Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960

Kluge, Nikita J. & Novikova, Eugenia A., 2017, Revision of Ephemerythus Gillies 1960 (Ephemeroptera: Tricorythidae), Zootaxa 4347 (1), pp. 31-55: 44-52

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4347.1.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:08E7E948-410A-4EA8-9DB3-6B0374C2A467

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F22843-FFC3-FFFC-FF6E-FA85FD245AC0

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960
status

 

Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960 

( FIGS 3–8View FIGURES 1 – 8, 39–87View FIGURES 39 – 46View FIGURES 47 – 50View FIGURES 51 – 57View FIGURES 58 – 67View FIGURES 68 – 77View FIGURES 78 – 84View FIGURES 85 – 87)

«Nymph of Ephemerellidae  (genuS uncertain)»: KimminS 1956: 874 (larVa); Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960: 36  (♂ & ♀ imago);

Ephemerythus kiboensis  GillieS 1960: 37 (♂ & ♀ imago), syn. n.;

« Ephemerythus  ? kiboensis  »: Demoulin 1965: 109, Fig. 11View FIGURES 9 – 13 (larVa);

« Ephemerythus  ? pictus  »: Demoulin 1965: 109, Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 – 13 (larVa);

genuS Limnokijara  JacobuS & McCafferty 2006: 77 (larVa, imago) (Synonymized With genuS Ephemerythus  by Kluge 2010a); Ephemerythus Sp. T  : Kluge 2010a: 29 (larVa).

Material. TANZANIA, MbEyA REGION, LIvINGSTONE MOuNTAINS: RIvER MWALALO (TRIbuTARy Of LAkE NyASA) NEAR Matema  , 9°29'S, 34°02'E, 6–14.VIII.2016, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: 1 L-S-I ♂, 1 L/S ♂, 1 L/S ♀; river Lufurio uPSTREAm TAPIO BRIDGE (15 km NW MATEmA)GoogleMaps  , 9°24'S, 33°55'E, 14.VIII.2016, cOLL. N. KLuGE: 1 LARvA. KILImANjARO REGION, KILImANjARO MOuNTAINGoogleMaps  : MOSHI, 22.VIII.2017 cOLL. N. KLuGE & L. SHEukO: 1 LARvA; bASIN Of RIvER ONA IN Marangu, 13.X.1958, coll. M.T. Gillies (Q189-191)  : 4 I ♂; the same locality  , 23–27.VIII.2017, coll. N. Kluge & L. SHEukO: 1 L-S/I♂, 10 LARvAE. MOROGORO REGION, ULuGuRu MOuNTAINS: RIvER MOROGORO IN MOROGORO, 31.VII.2017, cOLL. N. KLuGE & L. SHEukO: 2 LARvAE; bASIN Of RIvER Ruvu NEAR KINOLE  , 6°54'S, 37°45'E, 27–30.VII.2017, cOLL. N. KLuGE & L. SHEukO: 1 L-S-I♀, 2 L-S♀, 72 LARvAE. TANGA REGION, USAmbARA MOuNTAINS, RIvER SIGI NEAR AmANI, 5°06'S, 38°38'E, 19.VIII –2.IX.2016, coll. N. Kluge & L. Sheyko: 1 L-S/I ♂, 1 L-S-I ♀, 2 L-S ♀, 33 larvae; same LOcALITy, buT 5.VI.1961, cOLL. M.T. GILLIES: 1 LARvA.GoogleMaps 

Descriptions. Larva. STRUCTURE. BITING EDGE Of mAXILLA RELATIvELy WIDE: INNER-DORSAL ROW, bESIDES TWO DENTISETAE, WITH 5–6 SETAE PROXImAD Of PROXImAL DENTISETA; INNER-vENTRAL ROW cONSISTING Of 5–6 SETAE; APIcAL TufT Of LONG SETAE cONSISTING Of 12–14 vERy DENSE, ARcHED ROWS ( FIGS 46View FIGURES 39 – 46, 51View FIGURES 51 – 57; KImmINS 1956: FIG. 9cView FIGURES 9 – 13; DEmOuLIN 1965: FIG. 11fView FIGURES 9 – 13; 1981: PL. XIf). FEmORA WIDE; STOuT SPATuLATE SETAE SHORT, ON fORE fEmuR fORmING NEARLy REGuLAR TRANSvERSE ROW ( FIGS 39–41View FIGURES 39 – 46; KImmINS 1956: FIG. 8View FIGURES 1 – 8; DEmOuLIN 1965: FIG. 11AView FIGURES 9 – 13; 1981: PL. XIA). FORE TIbIA WITH POINTED PEcTINATE SETAE ON INNER SIDE AND LONGITuDINAL ROW Of STOuT bLuNT SETAE ON ANTERIOR SIDE, WITHOuT STOuT SETAE ON POSTERIOR SIDE; mIDDLE AND HIND TIbIAE WITH POINTED PEcTINATE SETAE ON INNER SIDE AND TWO LONGITuDINAL ROWS Of STOuT bLuNT SETAE ( AS IN E. niger  – KLuGE 2010A: FIGS 16, 17View FIGURES 14 – 17). HIND PROTOPTERA PRESENT bOTH IN mALE AND fEmALE ( FIGS 5, 8View FIGURES 1 – 8, 61, 67View FIGURES 58 – 67). AbDOmINAL TERGA AND STERNA WITH SPARSE SImPLE SETAE; bESIDES THIS, STERNA AND LATERAL AREAS Of TERGA WITH NumEROuS LARGER SOckETS ( FIGS 47–50View FIGURES 47 – 50). TERGALIuS V WITHOuT vENTRAL LObE; TERGALIuS VI AbSENT ( FIGS 42–45View FIGURES 39 – 46).

