Antecerococcus royenae (Brain),

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2016, (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Coccomorpha) with particular reference to species from the Afrotropical, western Palaearctic and western Oriental Regions, with the revival of Antecerococcus Green , Zootaxa 4091 (1), pp. 1-175: 110-112

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Antecerococcus royenae (Brain)

comb. nov.

Antecerococcus royenae (Brain)  , comb. nov.

( Fig. 42View FIGURE 42)

Cerococcus royenae Brain 1920: 121  .

Type details. SOUTH AFRICA, Orange Free State, Fauresmith, on “Blaubosch” ( Royena pallens  ), no date, J.C. Faure (CKB 96; SANC). Depositories: SANC: lectotype (here designated —see notes below) + 1 / 2 paralectotype adff (f –p; lectotype top specimen, clearly labelled); also 6 / 10 paralectype adff (p, labelled paratypes). BMNH: SOUTH AFRICA, Fauresmith, on Royena pallens  , -. iii. 1915, J.C. Faure: 2 / 3 paralectotype adff + 1 male pupa and 1 / 1 adf. USNM: 4 / 5 paralectotype adff (f-g), of which 1 remounted by Lambdin, labelled PL 209 a/Pretoria/ South Africa /rec’d 24 Dec 1928 / coll. C. Brain # 96. According to hand written notes in Brain publication, there were 2 unlabelled slides and it is suspected that the Lambdin slide is one of these and arrived from Pretoria on Dec. 24 th, and therefore not implying that it was collected in Pretoria (Miller, pers. comm.).

Notes: Lambdin and Kosztarab (1977 a) stated that they examined paratypes, but, as pointed out by Miller et al. (2005 a), there is no mention of types in Brain's original description, and thus the original material must be considered syntypic.

Material studied. Lectotype and paralectotype ff: SOUTH AFRICA, Orange Free State, Fauresmith, on “Blaubosch” ( Diospyros  [formerly Royena  ] pallens  , Ebenaceae  ), no date, J.C. Faure (CKB 96; SANC): 1 / 2 adff (f – p; lectotype specimen top specimen, clearly labelled); also paralectotype ff: as previous (SANC): 6 / 10 adff (p, labelled paratypes); also labelled paratypes, ex collection Dept. Agric., Pretoria, no 96, det CKB re W.J.Hall (BMNH): 2 / 3 adf (poor) + 1 male pupa (g).

Also: SOUTH AFRICA, Cape Province, Steytlerville, 26.iii. 1976, on Lycium  sp. ( Solanaceae  ), S. Neser (SANC): 2 / 2 adf (f); Cape Province, Sydenham, 16.vii. 1966, on Lycium  sp., J.F. Louw (SANC): 1 / 1 adf (f); Cape Province, Swartkoos, 17.viii. 1961, on “Lyciune” sp. (almost certainly Lycium  sp.), R.D. Hughes (SANC): 5 / 5 adff (f –g).

Note: description taken from all of the type specimens. The host-plant genus after which this species was named is now a synonym of Diospyros  .

Mounted material. Body roundly pear-shaped, 1.3–2.4 mm long, 1.25–2.13 mm wide.

Dorsum. Eight-shaped pores of two similar sizes, both distinctive, with the two halves joined on one side: (i) larger pore, each 10 x 6.5 µm; about 2–4 on each side of apex of each stigmatic pore band (but see Comments below), but absent elsewhere; and (ii) slightly smaller pores, each 8– 9 x 5.5 –6.0 µm, present sparsely throughout rest of dorsum; those within apex of each stigmatic pore band perhaps marginally smaller. Simple pores, each 1.5– 2.5 µm wide, frequent in a band laterad to each cribriform plate but rare elsewhere. Cribriform plates quite large and oval, mostly with 1 submedially on each side of abdominal segment IV, when each 50– 56 x 33–35 µm, but these occasionally subdivided, usually into 1 larger and 1 small plate; each plate with a narrow border and minute micropores. Dorsal setae showing nothing distinctive. Tubular ducts with each outer ductule 20–22 µm long and about 2.5 µm wide, only slightly broader than those on venter; abundant throughout. Anal lobes mainly membranous, but with sclerotized inner margins; each lobe with a long apical seta, each at least 135 µm long; fleshy setae on dorsal surface near apex short, each 20–25 µm long; more anterior fleshy setae each 23–25 µm long; medioventral setae long and setose, each 50–65 µm long; also with a pair of anteroventral setae, each 35–50 µm long; outer margin setae each about 7 µm long; each lobe possibly without 8 -shaped pores. Median anal plate blunt, 25–35 µm long and 50–55 µm wide at base. Anal ring with 4 pairs of setae, each 80–85 µm long.

