Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816

Silva, Gabriel S. C., Melo, Bruno F., Oliveira, Claudio & Benine, Ricardo C., 2016, Revision of the South American genus Tetragonopterus Cuvier, 1816 (Teleostei: Characidae) with description of four new species, Zootaxa 4200 (1), pp. 1-46: 11-14

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http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4200.1.1

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scientific name

Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816
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Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 

( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3, Table 2)

Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816: 166  (description; type locality: “South America); Müller & Troschel, 1845: 1 –2, 13 (description; Brazil, Guyana); Günther,1864: 318 (description; Bahia?); Eigenmann, 1917: 54 –55 (description; from Orinoco and Guiana to the Paranahyba basin, Amazons and Paraguay, Paraná to Buenos Aires); Fowler, 1932: 352 (description; illustration; upper Paraguay, Descalvados, MT, Brazil); 1940: 90 (citation; Boca Chapare, Bolivia); 1941: 185 (citation; northeastern Brazil, Rio Paranaíba, Piau; Rio Jaguaribe, Cear); Géry, 1964a: 5 (citation; Peruvian Amazonia); Ringuelet et al., 1967: 131 –132 (description; upper Paran, Candelária and Arroio Uruguai, Missiones; Middle Paran, Empredado; Ilha Apipé Grande, Corrientes; Río La Plata; upper and middle río Paraguay; Goiás; Amazonas; Guyana); Ortega & Vari, 1986: 9 (citation: Amazonas, Peru); Stewart et al., 1987: 29 (citation, río Napo, Ecuador Oriental); Taphorn, 1992: 343 (description; Apure River drainage, illustration); Britski et al., 1999: 29 –31 (description; Pantanal matogrossense); Reis, 2003: 212 (list of Tetragonopterinae  species); Lima et al., 2013; 352–353 (description; Rio Madeira basin, Brazil; photo).

Tetragonopterus sawa Castelnau, 1855: 65  , pl. 33 (original description; type locality: “rio Crixas qui se jette dans L’Araguaia [Brazil]).

Tetragonopterus huberi Steindachner, 1909: 172  (original description; type locality: “Purus, Amazonas).

Diagnosis. Tetragonopteurs argenteus  is distinguished from all other congeners by having 11–17 predorsal scales (vs. 7–9). It further differs from T. anostomus  , T. denticulatus  , T. kuluene  , and T. juruena  by having 4 principal teeth in dentary (vs. 5–6), and larger and more robust teeth (vs. thinner and sharper teeth; Silva et al. 2013: Fig. 2). Tetragonopterus argenteus  differs from T. anostomus  and T. araguaiensis  by having 12–15 gill-rakers on the upper limb of the first gill arch (vs. 17–20; Silva et al. 2013: Fig. 3View FIGURE 3); it also differs from T. anostomus  by having a terminal mouth (vs. subsuperior mouth). Tetragonopterus argenteus  differs from T. ommatus  sp. n. by bearing 1–4 maxillary teeth (vs. 7–8) and by the presence of a conspicuous dark mark on the caudal peduncle (vs. inconspicuous mark limited to the posterior portion of the caudal peduncle). Tetragonopterus argenteus  differs from T. carvalhoi  by the presence of a rounded dark mark on the caudal peduncle (vs. lozenge-shaped dark mark on the caudal peduncle). Tetragonopterus argenteus  differs from T. rarus  by the absence of dark longitudinal stripes on the trunk (vs. presence of such stripes); it differs from T. rarus  and T. georgiae  n. comb. by having 3.5 scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin (vs. 4.5–5.5). Finally, T. argenteus  differs from T. denticulatus  by having humeral marks separated by one or two vertical rows of scales (vs. humeral marks separated by three vertical scale rows).

Description. Morphometric data presented in Table 2. Body deep, compressed laterally, with greatest depth at dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal profile slightly convex between snout tip and vertical through middle of orbit; slightly concave from this point to end of occipital process; convex from that point to dorsal-fin origin. Slightly convex from dorsal-fin origin to adipose-fin end. Prepelvic region transversely flattened with distinct, longitudinally aligned lateral keels. Ventral profile of body convex from lower lip to anal-fin origin; straight or somewhat convex along base of anal fin. Caudal peduncle with dorsal and ventral profiles slightly concaves.

