Althepus Thorell, 1898

Li, Fengyuan, Liu, Chang, Wongprom, Prasit & Li, Shuqiang, 2018, Sixteen new species of the spider genus Althepus Thorell, 1898 (Araneae: Ochyroceratidae) from Southeast Asia, Zootaxa 4471 (3), pp. 401-445: 402-412

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4471.3.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:294764A6-5EE6-40DC-B05C-BE23398A4B29

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F487D1-B63A-FFFC-FF4C-F9EF0550F91D

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scientific name

Althepus Thorell, 1898
status

 

Genus Althepus Thorell, 1898 

Type species. Althepus pictus Thorell, 1898 

Emended diagnosis. The genus Althepus  belongs to Psilodercinae and can be distinguished from other genera of the subfamily by the following combination of characters: cheliceral promargin with lamina and 1–2 teeth, retromargin with 1–2 small teeth; tarsus of male palp with lateral protrusion bearing a hook-shaped spine; short bulb with embolus; and female internal genitalia often with paired spermathecae (Deeleman-Reinhold 1995).

Remarks. According to our observations, we used hook-shaped spine instead the "lanceolate apophysis" used by Deeleman-Reinhold (1995), and used lamina and 1–2 teeth instead the "3 teeth" used by Deeleman-Reinhold (1995).

Althepus bamensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 33986), Thailand, Tak Province, Tha Song Yang District, Bam Thung Tham Sub District , unnamed cave, 17°16.603'N, 98°11.497'E, 169 m altitude, 19 November 2016GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 2 males and 2 females, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 33987–33990).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all the other species by their short, slightly sigmoid embolus ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1) and their horn-shaped distal part of the conductor in males; and by two pairs of spermathecae with irregular margins in females ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.48; carapace 1.48 length, 1.52 width; abdomen 2.69 length, 1.62 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 2CView FIGURE 2), yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one shortened to form a triangular band around eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 20 small denticles ( Fig. 30AView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, with complex pattern of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown, femur and tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I - (11.86, 0.63, 11.79, 21.15, -), II missing, III 17.32 (5.00, 0.57, 4.25, 6.28, 1.22), IV 24.76 (6.99, 0.59, 6.54, 9.04, 1.60). Male palp ( Figs 1A–DView FIGURE 1): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of cymbial protrusion (two of them missing, Fig. 1DView FIGURE 1), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1); bulb bright yellow, ovate; embolus arising distally from bulb, short, slightly sigmoid; conductor arising proximally from bulb, with two horn-shaped protrusions distally; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 2D–EView FIGURE 2), but smaller. Internal genitalia with two pairs of spermathecae with irregular margins ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2). Measurements: total length 3.90; carapace 1.25 length, 1.34 width; abdomen 2.44 length, 1.25 width. Leg measurements: I 40.95 (9.61, 0.56, 9.94, 17.63, 3.21), II 21.67 (5.44, 0.53, 5.77, 8.33, 1.60), III 14.14 (4.08, 0.51, 3.41, 5.00, 1.14), IV missing.

Variation. Males: carapace 1.25–1.48 length, 1.30–1.52 width; femur I: 11.86, 12.31 (n = 3; leg I lost in one specimen). Females: carapace 1.10, 1.25 length, 1.02, 1.34 width; femur I: 9.61.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on a depression of the cave wall. The cave is located in the bamboo plant community of deciduous forest.

Althepus changmao Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 3–4View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 33991), Thailand, Chiangmai , Tham (cave) Pha Daeng Cave, 19°30.187'N, 99°08.838'E, 577 m altitude, 27 June 2014GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 2 females, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 33992–33993).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Chinese pinyin 'cháng máo', which means 'long bristle', referring to the long bristle of the male palpal tibia ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3); noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. The species resembles A. tibiatus Deeleman-Reinhold, 1985  (Deeleman-Reinhold 1985) in having the upward curling part of the distal conductor and one distinctively long bristle on the male palpal tibia ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3), and the spermathecae with many bifurcations in females ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Males of the new species can be distinguished by the jagged distal part of the conductor ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3), compared with the sharp distal part of the conductor in A. tibiatus  . Females can be distinguished by two branches of the medial spermathecae ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4), compared with 3–4 branches of the medial spermathecae in A. tibiatus  .