CUTICLE COLORATION. NEARLy uNIcOLOR, OcHER OR bROWNISH.

HYPODERMAL COLORATION. HEAD AND THORAX WITH vARIAbLE mAcuLATION; fEmORA WITH ONE OR TWO DIffuSE, bROWN cROSS bANDS; TIbIAE uNIcOLOR, WITHOuT cROSS bANDS ( FIGS 39–41View FIGURES 39 – 46). HyPODERmAL cOLORATION Of fORE PROTOPTERA DIffERING AmONG SEXES AND INSTARS: IN mALE LARvA cOSTAL, SubcOSTAL AND PART Of RADIAL fIELDS cOLORED by DARk GRAy  , OTHER mEmbRANE NON-cOLORED; IN mALE LARvA Of LAST INSTAR ALL vEINS (LONGITuDINAL, cROSS AND INTERcALARy) ALSO cOLORED by DARk GRAy ( FIGS 7View FIGURES 1 – 8, 40View FIGURES 39 – 46)  ; IN mALE LARvA Of PREvIOuS INSTARS vEINS NOT cOLORED ( FIGS 6View FIGURES 1 – 8, 39View FIGURES 39 – 46)  . IN fEmALE LARvA Of ALL INSTARS WHOLE mEmbRANE cOLORED by DARk GRAy, ALL vEINS (LONGITuDINAL, cROSS AND INTERcALARy) NON-cOLORED ( FIGS 3, 4View FIGURES 1 – 8, 41View FIGURES 39 – 46). AbDOmINAL TERGA SImILAR TO THAT Of ImAGO (cOmPARE mALE LARvAE ON FIGS 39–40View FIGURES 39 – 46 AND mALE ImAGO ON FIG. 63View FIGURES 58 – 67, fEmALE LARvA ON FIG. 41View FIGURES 39 – 46 AND fEmALE ImAGO ON FIG. 64View FIGURES 58 – 67).

Subimago. CuTIcLE PARTLy cOLORLESS, PARTLy bROWN, mIcROTRIcHIAE DARk bROWN; cuTIcLE Of mESONOTum WITH cERTAIN AREAS cONTRASTINGLy cOLORED WITH DARk bROWN, WITH cONTRASTING cOLORLESS TRANSvERSE bAND AND LONGITuDINAL mEDIAN bAND ( FIG. 73View FIGURES 68 – 77); fEmORA Of ALL LEGS WITH bROWN bANDS ALONG INNER AND OuTER mARGINS; TIbIA Of HIND LEG WITH bROWN bAND ALONG OuTER mARGIN ( FIG. 69View FIGURES 68 – 77). WING WITH DARk bROWN RING AT bASE Of EAcH mIcROTRIcHION ( FIG. 72View FIGURES 68 – 77). CuTIcLE Of AbDOmEN LIGHT bROWN, WITH SmALL cOLORLESS AREAS; cuTIcLE Of cAuDALII ENTIRELy cOLORLESS ( FIG. 70View FIGURES 68 – 77). HyPODERmAL cOLORATION AS IN ImAGO. PENIS AS IN ImAGO, WITH POINTED ScLEROTIzED APIcES Of PAIRED LObES ( FIG. 71View FIGURES 68 – 77; cOmPARE WITH FIG. 77View FIGURES 68 – 77).