Olfactory lamellae 17 (1), 18 (4), 19 (7), 20 (5), 21 (7), 22 (16), 23 (8), 24 (6), 25 (4), 26 (7), 28 (2), 32 (1), 35 (2) or 40 (1). Snout length smaller than orbital diameter. Mouth terminal. Premaxilla in two rows of relatively robust teeth. Outer row with 4 (6), 5 (68), 6 (104), 7 (31) or 8 (10) teeth with three cusps, central cusps longest. Inner row with 4 (1), 5 (228) or 6 (3) teeth with three, four or five cusps; if present, central cusp twice as long and broader than other cusps. Maxilla with 1 (3), 2 (62), 3 (132) or 4 (29) teeth with three cusps. Dentary with 3 (1) or 4 (228) anteriormost teeth with three or five cusps followed by a smaller tricuspid tooth and 8–13 smaller conical teeth of similar size (5 c&s).

Dorsal-fin rays ii,9 (232). First unbranched ray very short. Dorsal-fin origin anterior to middle of body in SL. Anal-fin rays v,28 (1) v,29 (1), v,30 (4), v,31 (9), iv,32 (36), iv,33 (43), iv,34 (56), iv,35 (44), iv,36 (22), iv,37 (9) or iv,40 (1); posterior unbranched rays and anterior branched rays usually slightly longer than following rays. Analfin origin at vertical through base of last branched dorsal-fin ray. Pelvic-fin rays i,7 (228). Pelvic-fin origin anterior to vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Distal margin of pelvic fin reaching pelvic-fin origin with anterior rays longest. Tip of adpressed pelvic fin surpassing anal-fin origin. Pectoral-fin rays i,11 (4), i,12 (59), i,13 (105), i,14 (49) or i,15 (7). Caudal fin forked with i,17,i principal rays (5 c&s). Dorsal procurrent rays 11–13 (5 c&s) and ventral procurrent rays 8–9 (5 c&s).

Scales large and cycloid. Lateral line complete and distinctly curved downward anteriorly. Longitudinal scales 30 (5), 31 (17), 32 (48), 33 (79), 34 (52) or 35 (4). Scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin 7 (64) or 8 (162). Scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin origin 3.5 (234). Predorsal scales 11 (6), 12 (19), 13 (31), 14 (54), 15 (58), 16 (16), 17 (10) or 18 (2). Scale rows around caudal peduncle 13 (43) or 14 (138). Anal-fin base covered by a single row of small scales; anterior two thirds of lobes of caudal fin densely scaled in many specimens.

First gill arch with 8 (5), 9 (80), 10 (71) or 11 (13) gill rakers on upper limb and 12 (18), 13 (68), 14 (69) or 15 (6) gill rakers on lower limb. Total vertebrae 27, precaudal vertebrae 11, caudal vertebrae 16 (5 c&s). Supraneurals 3 (5 c&s).

Color in alcohol. General body color yellowish. Dorsal portion of head and body darkly pigmented (OS 18365 from Río Itaya in Peru with predorsal region densely pigmented). Dorsolateral portion of body with few minute chromatophores along distal margin of scales. Scales of ventrolateral portion of body unpigmented. Opercular and infraorbital bones silvery speckled with a few larger chromatophores. Two conspicuous vertical dark humeral marks separated by one or two vertical rows of scales. Anterior humeral mark extending over five horizontal scale rows above lateral line and two horizontal scale rows bellow lateral line. Posterior humeral mark extending over five or six horizontal scales rows above lateral line. Caudal peduncle with a rounded or vertically-oriented ellipsoid mark. Midlateral silvery stripe broad, extending from supracleithrum to anterior margin of the dark mark on the caudal peduncle. Anal, pelvic, and dorsal fins mostly hyaline, with chromatophores concentrated at distal portions of rays. Adipose fin speckled with small, dark chromatophores ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 b).