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.42; carapace 1.44 length, 1.62 width; abdomen 2.03 length, 1.10 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4), yellowish, with three longitudinal brown bands of different width. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang provided with 21 small denticles ( Fig. 30BView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown, femur and tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I 44.60 (10.83, 0.66, 11.22, 19.23, 2.66), II missing, III 26.58 (7.69, 0.64, 7.37, 9.28, 1.60), IV missing. Male palp ( Figs 3A–DView FIGURE 3): tarsus distinct, extends distally, with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion (one of them missing, Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3); tibia with one distinctively long bristle; bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising prolatero-distally from bulb, slender and proximal part curved; conductor arising proximally from bulb, curved, with the distal part curling upward forming a groove; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance almost equal to diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 4D–EView FIGURE 4), but smaller. Internal genitalia with two pairs of spermathecae, curved, bifurcate, with a swollen distal part; the spermachecae left and right showing different number of branches ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Measurements: total length 3.36; carapace 1.05 length, 1.20 width; abdomen 2.13 length, 1.34 width. Leg measurements: I missing, II missing, III 11.52 (3.24, 0.49, 2.88, 3.80, 1.11), IV missing.

Variation. Females: carapace 1.05, 1.15 length, 1.19, 1.20 wide; leg I lost (n = 2).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the cave wall (high humidity in the cave).

Remark. A. changmao Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 101 ” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus dongnaiensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 5–6View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 33994), Vietnam, Dong Nai Province, Cat Tien National Park, Natural Forest , 11°27.005'N, 107°21.863'E, 173 m altitude, 0 5 September 2015GoogleMaps  . Paratype: 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 33995).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all the other species by the wide, curved conductor and the arc-shaped margin of the distal conductor in males ( Figs 5A–DView FIGURE 5) and by one pair of distinctively curved spermathecae in females ( Fig. 6AView FIGURE 6).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 3.68; carapace 1.16 length, 1.13 width; abdomen 2.15 length, 0.90 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 6CView FIGURE 6), yellowish, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one cleaved and shortened to form a triangular band around eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 20 small denticles ( Fig. 30CView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, with two irregular brown lines each side. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I 33.00 (8.00, 0.40, 8.00, 14.15, 2.45), II 21.45 (5.45, 0.40, 5.20, 8.70, 1.70), III 16.68 (5.00, 0.40, 4.49, 5.51, 1.28), IV 23.16 (6.86, 0.40, 6.41, 7.82, 1.67). Male palp ( Figs 5A–DView FIGURE 5): tarsus distinct, extends distally, with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5); bulb yellow, pyriform; embolus arising proximally from bulb, slender and curved ( Figs 5A–BView FIGURE 5); conductor arising distally from bulb, curved, distal part with a large lamina; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 6D–EView FIGURE 6), but larger. Internal genitalia with one pair of spermathecae, distinctively curved at almost a right-angle, distal part swollen ( Fig. 6AView FIGURE 6). Measurements: total length 3.84; carapace 1.19 length, 1.14 width; abdomen 2.33 length, 1.10 width. Leg measurements: I 16.40 (4.35, 0.40, 4.10, 6.05, 1.50), II 16.00 (4.25, 0.40, 4.00, 6.00, 1.35), III 10.75 (3.10, 0.40, 2.75, 3.50, 1.00), IV 19.57 (5.71, 0.40, 5.38, 6.41, 1.67).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected among tree buttresses at an altitude of 173 m.