Male imago. COLORATION AS IN FIGS 58, 62, 63View FIGURES 58 – 67  . FORE WING WITH cOSTAL AND SubcOSTAL fIELDS DIffuSELy DARkENED by GRAy-bROWN AND WITH DIffuSE, GRAy-bROWN mAcuLA NEAR bASE; OTHER mEmbRANE cOLORLESS ( FIG. 58View FIGURES 58 – 67). HIND WING DIffuSELy DARkENED by GRAy-bROWN IN PROXImAL HALf, DISTAL PART Of mEmbRANE cOLORLESS ( FIGS 59, 60View FIGURES 58 – 67). AbDOmINAL TERGum I ENTIRELy GRAy  , OTHER TERGA PARTLy GRAy; LATERAL AREAS Of TERGA fROm II OR III TO VI OR VII NON-PIGmENTED; mEDIAN AREAS Of THESE TERGA EITHER ENTIRELy GRAy ( FIG. 62View FIGURES 58 – 67), OR WITH cONTRASTING NON-PIGmENTED mEDIAN PART ( FIG. 63View FIGURES 58 – 67); POSTERIOR TERGA AT mOST PART GRAy (SEE «COmmENTS» bELOW). PENIS WELL-ScLEROTIzED, bROWNISH-yELLOW; APIcES Of PAIRED PENIS LObES, SuRROuNDING GENITAL OPENING, HEAvILy ScLEROTIzED AND POINTED ( FIGS 53View FIGURES 51 – 57, 77View FIGURES 68 – 77; GILLIES 1960: FIG. 11View FIGURES 9 – 13; KLuGE 2010A: FIG. 27View FIGURES 27 – 31). 

Female imago. COLORATION AS IN FIG. 64View FIGURES 58 – 67. HIND WING PRESENT, WITH PROXImAL PART (INcLuDING cOSTAL PROcESS) AS LARGE AS IN mALE, DISTAL PART (DISTAD Of cOSTAL PROcESS) SHORTER THAN IN mALE ( FIG. 66View FIGURES 58 – 67). FORE AND HIND WINGS ENTIRELy DARkENED WITH GRAy-bROWN. AbDOmEN NEARLy ENTIRELy DARk GRAy-bROWN.

Egg ( FIGS 78–84View FIGURES 78 – 84). AS cHARAcTERIzED fOR Ephemerythus  (SEE AbOvE)  ; LENGTH (WITHOuT cAP AND TAIL) AbOuT 0.2 mm; TAIL LENGTH 0.05 mm. TAIL cONSISTING Of 4 STOuT cONIc PROcESSES; EAcH PROcESS APIcALLy POINTED, uSuALLy WITH 2 SubAPIcAL DENTIcLES by SIDES ( FIG. 79View FIGURES 78 – 84); PROcESSES EITHER fREE ( FIG. 81View FIGURES 78 – 84), OR fuSED TO ONE ANOTHER uP TO SubAPIcAL DENTIcLES by mEANS Of THIN WALLS ( FIG. 83View FIGURES 78 – 84). 

Size. FORE WING LENGTH Of mALE 5.5– 6 mm, Of fEmALE 5.5– 7 mm.

Comments. BASED ON AbDOmINAL cOLORATION Of mALE ImAGOES, GILLIES (1960) DEScRIbED E. pictus  fROm AmANI (USAmbARA MOuNTAINS) AND E. kiboensis  fROm MARANGu (KILImANDjARO MOuNTAIN) AS TWO DIffERENT SPEcIES. AccORDING TO OuR ObSERvATION, HyPODERmAL cOLORATION Of AbDOmEN Of mAILS IS PEcuLIAR fOR cERTAIN POPuLATIONS: mALE LARvAE, SubImAGOES AND ImAGOES fROm USAmbARA MOuNTAINS AND ULuGuRu MOuNTAINS HAvE LIGHT mEDIAN AREA ON SOmE AbDOmINAL TERGA (cOLORATION DEScRIbED fOR E. pictus  ), WHILE mALE LARvAE, SubImAGOES AND ImAGOES fROm KILImANDjARO AND LIvINGSTONE MOuNTAINS HAvE AbDOmINAL TERGA uNIfORmLy DARk (cOLORATION DEScRIbED fOR E. kiboensis  ). OuR EXAmINATION Of THE REARED mALE ImAGOES Of bOTH THESE fORmS ALLOWS TO cONcLuDE THAT THESE fORmS bELONG TO ONE SPEcIES. THE REARED mALE ImAGOES fROm AmANI (USAmbARA MOuNTAINS), MARANGu (KILImANDjARO) AND MATEmA (LIvINGSTONE MOuNTAINS) HAvE THE SAmE STRucTuRE Of LARvAE, SubImAGOES AND ImAGOES (AS DEScRIbED AbOvE) AND DIffER ONLy by cOLORATION Of mALE AbDOmINAL TERGA; EGGS EXTRAcTED fROm fEmALES Of THE SAmE POPuLATIONS (THE REARED fEmALE ImAGO fROm AmANI AND THE fEmALE LARvA fROm MATEmA) ALSO HAvE THE SAmE STRucTuRE ( FIGS 78–84View FIGURES 78 – 84). BESIDES cOLORATION, GILLIES (1960) REPORTED DIffERENcES IN THE ARRANGEmENT Of SPINE-LIkE SETAE ON THE GONOSTyLI; AccORDING TO HIm, IN E. pictus  «SPINES ON bASAL SEGmENT ScANTy, LARGELy cONfINED TO DISTAL SWELLING» AND IN E. kiboensis  «bASAL SEGmENT WITH NumEROuS SHARP SPINES ON INNER SuRfAcE EXTENDING ALmOST TO ITS bASE». AcTuALLy, THIS cHARAcTER DOES NOT DISTINGuISH E. pictus  AND E. kiboensis  fROm ONE ANOTHER ( FIGS 54–57View FIGURES 51 – 57). BASED ON THIS, WE PROPOSE A NEW SyNONymy E. pictus  = E. kiboensis  syn. n.