Sexual dimorphism. Adult males with bony hooks on distal segments of fourth unbranched and anteriormost branched rays of anal fin; usually two bony hooks per segment. One adult male (ANSP 134765) from Río Meta in Colombia with bony hooks on fourth unbranched ray and on anteriormost 22 branched rays of anal fin.

Distribution. Tetragonopterus argenteus  is distributed across the Amazon basin, upper Essequibo, Orinoco, Parnaíba, Jaguaribe, Paraguay and lower Paraná river basins ( Fig. 2 a).

Material examined. Non types: Ecuador: ANSPAbout ANSP 75902, 1, 102.3 mm SL, Chicherota, Napo basin, Río Pastaza, 2°25’15.1”S 76°38’39.4”WGoogleMaps  . ANSPAbout ANSP 137656, 9, 42.7–97.8 mm SL, Río Lagartococha   . Peru: ANSPAbout ANSP 18365, 3, 75.1–82.7 mm SL  , Loreto, Maynas, Río Itaya , 4°13’31.2”S 73°28’57.3”W. ANSPAbout ANSP 143548, 1, 54.9 mm SL, Sandoval, CoshaGoogleMaps  , Río Madre de Diós. LBP 12401View Materials, 1, 65.6 mm SL  , Loreto, San Juan Bautista, Río Marañon , 4°09’04.2”S 73°28’25.7”W. LBP 12578View Materials, 1, 57.7 mm SLGoogleMaps  , Loreto, Nauta, Río Marañon , 4°18’13.6”S 73°31’16.1”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 26393, 10, 40.8–67.5 mm SL, PucallpaGoogleMaps  , Río Ucayali. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 26434, 4, 55.7–61.1 mm SL, Cocha, Supay. OS 18365, 3, 75.1–82.7 mm SL  , Loreto, Maynas, Río Itaya , 4°13’31.2”S 73°28’57.3”WGoogleMaps  . Colombia: ANSPAbout ANSP 131848, 4, 51.7–69.3 mm SL, Quebrada Venturosa, Río Meta  . ANSPAbout ANSP 134765, 3, 46.2–66.5 mm SL, Río Meta  . ANSPAbout ANSP 137585, 1, 54.9 mm SL, La Balsa, Río Meta, Río Negrito   . ANSPAbout ANSP 192316, 3, 45.0– 48.2 mm SL, Río Meta. LBP 18642View Materials, 2, 41.6–45.8 mm SL  , Granada, Orinoco basin, Río Guaviare  . Venezuela: LBP 3058, 2, 58.1–81.2 mm SL, Caicara de Orinoco, Río Orinoco, 7°38’11”N 66°19’04.2”W. LBP 3059, 1, 57.1 mm SL, Caicara del Orinoco, Río Orinoco GoogleMaps  , 7°38’11”N 66°19’04.2”W. Guyana: ANSPAbout ANSP 190547, 6, 43.1–71.0 mm SL, RupununiGoogleMaps  , Essequibo basin, Rupununi river . ANSPAbout ANSP 193496, 3, 55–60 mm SL, Rupununi  , Essequibo basin. Brazil: Acre: LBP 185, 2, 71.2–72.5 mm SL; LBP 16805View Materials, 8, 56.4–80.7 mm SL  ; LBP 16862View Materials, 1, 62.0 mm SL, Rio Acre-Purus, Rio Branco, 10°03.320’S 67°51.450’W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 30363, 4, 41.7–47.4 mm SL, Tarauacá, Rio Juruá GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 50116, 2, 75.2–85.6 mm SL, Manuel Urbano, Rio Purus   . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 50301, 3, 81.8–88.4 mm SL, Colocação Volta Grande, Rio Juruá   . Amazonas: LIRPAbout LIRP 4973, 1, 50.9 mm SL  , Paraná do Janauacá. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 5773, 14, 66.3–88.4 mm SL  , Paraná de Urucará. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 6516, 5, 64.9–80.6 mm SL, Manacapuru, Rio Solimões   , 3°13’00”S 60°45’00”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17353, 9, 41.7–66.4 mm SL, Coari, Rio Solimões GoogleMaps  , 3°55’00”S 63°20’00”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 17509, 9, 61.7–72.1 mm SL, Santo Antonio do Içá, Rio IçáGoogleMaps  , 3°08’00”S 67°57’00”. