Pedies andreae

Mariño-Pérez, Ricardo, Fontana, Paolo & Woller, Derek A., 2018, Studies in Mexican Grasshoppers: A new species of Pedies Saussure (Acrididae: Melanoplinae) with comments on the unusual blue coloration on the abdomens of females and live specimen images for, Zootaxa 4459 (3), pp. 551-564: 555-559

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Pedies andreae

sp. nov.

Pedies andreae  sp. nov. Fontana, Mariño-Pérez, & Woller Orthoptera

Diagnosis: Different from congeneric species for the shape of male cerci that are elongate, apically thin and subcylindrical, and relatively short ( Figs. 3A&B View Figure and 10A–F View Figure ), and for the phallic complex resembling a lizard head with a deep, open “mouth” formed by the ventral valves of aedeagus when viewed in profile ( Figs. 3C View Figure , 4C View Figure , and 10G,I,K View Figure ). Although this latter characteristic is shared with P. capotamius  , the “upper jaw” (ventral portion) is more prominent here coupled with the presence of longer cerci in P. capotamius  . Compared with P. malinchensis  , the most similar species by geographic distribution (40 km, different mountain system – see Fig. 7 View Figure ), the cerci are of similar length but different form (wider in the second half in P. malinchensis  ) and the “jaws” of the ventral valves of aedeagus are less developed overall. In Table 1 and Figure 10 View Figure , we compare the three species.

Coloration: ( Figs. 1–3View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3) Antennae brown, living males with bluish coloration in region just behind and below eyes ( Fig. 1A View Figure ) (not obvious in preserved specimens), side of pronotum and metanotum sides bluish in male, brown and greenish in females. Discum of pronotum, tegmina, fore and middle legs brownish in both sexes. Abdomen mostly yellow with blackish spots on sides of each dorsal tergite in male, greenish with a continuous wide dark brown band on each side in females. Blue coloration present on the ventral side of some female abomens, most obvious in live specimens. Lower exterior region of hind femora and tibiae yellow in males, reddish-orange in females.

Pronotum and Tegmina: ( Figs. 2 View Figure and 5 View Figure ) Pronotum in both sexes straight in lateral view, scarcely tectiform in transversal section. Anterior and posterior margin of pronotum almost straight in both sexes. Tegmina in both sexes lateral, not attingent on dorsum, regularly elliptical with widely rounded apex, reaching the middle of the 1 st abdominal  tergites; venation dense with raised longitudinal (almost parallel) veins and less prominent transversal ones.