DEmOuLIN (1965) DEScRIbED AND fIGuRED LARvAE PRESumAbLy AScRIbED TO E. kiboensis  (LARvAE fROm MARANGu IN KILImANDjARO) AND TO E. pictus  (LARvAE fROm RIvER MGETA NEAR BuNDukI IN ULuGuRu MOuNTAINS). HIS fIGuRE TITLED « Ephemerythus  ? kiboensis GILLIES  , LARvE», ADEquATELy SHOWS cHARAcTERS Of yOuNG LARvA Of THIS SPEcIES ( FIG. 85View FIGURES 85 – 87). BuT HIS fIGuRE TITLED « Ephemerythus  ? pictus GILLIES  , LARvE», LOOkS quITE DIffERENT: THERE IS SHOWN A mATuRE mALE LARvA, WHOSE PRONOTum HAS uNuSuAL SHAPE, WITH POSTERIOR mARGIN ARcHED AND LATERO-POSTERIOR ANGLES GREATLy STRETcHED bAckWARD ( FIG. 86View FIGURES 85 – 87). BASED ON THIS fIGuRE, THE SHAPE Of PRONOTum WAS REPORTED AS A SPEcIES-SPEcIfIc cHARAcTER WITHIN Ephemerythus  (KLuGE 2010A: TAbLE 1). TO INvESTIGATE THIS SPEcIES, N. KLuGE AND L. SHEykO mADE A SPEcIAL cOLLEcTING TRIP TO BuNDukI IN 2017. DuRING THIS TRIP, NO ONE LARvA Of Ephemerythus  WAS fOuND IN THE RIvER MGETA NEAR BuNDukI, buT LARvAE Of Ephemerythus  WERE AbuNDANT IN THE NEIGHbORING bASIN Of RIvER Ruvu IN THE SAmE mOuNTAINS. ALL LARvAE Of Ephemerythus  fROm THIS AREA bELONG TO E. pictus  AND HAvE uSuAL SHAPE Of THORAcIc TERGA, I. E., WITH STRAIGHT TRANSvERSE SuTuRE SEPARATING PRONOTum fROm mESONOTum. WHEN mATuRE LARvA bEcOmES READy TO mOLT TO SubImAGO, ITS INTENSIvELy PIGmENTED SubImAGINAL NOTum IS WELL vISIbLE THROuGH ITS LIGHT AND TRANSLucENT LARvAL cuTIcLE, THAT mAkES ILLuSION Of THE uNuSuAL SHAPE Of PRONOTum ( FIG. 87View FIGURES 85 – 87). PRObAbLy, THIS ILLuSION WAS A REASON Of THE ERROR IN THE DEmOuLIN'S fIGuRE. THuS, ALL LARvAE Of Ephemerythus  REPORTED by DEmOuLIN (1965) fROm EAST AfRIcA (bOTH fROm KILImANDjARO AND fROm ULuGuRu MOuNTAINS), bELONG TO ONE SPEcIES, E. pictus  (= E. kiboensis  ).

JAcObuS & McCAffERTy (2006) ESTAbLISHED THE GENuS Limnokijara  JAcObuS & McCAffERTy 2006 TO bE cOmPRISED Of TWO SPEcIES, L. picta  AND L. kiboensis  . THE DIAGNOSIS Of THE GENuS Limnokijara  IN SucH SENSE IS THEREfORE IDENTIcAL TO THE SPEcIES E. pictus  (= E. kiboensis  ).

NOT

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Ephemeroptera

Family

Tricorythidae

Genus

Ephemerythus

Loc

Ephemerythus pictus Gillies 1960

Kluge, Nikita J. & Novikova, Eugenia A. 2017
2017
Loc

Limnokijara

Kluge 2010: 29
2010
Loc

Ephemerythus

Demoulin 1965: 109
1965
Loc

Ephemerythus

Demoulin 1965: 109
1965