Venter. Eight-shaped pores somewhat similar to those on dorsum, each 8–10 x 5.5 µm, in a sparse, submarginal band; transverse bands on abdomen sparse or even absent on anterior segments. Simple pores rare. Small bilocular pores, each about 3.0 x 4.5 µm, frequent medially on head and thorax. Spiracular disc-pores, each 4–5 µm wide with mainly 5 loculi, each band sparse near spiracles but broadening near dorsum; posterior bands bifurcated; in sparse bands each with 30–45 pores plus 4 or 6 smaller 8 -shaped pores; also with 1 or 2 quinquelocular disc-pores near each antenna. Small convex closed pores absent. Multilocular disc-pores, each 6.5 – 7.0 µm wide with mainly 10 loculi, in transverse bands 1–2 pores wide across abdominal segments, as follows: VIII & VII 0; VI with a line of 10–23; V 2–4 submarginally + 17–29 medially; IV 2–8 submarginally + 17–30 medially; III 2–10 submarginally + 24–40 medially; II 7–18 submarginally + 22–42 medially; also with 4–7 laterad to each leg stub on metathorax + 9–13 medially. Tubular ducts slightly narrower than those on dorsum, abundant throughout. Ventral setae showing nothing distinctive; preanal setae each 65–75 µm long; companion setae unusually long, each 30–35 µm long. Leg stubs small. Antennae generally unsegmented but sometimes with a fairly distinct, narrow basal segment; each antenna about 50 µm long and 30 µm wide, with about 7 fleshy setae; with a pronounced cone-shaped apex but no setal cavity. Clypeolabral shield 140–165 µm long. Spiracular peritremes each about 28 µm wide.

Comment. The above description differs from that of Lambdin and Kosztarab (1977) in that they considered that the additional setae (medioventral, anteroventral, etc.) associated with the anal area were on the inner margins of the anal lobes and that all multilocular disc-pores were on the abdomen. The latter is clearly incorrect—the anterior row that they illustrate is almost certainly on the metathorax because the material seen by Lambdin and Kosztarab was studied here and it was clear that these pores are present both laterad and mesad to the metathoracic leg stubs. The layout on A. royenae  may, therefore, be the same as that on A. kakamegae  that closely resembles it.

The adult female of A. royenae  appears to be unique in the distribution of the long ventral setae associated with the anal lobes and anal ring, with two pairs of extra-long setae ventrally (medioventral and anteroventral setae) in addition to the preanal pair; in addition, the small companion setae just anterior to the preanal setae is also unusully long. Other character-states that are important in diagnosing this species are: (i) dorsum with two sizes of 8 -shaped pores, each very similar in size; (ii) larger 8 -shaped pores (i.e. 10 x 6.5 Μm) restricted to either side of and within each stigmatic pore band; (iii) large 8 -shaped pores (i.e. those> 15 Μm widest) entirely absent; (iv) one pair (usually) of large, oval cribriform plates on abdominal segment IV; (v) leg stubs present; (vi) posterior stigmatic pore bands bifurcated; (vii) multilocular disc-pores present across anterior five segments and metathorax; (viii) stigmatic pore bands very sparse; (ix) simple pores in a transverse band associated with cribriform plates, and (x) antennae long and sometimes appearing two segmented, with a distinct cone-shaped point but no setal cavity.

The adult female of A. royenae  falls within Group B in the key to species of Antecerococcus  and keys out close to A. kakamegae  and A. steppicus  .

Variation. The three lots of additional material from Cape Province, all on Lycium  sp., key out well to A. royenae  but the 8 -shaped pores on the dorsum appear to be all the same size, i.e., those on each side of the stigmatic pore bands do not appear to be larger than elsewhere. Also, the material from Sydenham has even sparser spiracular disc-pores.