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 27756, 5, 70.9–82.5 mm SL, Benjamin Constant, Rio Içá mouth  , 24°04’00”S 69°49’00”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 74668, 3, 64.8–67.0 mm SL, Rio Solimões , 3°22’00”S 60°11’00”WGoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 74687, 9, 55.4–68.1 mm SL, Rio Solimões. Pará: LBP 17608View Materials, 1, 65.0 mm SL, Altamira, Rio Xingu , 3°30’14.3”S 52°02’19.9”WGoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 3528, 3, 87.6–91.4 mm SL, Santarém, Rio Tapajós , 2°25’00”S 54°44’00”WGoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 5449, 4, 65.1–79.4 mm SL, Oriximiná, Rio Trombetas , 1°46’00”S 55°52’00”WGoogleMaps  . MZUSP 9494, 6, 48.6–55.3 mm SL, Monte Alegre, 2°01’00”S 54°55’00”W. Piauí: ANSPAbout ANSP 84415, 5, 53.1–61.9 mm SL, Terezina, Rio Parnaíba   . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 5091, 15, 30.1–57.4 mm SL, Teresina, Rio Parnaíba , 5°05’00”S 42°50’00”WGoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 74891, 14, 56.7–76.1 mm SL, Teresina, Rio Parnaíba   . Ceará: ANSPAbout ANSP 84416, 2, 72.5–82.1 mm SL, Russas, Rio Jaguaribe , Russas  . Goiás: LBP 1832, 1, 68,8 mm SL, Aragarças, Rio Araguaia   , 15°53’35.6”S 52o15’01”W. LBP 17275View Materials, 1, 60.9 mm SL, Britânia, Rio Araguaia, Rio Vermelho GoogleMaps  , 15°10’23.2”S 51°09’27.1”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 4814, 28, 42.6–58.5 mm SL, Aruanã, Rio Araguaia GoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 54523, 1, 73.5 mm SL, Rio Araguaia   . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 110039, 3, 76.4–88.2 mm SL, Minaçu, Rio Tocantins  . Maranhão: LBP 5535, 1, 74.4 mm SL, Balsas, rio Parnaíba basin, Rio Balsas , 7°32’26”S 46°02’21”WGoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso: LBP 3967, 1, 59.4 mm SL, Cuiabá, Rio Paraguai, Rio Mutuca   , 15°21’20”S 56°06’04”W. LBP 4633, 3, 64.5–72.3 mm SL, Poconé, Rio ParaguaiGoogleMaps  . LBP 5108, 1, 67.6 mm SL, Cáceres, Rio Paraguay, 16°06’66”S 57°44’33”W. LBP 8442, 3, 51.8–63.8 mm SL, Cáceres, Rio ParaguaiGoogleMaps  , 16°03’13.6”S 57°48’31.8”W. LBP 14046View Materials, 1, 79.5 mm SL, Poconé, Rio Paraguai, Rio Cuiabá GoogleMaps  , 17°50’49.9”S 57°26’22.3”W. LBP 15921View Materials, 1, 78,6 mm SL, Canarana, Rio Xingu, Rio Culuene GoogleMaps  , 13°31’02.8”S 53°04’41.8”W. LBP 15962View Materials, 3, 52.4– 44.3 mm SL, Canarana, Rio Culuene GoogleMaps  , 13°29’41.8”S 53°04’57.7”W. LIRPAbout LIRP 713, 2, 65.4–65.9 mm SL, Barão de Melgaço, Rio Paraguai, Rio Cuiabá GoogleMaps  , 16°12’00”S 55°57’30”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 101060, 1, 52.1 mm SL, Rio Madeira basin, Rio Aripuanã GoogleMaps  , 10°12’33”S 59°27’39”W. MZUSPAbout MZUSP 101069, 15, 41.3–47.1 mm SL, Aripuanã, Rio Madeira basin, Rio Aripuanã GoogleMaps  . NUP 3381, 5, 62.9–82.0 mm SL, Aripuanã, Rio Madeira basin, Rio Aripuanã. NUP 4092, 3, 65.0– 87.6 mm SL, Chapada dos Guimarães, Rio Paraguai, Rio Cuiabá. NUP 7189, 2, 55.6–57.6 mm SL, Aripuanã  . NUP 10758View Materials, 17, 21.9–44.4 mm SL, Rosário Oeste, Rio Paraguai basin, Rio Cuiabá   . NUP 10768View Materials, 1, 101 mm SL, Nova Brasilândia , Rio Paraguay basin  , Rio Manso. Mato Grosso do Sul: LBP 1476, 7, 27.4–42.4 mm SL, Coxim, Rio Paraguai  , 18°25’42.5”S 54°50’02”W. LBP 1776, 4, 81.3–97.8 mm SL, Coxim, Rio ParaguaiGoogleMaps  . LBP 3758, 20, 50.4–66.6 mm SL, Aquidauana , Rio Paraguai, 19°34’33.7”W 56°14’49.5”SGoogleMaps  . LBP 13558View Materials, 1, 51.5 mm SL, Corumbá , Rio Paraguai, 17°55’16”S 57°28’31.6”WGoogleMaps  . LBP 14036View Materials, 2, 55.7–94.1 mm SL, Poconé , Río Paraguai, 17°30’49”S 57°14’26.3”WGoogleMaps  . MZUSPAbout MZUSP 59706, 21, 45.1–60.8 mm SL, Aquidauana, Rio Paraguai basin, Rio Negro  . Paraná: NUP 7341, 1, 110.9 mm SL, Foz do Iguaçu, Rio Paraná  .