Remark. A. dongnaiensis Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 282” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus guan Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 7–8View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 33996), Indonesia, Sumatra, West Sumatra Province, Payakumbuh, Koto Tinggi Village, Imam Bonjol Cave , 00°03.824'S, 100°20.695′E, 949 m altitude, 17 May 2014GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 male and 1 female, same data as holotype ( IZCASAbout IZCAS Ar 33997–33998).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Chinese pinyin 'guǎn', which means 'tube', referring to the tube-like embolus ( Fig. 7DView FIGURE 7); noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. The species can be easily distinguished from all the other species by the tube-like ( Fig. 7DView FIGURE 7) and bifurcate ( Fig. 7BView FIGURE 7) embolus in males and one single pair of small spermathecae in females.

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 5.19; carapace 1.63 length, 1.64 width; abdomen 3.00 length, 1.38 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 8CView FIGURE 8), yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle band wider than the other bands. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 24 small denticles ( Fig. 30DView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, margin with a round of brown band. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown, tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I missing, II 30.85 (7.69, 0.67, 7.69, 12.50, 2.30), III 18.70 (5.45, 0.65, 4.75, 6.60, 1.25), IV 27.35 (7.69, 0.67, 7.37, 9.62, 2.00). Male palp ( Figs 7A–DView FIGURE 7): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 7AView FIGURE 7); one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 7AView FIGURE 7); bulb bright yellow, ovate; embolus arising distally from bulb, curved, distal part with a slender furcation; conductor arising prolatero-distally from bulb, shorter than embolus; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 8D–EView FIGURE 8), but smaller. Internal genitalia with a pair of spermathecae, distal part swollen ( Fig. 8AView FIGURE 8). Measurements: total length 4.05; carapace 1.25 length, 1.33 width; abdomen 2.72 length, 1.50 width. Leg measurements: I missing, II missing, III 13.83 (3.85, 0.48, 3.45, 4.65, 1.40), IV 19.57 (5.51, 0.50, 5.38, 6.54, 1.64).

Variation. Males: carapace 1.24, 1.63 long, 1.28, 1.64 width; femur I: 8.97 (leg I lost in holotype).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected at a cave entrance at an altitude of 949 m.

Remark. A. guan Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 88” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus maechamensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 9–10View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 33999), Thailand, Chiangmai Province , Mae Cham District, 18°31.677'N, 98°29.963'E, 1649 m altitude, 14 October 2014GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 male and 3 females, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34000–34003).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. The species resembles A. stonei Deeleman-Reinhold, 1985  (Deeleman-Reinhold 1985) and A. phadaengensis Li et Li  sp. nov. ( Figs 16–17View FIGURE 16View FIGURE 17) in having a similarly shaped conductor and embolus in males and two pairs of spermathecae in females. Males of the new species can be distinguished by the shorter embolus and conductor, the shorter curved part of the conductor ( Fig. 9BView FIGURE 9), compared to the longer embolus and conductor, the longer curved part of the conductor in A. phadaengensis  ( Fig. 16BView FIGURE 16), and by the sharp, upswept distal part of the conductor ( Fig. 9BView FIGURE 9), compared with the blunt, pendulous distal part of the conductor in A. stonei  . Females can be distinguished by a more coiled spermathecae ( Fig. 10AView FIGURE 10), compared with the weakly twisted spermathecae in A. stonei  , and by the lateral spermathecae having a more slender stalk than medial spermathecae, compared with the stalks of the spermathecae having the similar diameter in A. maechamensis  ( Fig. 17AView FIGURE 17).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.74; carapace 1.72 length, 1.70 width; abdomen 2.68 length, 1.51 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 10CView FIGURE 10), yellowish, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle shortened to form a triangular band around eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 23 small denticles ( Fig. 30EView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum brown, with one irregular longitudinal yellow line in the middle. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown, femur and tibia with yellow annulations. Leg measurements: I 33.01 (8.46, 0.69, 8.33, 13.29, 2.24), II 22.00 (6.09, 0.69, 5.71, 8.14, 1.37), III 15.07 (4.25, 0.67, 3.84, 5.06, 1.25), IV 22.30 (6.41, 0.70, 6.15, 7.44, 1.60). Male palp ( Figs 9A–DView FIGURE 9): tarsus distinct, extends distally and with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 9AView FIGURE 9), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 9AView FIGURE 9); bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising retrolatero-distally from bulb, proximal part flat and distinctly curved; conductor arising prolatero-distally from bulb, increasingly widening, curved at the distal part; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance almost equal to diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 10D–EView FIGURE 10), but smaller. Internal genitalia with two spermathecae sitting on long, slender stalks on each side ( Fig. 10AView FIGURE 10). Measurements: total length 3.72; carapace 1.19 length, 1.36 width; abdomen 2.18 length, 1.31 width. Leg measurements: I 23.42 (5.77, 0.53, 5.90, 8.97, 2.25), II 15.07 (4.00, 0.52, 3.75, 5.45, 1.35), III 10.92 (3.13, 0.50, 2.66, 3.48, 1.15), IV 15.33 (4.35, 0.53, 4.25, 5.00, 1.20).