Terminalia: Male, external. Furcula subtriangular and relatively short ( Fig. 3B View Figure ). Supra-anal plate subtriangular, with acute apex and convex lateral sides; surface almost plain with shallow, median groove that extends apically for almost entire length and is deepest basally ( Fig. 3B View Figure ). Cerci compressed laterally and lightly Sshaped (stretched anteroposteriorly), with apical halves subcylindrical and tapering to rounded points that curve slightly inwards; extend about 3/4 the length of subgenital plate ( Fig. 3A&B View Figure ). Subgenital plate hemiconical in lateral view and strongly pointed at apex ( Fig. 3A&B View Figure ). Internal phallic complex: Overall, typical for a melanopline, with the following unique characters: Epiphallus: ancorae relatively elongate, subtriangular, and gently curving ventrally; lophi prominent, subrectangular, and with internal corners the highest ( Figs. 3C&D View Figure and 4B View Figure ); post-epiphallic lobe ( Gurney and Buxton, 1968; Carbonell, 2000; Carbonell et al., 1980) only mildly wrinkled, with two prominent and elongate sclerotized portions that angle anteriorly towards the center ( Fig. 4A View Figure ). Ectophallus: rami prominent, and relatively wide, narrowing posteriorly and extending well below valves of aedeagus ( Fig. 4A&C View Figure ). Sheath of aedeagus taking the form of two halves that do not meet, each containing a lobe that broadly attaches to apices of rami and are covered in raised microstructures resembling those on the postepiphallic lobe; posterior portion of each with a deep, but broad, envagination resembling the "lizard jaws" of the ventral valves of aedeagus that are emerging from the center of each lobe; lower posterior apex of each extending further posteriorly ( Fig. 4A,C,D View Figure ). Endophallus: arch of aedeagus well-developed. Dorsal valves of aedeagus hidden within sheath of aedeagus and not visible without dissection; do not meet flexures and about ½ the length of ventral valves, relatively wide and slightly separated basodorsally just beyond the arch. Ventral valves of aedeagus meet flexures and are twice as long as the dorsal valves, robust throughout with unusual apices that are sclerotized, and covered in raised microstructures; strongly resemble the head of a lizard when viewed laterally, with an open, deep "mouth" that has both "jaws developed", upper/ventral more-so (where the eye would be); in posterodorsal view, the apices of the upper jaws are lightly excavated ( Figs. 3C&D View Figure and 4A,C,D View Figure ). Female, external: Female supra-anal plate subtriangular, elongated, with acutely rounded apex and surface almost plain ( Fig. 6A View Figure ). Cerci subconical, flattened longer 1.5 times as wide at base ( Fig. 6A&B View Figure ). Ovipositor quite long; ventral valves with strong tooth on the lower margin ( Fig. 6B View Figure ). Subgenital plate with posterior margin subtriangular, acute apex on concave lateral sides ( Fig. 6B&C View Figure ).

Male measurements (in mm) (n=3): Body length “Entire body” 18.80–19.55 (19.14 ± 0.37); pronotum length 3.94–4.04 (4.01 ± 0.05); prozona length 2.44–2.53 (2.47 ± 0.05); metazona length 1.50–1.59 (1.53 ± 0.05); hind femur length 9.87–10.34 (10.15 ± 0.24) and tegmina length 3.10–3.29 (3.22 ± 0.10).

Female measurements (in mm) (n=8): Body length “Entire body” 22.09–25.00 (24.09 ± 0.87); pronotum length 4.51–4.88 (4.74 ± 0.12); prozona length 2.72–3.00 (2.92 ± 0.10); metazona length 1.69–1.88 (1.82 ± 0.06); hind femur length 11.75–14.00 (12.90 ± 0.63) and tegmina length 3.76–4.51 (4.24 ± 0.29).

Etymology: This species is dedicated to our colleague Laura Andrea Abela-Posada who helped us to collect the type material. The specific name is a female noun in the genitive case.

Holotype: Male ( Figs. 2–4View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4). Mexico, Puebla, La Cañada, near Libres, [19.510436, -97.773011] (WGS84). 2820 masl. 8-XII-2010. Grassland with Pinus  , Cupressus  , and Quercus  patches of forest. Coll. Paolo Fontana, Ricardo Mariño-Pérez, and Laura Andrea Abela-Posada. CNIN-UNAM.

Additional Type Material: CNIN-UNAM. 6 paratypes (1 male, 5 females). Same data as holotype. CPF. 4 paratypes (1 male, 3 females). Same data as holotype. TAMUIC. 2 paratypes (both female) in ethanol. Same data as holotype, but 3-XII-2011. Coll. Paolo Fontana, Ricardo Mariño-Pérez, Derek A. Woller, and Paola Tirello.

Geographic Distribution and Habitat: This species was collected in the Aztec district of the east subprovince of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt province. It is on its edge, very close to the Carso Huasteco subprovince of the Sierra Madre Oriental province. Both provinces belong to the Mexican Transition Zone, which harbors both Neartic and Neotropical biota, plus endemic biota ( Morrone, 2017). The habitat in which this species was found ( Fig. 1C&D View Figure ) can be described as mixed vegetation with patches of forest ( Pinus  , Cupressus  , and Quercus  ), with native grasses, such as Muhlenbergia  sp. and crops, such as maize.