TABLE 2. Morphometric đata for Tetragonopterus argenteus from đistinct South American basins separateđ accorđing to the COI tree resolution (Fig. 1).

Measurements Stanđarđ length (mm) Amazon (n=117) Range Mean 40.8Q88.4 63.4 Tapajós anđ Xingu (n=5) Range Mean 64.8Q91.4 81.7 Araguaia (n=33) Range Mean 42.2Q88.2 53.4 La Plata basin (n=42) Range Mean 27.4Q110.5 58.0 Orinoco basin (n=4) Range Mean 57.1Q82.2 65.4 Parnaíba basin (n=28) Range Mean 30.1Q76.1 50.7
Percentages of standard length Greatest đepth 44.8Q64.2 55.7 52.2Q61.0 57.1 50.3Q62.6 56.1 45.8Q63.4 58.4 55.6Q57.9 56.6 45.8Q54.7 51.4
Pređorsal length 44.3Q61.0 52.9 52.1Q54.9 53.6 47.9Q55.7 52.9 45.3Q56.9 52.5 47.6Q50.7 48.6 49.2Q54.0 52.2
Prepectoral length 26.3Q34.2 29.8 28.0Q29.3 28.7 26.7Q34.1 30.9 26.9Q35.2 30.8 29.3Q31.5 30.3 25.9Q32.1 28.6
Prepelvic length Preanal length 46.5Q54.4 49.4 49.2Q77.8 66.6 46.8Q49.6 48.4 51.9Q67.0 63.7 46.5Q54.6 49.6 63.1Q71.1 66.0 46.4Q54.4 49.5 63.6Q73.8 67.1 49.2Q50.1 49.8 64.3Q69.2 66.6 46.0Q49.1 47.8 62.6Q68.0 64.8
Cauđal peđuncle đepth 8.4Q12.0 10.1 10.3Q11.9 11.0 9.0Q11.3 10.5 8.83Q13.8 10.9 6.8Q9.3 10.0 8.89Q11.6 10.2
Cauđal peđuncle length 6.0Q10.5 8.1 7.2Q7.9 7.6 6.3Q9.1 8.0 5.63Q9.67 7.78 6.0Q6.8 6.4 6.41Q9.96 8.29
Pectoral-fin length 21.1Q27.0 24.2 21.7Q25.6 24.1 20.3Q28.7 25.5 20.4Q32.9 25.1 20.4Q24.9 22.2 21.3Q24.3 22.7
Pelvic-fin length Dorsal-fin length 14.1Q23.5 20.6 15.7Q42.8 37.1 18.3Q22.3 20.3 35.3Q38.5 36.5 16.4Q25.1 19.8 31.7Q44.7 39.5 17.5Q25.2 20.4 34.9Q43.2 39.0 14.2Q18.8 16.4 39.1Q40.3 35.3 16.8Q22.8 19.5 33.3Q42.8 36.2
Length of đorsal-fin base 14.9Q38.5 17.1 16.5Q18.7 17.5 15.3Q18.8 17.5 14.1Q21.3 17.3 15.8Q17.1 16.3 14.0Q18.2 15.9
Anal-fin length 9.8Q23.6 15.5 9.2Q16.0 12.1 9.7Q19.9 16.1 8.6Q17.3 13.0 9.6Q10.4 9.98 14.0Q18.2 15.9
Length of anal-fin base Distance from eye to đorsal-fin origin 32.0Q51.3 39.2 44.1Q57.9 49.7 38.5Q43.2 41.2 49.4Q51.5 50.8 37.4Q44.7 39.7 44.6Q52.4 49.4 37.9Q48.7 41.7 47.5Q57.7 51.4 36.4Q37.6 37.2 50.2Q52.1 51.1 36.5Q42.3 39.3 46.1Q50.6 48.3
Distance from đorsal-fin origin to cauđal-fin base Heađ length 42.7Q65.9 55.1 25.6Q36.3 29.4 54.7Q61.8 56.9 27.4Q29.2 28.4 50.8Q58.4 54.7 26.1Q34.1 30.4 51.2Q67.1 55.4 24.9Q32.5 29.5 53.0Q55.1 54.4 25.7Q29.9 28.4 50.2Q57.9 54.5 25.5Q32.0 28.8
Heađ đepth 21.0Q28.2 23.9 22.7Q24.9 24.0 24.9Q29.3 27.0 23.9Q32.3 26.8 25.2Q27.1 26.3 19.9Q30.2 24.0
Percentages of head length Snout length 9Q18 13.8 15Q19 16.6 9Q19 14.8 11Q19 13.9 15Q16 15.6 13Q19 15.0
Maxillary length 31Q48 42.0 42Q45 43.0 31Q46 42.6 38Q46 42.3 43Q47 44.7 40Q45 42.2
Horizontal orbital điameter 38Q60 45.4 44Q48 45.8 42Q50 47.4 47Q58 51.4 43Q49 46.4 43Q51 46.8
Least interorbital wiđth 24Q41 34.8 36Q42 39.1 32Q40 35.3 30Q45 36.5 35Q41 37.4 31Q39 34.5