Variation. Males: carapace 1.34, 1.72 length, 1.27, 1.70 width; femur I: 5.32, 8.46. Females: carapace 1.19– 1.30 length, 1.34–1.40 width; femur I: 5.32–5.90.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected in a tropical forest at an altitude of 1649 m.

Remark. A. maechamensis Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 170” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus menglaensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 11–12View FIGURE 11View FIGURE 12, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34004), China, Yunnan Province, Mengla County, Xiaolongha Village, Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve : Biological Diversity Corridor , Tropical Seasonal Rain Forest , 21°24.253′N, 101°36.324′E, 761 m altitude, 15 June 2013, S. Li leg. Paratype: 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34005).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all the other species by a ventral protrusion of the palpal tarsus ( Figs 11A–DView FIGURE 11) and the wave-shaped margin of the conductor ( Fig. 11BView FIGURE 11) in males.

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 3.60; carapace 1.47 length, 1.48 width; abdomen 2.10 length, 0.98 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 12CView FIGURE 12), yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one wider than the lateral ones. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 21 small denticles ( Fig. 30FView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum brown with triangular yellow spots. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I 28.83 (7.50, 0.55, 7.43, 11.35, 2.00), II 19.67 (5.38, 0.51, 5.04, 6.86, 1.88), III missing, IV 19.63 (5.51, 0.53, 5.64, 6.47, 1.48). Male palp ( Figs 11A–DView FIGURE 11): tarsus distinct, extends distally,with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 11DView FIGURE 11), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 11AView FIGURE 11); bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising retrolaterally from bulb, short and straight; conductor arising distally from bulb, with the wave-shaped margin; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 12E–FView FIGURE 12), but larger. Internal genitalia with two pairs of spermathecae, long, curved, distal part spherical ( Fig. 12AView FIGURE 12). Measurements: total length 3.80; carapace 1.05 length, 1.23 width; abdomen 2.50 length, 1.65 width. Leg measurements: I missing, II missing, III 10.03 (2.75, 0.31, 2.82, 3.13, 1.02), IV missing.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected among tree buttresses at an altitude of 761 m.

Remark. A. menglaensis Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 47” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus naphongensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 13–14View FIGURE 13View FIGURE 14, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34006), Vietnam, Bac Kan Province, Ba Be National Park, Na Phong Cave , 22°23.392′N, 105°36.822′E, 179 m altitude, 20 May 2011GoogleMaps  . Paratype: 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34007).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the name of the cave where this species was found.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all other species by the slender male palp and the gradually widening conductor ( Figs 13C–DView FIGURE 13) in males and five rounded spermathecae sitting on long, slender stalks on right side (left side has six spermathecae, Fig. 14AView FIGURE 14) in females.

