Co., Falcon at I95; 28 Sep.– 4 Oct. 1983; R. Woodruff leg.; pig dung; DEBU. – New Mexico  1 ♀; Eddy Co., 30 mi. WSW of Carlsbad, Sitting Bull Falls ; 4600 ft a.s.l.; 23–27 Jul. 1975; S. Peck leg.; dung; DEBU. – Oklahoma  1 ♂; Lattimer Co., 5 mi. W of Red Oak; 5–11 Jun. 1977; K. Stephan leg.; dung trap; DEBU. – South Carolina   1 ♂, 1 ♀; Barnwell Co., Barnwell State Park ; 10–18 Apr. 1989; T.A. Wheeler leg.; near lake, dung trap; DEBU  6 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; S.A. Marshall leg.; mushroom traps in oak forest; DEBU  1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; Colleton Co., Colleton State Park ; 27 Sep.– 5 Oct. 1983; R.E. Woodruff leg.; pig dung trap; DEBU  1 ♂, 4 ♀♀; Georgetown Co., Hobcaw Barony , Belle Baruch Marine Field Lab , Crabhaul Road near Picnic Road; 33°21′22″ N, 79°12′45″ W; 28–29 Apr. 2004; S.A. Marshall leg.; cypress swamp, yellow pans; DEBUGoogleMaps  11 ♂♂, 18 ♀♀; Georgetown Co., Hobcaw Barony , Belle Baruch Marine Field Lab , Crabhaul Road near Picnic Road; 33°21′22″ N, 79°12′45″ W; 29–30 Apr. 2004; Cheung and Macleod leg.; on dung; DEBUGoogleMaps  10 ♂♂, 18 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; NMNHGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Neeses Co., 13 mi. W of Orangeburg ; 27 Mar.1980; S.A. Marshall leg.; DEBU. – Tennessee  1 ♂; Henderson Co., Natchez Trace State Park ; 1000 ft a.s.l.; 18 Jun.–13 Jul. 1972; A. Newton leg.; dung; FMNH. – Texas  3 ♀♀; Angelina Co., Angelina National Forest , Boykin Cemetery; 13–17 Jun. 1993; S.A. Marshall leg.; spring fen, dung; DEBU  1 ♂, 6 ♀♀; Angelina Co., Angelina National Forest , Bouton Lake Campground; 12–14 Jun. 1993; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung/ vac traps; DEBU  1 ♂; Brazos Co., College Station , Lick Creek Park; 30°33′44″ N, 96°12′53″ W; 5–9 Apr. 2000; M. Buck leg.; bottomland forest near creek, Malaise trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; post oak savanna by creek, Malaise trap; DEBUGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Montgomery Co., 4.5 mi. N of Montgomery ; 2 May–17 Jun. 1987; R.S. Anderson; pine/black walnut forest, FIT; DEBU  4 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; San Jacinto Co., Coldspring , Double Lake Campground; 22 May–16 Aug. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; FIT; DEBU  3 ♀♀; San Jacinto Co., Double Lake Campground , 5 km S of Coldspring; 22–24 May 1983; S. Peck leg.; forest, carrion trap; DEBU  4 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding but 22 May–16 Aug. 1983; S. and J. Peck leg.; forest, FIT; TAMU  11 ♀♀; Tyler Co., Kirby State Forest , dung traps; 12–17 Jun. 1993; S.A. Marshall leg.; DEBU  4 ♀♀; Tyler Co., Bouton Lake ; 13–17 Jun. 1993; S.A. Marshall leg.; dung/ vac traps; DEBU  .