TABLE 2. Morphometric đata for Tetragonopterus argenteus from đistinct South American basins separateđ accorđing to the COI tree resolution (Fig. 1).

Measurements Stanđarđ length (mm) Amazon (n=117) Range Mean 40.8Q88.4 63.4 Tapajós anđ Xingu (n=5) Range Mean 64.8Q91.4 81.7 Araguaia (n=33) Range Mean 42.2Q88.2 53.4 La Plata basin (n=42) Range Mean 27.4Q110.5 58.0 Orinoco basin (n=4) Range Mean 57.1Q82.2 65.4 Parnaíba basin (n=28) Range Mean 30.1Q76.1 50.7
Percentages of standard length Greatest đepth 44.8Q64.2 55.7 52.2Q61.0 57.1 50.3Q62.6 56.1 45.8Q63.4 58.4 55.6Q57.9 56.6 45.8Q54.7 51.4
Pređorsal length 44.3Q61.0 52.9 52.1Q54.9 53.6 47.9Q55.7 52.9 45.3Q56.9 52.5 47.6Q50.7 48.6 49.2Q54.0 52.2
Prepectoral length 26.3Q34.2 29.8 28.0Q29.3 28.7 26.7Q34.1 30.9 26.9Q35.2 30.8 29.3Q31.5 30.3 25.9Q32.1 28.6
Prepelvic length Preanal length 46.5Q54.4 49.4 49.2Q77.8 66.6 46.8Q49.6 48.4 51.9Q67.0 63.7 46.5Q54.6 49.6 63.1Q71.1 66.0 46.4Q54.4 49.5 63.6Q73.8 67.1 49.2Q50.1 49.8 64.3Q69.2 66.6 46.0Q49.1 47.8 62.6Q68.0 64.8
Cauđal peđuncle đepth 8.4Q12.0 10.1 10.3Q11.9 11.0 9.0Q11.3 10.5 8.83Q13.8 10.9 6.8Q9.3 10.0 8.89Q11.6 10.2
Cauđal peđuncle length 6.0Q10.5 8.1 7.2Q7.9 7.6 6.3Q9.1 8.0 5.63Q9.67 7.78 6.0Q6.8 6.4 6.41Q9.96 8.29
Pectoral-fin length 21.1Q27.0 24.2 21.7Q25.6 24.1 20.3Q28.7 25.5 20.4Q32.9 25.1 20.4Q24.9 22.2 21.3Q24.3 22.7
Pelvic-fin length Dorsal-fin length 14.1Q23.5 20.6 15.7Q42.8 37.1 18.3Q22.3 20.3 35.3Q38.5 36.5 16.4Q25.1 19.8 31.7Q44.7 39.5 17.5Q25.2 20.4 34.9Q43.2 39.0 14.2Q18.8 16.4 39.1Q40.3 35.3 16.8Q22.8 19.5 33.3Q42.8 36.2
Length of đorsal-fin base 14.9Q38.5 17.1 16.5Q18.7 17.5 15.3Q18.8 17.5 14.1Q21.3 17.3 15.8Q17.1 16.3 14.0Q18.2 15.9