Description. Male (holotype): Total length -; carapace 1.33 length, 1.42 width; abdomen missing. Carapace round ( Fig. 14CView FIGURE 14), yellowish, with three longitudinal brown bands of different width, the middle shortened to triangular band around eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 16 small denticles ( Fig. 30GView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, with two irregular brown lines on each side. Legs brown, femur and tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I 36.45 (8.97, 0.54, 8.78, 14.81, 3.35), II 22.67 (6.03, 0.53, 5.38, 8.65, 2.08), III 15.36 (4.24, 0.50, 3.97, 5.13, 1.52), IV 23.00 (6.73, 0.55, 6.28, 7.44, 2.00). Male palp ( Figs 13A–DView FIGURE 13): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13); one hooked spine with tip directed distally ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13); tarsus and tibia with many bristles ( Figs 13C–DView FIGURE 13); bulb bright yellow, ovate; embolus arising retrolaterally from bulb, short and slightly curved ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13); conductor arising retrolatero-distally from bulb, distal part gradually widening ( Figs 13C–DView FIGURE 13); embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Carapace similar to male in color and general features. Abdomen elongate ( Figs 14D–EView FIGURE 14), brown, with a yellow herringbone streak dorsally and some longitudinal yellow bands of different widths and lengths ventrally. Internal genitalia with five pairs of spermathecae, slender, distal part swollen (one side has six spermathecae, Fig. 14AView FIGURE 14). Measurements: total length 3.80; carapace 1.35 length, 1.48 width; abdomen 2.22 length, 1.28 width. Leg measurements: I 32.45 (7.95, 0.54, 8.15, 12.69, 3.12), II 20.83 (5.38, 0.53, 5.38, 7.56, 1.98), III 13.87 (3.85, 0.49, 3.65, 4.55, 1.33), IV 20.61 (5.77, 0.54, 5.83, 6.67, 1.80).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the cave wall.

Remark. A. naphongensis Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 50 ” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus natmataungensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 15View FIGURE 15, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34008), Myanmar, Chin State, Nat Ma Taung National Park, Road S of Nat Ma Taung Summit, Pristine Primary Forest , 21°12.479'N, 93°54.892'E, 2543 m altitude, P. Jäger leg., 16 May 2014.GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily recognized from all the other species by the bifurcate distal part of the conductor and the wavelike embolus ( Figs 15A–DView FIGURE 15).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 3.85; carapace 1.30 length, 1.38 width; abdomen 2.13 length, 1.19 width. Carapace rounded, yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different width, the middle one wider than the lateral ones. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 19 small denticles ( Fig. 30HView FIGURE 30). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, margin with brown band. Abdomen elongate, with complex pattern of white and brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown, femur and tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I 16.26 (4.50, 0.57, 4.10, 5.45, 1.64), II 15.88 (4.25, 0.56, 4.00, 5.45, 1.62), III 11.41 (3.20, 0.56, 3.00, 3.40, 1.25), IV missing. Male palp ( Figs 15A–DView FIGURE 15): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top (one of them missing, Fig. 15CView FIGURE 15) and one large hooked spine with tip directed distally ( Fig. 15AView FIGURE 15); bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising distally from bulb, flat and wavy; conductor arising proximally from bulb, bifurcate; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female: Unknown

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected under leaf litter by hand and sieving.

Remark. A. natmataungensis Li et Li  sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 210” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus phadaengensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 16–17View FIGURE 16View FIGURE 17, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34009), Thailand, Mae Hong Son Province, Muang District, Jumpae Subdistrict, Tham (cave) Pha Daeng Cave , 19°25.395'N, 97°59.057'E, 293 m altitude, 21 November 2016GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 3 males and 2 females, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34010–34014).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the cave in which the species was found.