VENEZUELA – Aragua • 1 ♀; Henri Pittier National Park, Rancho Grande, La Toma; 1150 m a.s.l.; 9 Apr. 1994; L. Masner leg.; DEBU  3 ♀♀; Maracay, Rancho Grande ; 1200 m a.s.l.; 1–10 Aug. 1987; Bordon and Peck leg.; cloud forest, FIT; MIZA  2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀; 20 km NE of San Cristobal ; 4000 ft a.s.l.; 18–22 May 1974; S. Peck leg.; dung trap; MIZA  . – Bolívar • 3 ♂♂; km 40 on Santa Elena Icabaru Road ; 1000 m a.s.l.; 4–6 Aug. 1986; B.D. Gill leg.; DEBU  1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; CNCI  3 ♀♀; 125 km S of El Dorado ; 1100 m a.s.l.; 18 Jul.–7 Aug. 1986; B.D. Gill leg.; DEBU  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; 135 km S of El Dorado ; 1400 m a.s.l.; 20 Jul.–7 Aug. 1986; B. Gill leg.; dung traps; CNCI  1 ♂, 1 ♀; 10 km S of El Dorado ; 200 m a.s.l.; 17 Jul.–7 Aug. 1986; B.D. Gill leg.; DEBU  1 ♂; 33 km S of El Dorado ; 220 m a.s.l.; 2–7 Aug. 1986; B.D. Gill leg.; CNCI  1 ♀, km 40 on Santa Elena Icabaru Road ; 220 m a.s.l.; 4–6 Aug. 1986; B.D. Gill leg.; MIZA  1 ♀; 22 km S of El Dorado ; 25 Jun.–12 Jul. 1987; S. and J. Peck leg.; lowland rainforest, FIT; DEBU  .

Description

BODY. Length 1.5–2.0 mm. Eye height 2.0 × genal height. Head with 4 interfrontal setae and row of 5–6 small setulae on inner margin of orbital plate. Gena with 1 strong seta and 5–7 smaller setulae. Acrostichal setulae in 6–8 rows. Costagial seta extending to humeral break. Second costal sector 0.3– 0.4× third costal sector. Length of M 1 between crossveins dm-cu and r-m 1.2× dm-cu; CuA 1 stub vein ~3.0× M 1 stub vein. Male mid femur with single ventrobasal seta. Male mid tibia with as1 enlarged preapical seta and 1 smaller seta near midlength. Female mid tibia with midventral seta.

MALE ABDOMEN ( Fig. 9View Fig). Sternite 5 with deep irregular posteromedial emargination flanked by blunt lobe on each side; emargination extending anteriorly ⅓ length of sternite. Transverse part of sternite 6 straight. Surstylus (in lateral view) bilobed; anterior lobe rounded and bare; posterior lobe rounded but apically flattened and with 5–10 setae. Cercus projecting posteriorly, with apical seta. Postgonite simple, slightly sinuate, with small robust seta apically and 1–2 setulae along length. Dorsal sclerite of distiphallus ( Fig. 9View Fig F–H) without distinct swellings.

FEMALE ABDOMEN ( Fig. 10View Fig). Tergite 7 with posterior margin entire. Medial part of tergite 8 elongate, narrower anteriorly, posteriorly closely approximated with epiproct. Epiproct tulip-shaped, heavily sclerotized; longitudinally lightly sclerotized on apical half. Cercus strap-like, length ~0.5× epiproct. Sternite 7 wider than sternite 6; posterior margin with broad, shallow emargination. Spermathecae bilobed, constricted near midlength; distal portion cup-shaped, basal portion ovoid and narrowed before duct junction; spermatheca stem as long as spermathecal width.

Remarks

Rudolfina exuberata  sp. nov. is the only species of Rudolfina  that regularly occurs at low elevations and is widespread throughout South America, Central America and the southern United States.

Rudolfina exuberata  sp. nov. resembles R. pauca  sp. nov. in both sexes, but these species are distinguished by characters of the surstylus, male cercus and spermathecae.

DEBU

Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph

CNCI

Canadian National Collection Insects

UASC

Museo de Historia Natural "Noel Kempff Mercado"

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MNNC

Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago

INBC

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio)

QCAZ

Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador

ROME

Royal Ontario Museum - Entomology

UCFC

University of Central Florida

NMNH

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

MIZA

Museo del Instituto de Zoologia Agricola Francisco Fernandez Yepez