Anal-fin length 9.8Q23.6 15.5 9.2Q16.0 12.1 9.7Q19.9 16.1 8.6Q17.3 13.0 9.6Q10.4 9.98 14.0Q18.2 15.9
Length of anal-fin base Distance from eye to đorsal-fin origin 32.0Q51.3 39.2 44.1Q57.9 49.7 38.5Q43.2 41.2 49.4Q51.5 50.8 37.4Q44.7 39.7 44.6Q52.4 49.4 37.9Q48.7 41.7 47.5Q57.7 51.4 36.4Q37.6 37.2 50.2Q52.1 51.1 36.5Q42.3 39.3 46.1Q50.6 48.3
Distance from đorsal-fin origin to cauđal-fin base Heađ length 42.7Q65.9 55.1 25.6Q36.3 29.4 54.7Q61.8 56.9 27.4Q29.2 28.4 50.8Q58.4 54.7 26.1Q34.1 30.4 51.2Q67.1 55.4 24.9Q32.5 29.5 53.0Q55.1 54.4 25.7Q29.9 28.4 50.2Q57.9 54.5 25.5Q32.0 28.8
Heađ đepth 21.0Q28.2 23.9 22.7Q24.9 24.0 24.9Q29.3 27.0 23.9Q32.3 26.8 25.2Q27.1 26.3 19.9Q30.2 24.0
Percentages of head length Snout length 9Q18 13.8 15Q19 16.6 9Q19 14.8 11Q19 13.9 15Q16 15.6 13Q19 15.0
Maxillary length 31Q48 42.0 42Q45 43.0 31Q46 42.6 38Q46 42.3 43Q47 44.7 40Q45 42.2
Horizontal orbital điameter 38Q60 45.4 44Q48 45.8 42Q50 47.4 47Q58 51.4 43Q49 46.4 43Q51 46.8
Least interorbital wiđth 24Q41 34.8 36Q42 39.1 32Q40 35.3 30Q45 36.5 35Q41 37.4 31Q39 34.5
ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

LIRP

Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Anthribidae

Genus

Tetragonopterus

Loc

Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816

Silva, Gabriel S. C., Melo, Bruno F., Oliveira, Claudio & Benine, Ricardo C. 2016

2016
Loc

Tetragonopterus argenteus

Britski 1999: 29
Taphorn 1992: 343
Stewart 1987: 29
Ortega 1986: 9
Ringuelet 1967: 131
Gery 1964: 5
Fowler 1932: 352
Eigenmann 1917: 54
Gunther 1864: 318
Muller 1845: 1Cuvier 1816: 166

1845
Loc

Tetragonopterus sawa

Castelnau 1855: 65

Loc

Tetragonopterus huberi

Steindachner 1909: 172