Diagnosis. The species resembles A. stonei Deeleman-Reinhold, 1995  (Deeleman-Reinhold 1995) and A. maechamensis Li et Li  sp. nov. ( Figs 9–10View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10) in having a similarly shaped conductor and embolus in males and two pairs of spermathecae in females, but can be distinguished by the longer embolus and conductor, the longer curved part of the conductor ( Fig. 16BView FIGURE 16), compared with the shorter embolus and conductor, the shorter curved part of the conductor in A. maechamensis  ( Fig. 9BView FIGURE 9), by the sharp, upswept distal part of the conductor ( Fig. 16BView FIGURE 16), compared with the blunt, pendulous distal part of the conductor in A. stonei  in the males, and by the stalks of the spermathecae having the similar diameter, compared with the lateral spermathecae having a more slender stalk than medial spermathecae in A. stonei  and A. maechamensis  in the females ( Fig. 17AView FIGURE 17).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.25; carapace 1.44 length, 1.45 width; abdomen 2.34 length, 1.28 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 17CView FIGURE 17), yellowish, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one shortened to form a triangular band around the eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with one small tooth, posterior surface of fang with 24 small denticles ( Fig. 31AView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, with complex pattern of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I 45.23 (9.74, 0.62, 11.86, 19.42, 3.59), II 29.75 (7.37, 0.59, 7.37, 12.18, 2.24), III 18.81 (5.58, 0.59, 4.95, 6.41, 1.28), IV 27.65 (8.14, 0.59, 7.56, 9.42, 1.94). Male palp ( Figs 16A–DView FIGURE 16): tarsus distinct, extends distally,with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 16AView FIGURE 16), one hooked spine with the tip directed towards proximally ( Fig. 16DView FIGURE 16); bulb bright yellow, ovate; embolus arising retrolatero-distally from bulb, slender and slightly curved; conductor arising prolatero-distally from bulb, long, increasingly widening and curved at the distal part; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance almost equal to diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 17D–EView FIGURE 17), but larger. Internal genitalia with two rounded spermathecae sitting on long stalks on each side ( Fig. 17AView FIGURE 17). Measurements: total length 4.55; carapace 1.36 length, 1.42 width; abdomen 2.81 length, 1.48 width. Leg measurements: I 41.15 (9.62, 0.56, 10.45, 17.31, 3.21), II 25.81 (6.35, 0.56, 7.69, 9.23, 1.98), III 15.93 (4.70, 0.53, 4.10, 5.32, 1.28), IV 22.70 (6.41, 0.56, 6.41, 7.37, 1.95).

Variation. Males: carapace 1.30–1.60 length, 1.42–1.50 width; femur I: 9.74–12.18. Females: carapace 1.36, 1.42 length, 1.33, 1.42 width; femur I: 9.62 (n = 2; leg I lost in the other specimen).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the wall near the entrance of cave.

Althepus shanhu Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 18–19View FIGURE 18View FIGURE 19, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34015), Myanmar, Kachin State, Putao County, Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary Roadside , 27°36.550'N, 96°58.850'E, 2252 m altitude, 17 December 2016GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 male and 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34016–34017).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Chinese pinyin 'shān hú', which means 'coral', referring to the female’s spermathecae looking like coral; noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all other species by many long bristles of the palpal tibia ( Figs 18C–DView FIGURE 18), the petaloid structures on the distal conductor as well as the short embolus in males ( Fig. 18BView FIGURE 18), and by many pairs of spermathecae in females ( Fig. 19AView FIGURE 19).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.00; carapace 1.48 length, 1.48 width; abdomen 2.28 length, 1.42 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 19CView FIGURE 19), yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle wider than the others. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang provided with 26 small denticles ( Fig. 31BView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, with many brown bands. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of yellow and brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I missing, II 17.45 (4.80, 0.53, 4.75, 6.28, 1.09), III 12.17 (3.60, 0.53, 3.13, 3.80, 1.11), IV 18.20 (5.19, 0.51, 5.19, 6.03, 1.28). Male palp ( Figs 18A–DView FIGURE 18): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion (one of them missing, Fig. 18AView FIGURE 18), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 18CView FIGURE 18); bulb bright yellow, ovate; embolus arising retrolatero-distally from bulb, short and straight ( Fig. 18BView FIGURE 18); conductor arising distally from bulb, wide, and some petaloid laminas arising distally; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 19D–EView FIGURE 19) but larger. Internal genitalia with many pairs of spermathecae, short, distal part swollen ( Fig. 19AView FIGURE 19). Measurements: total length 4.10; carapace 1.24 length, 1.41 width; abdomen 2.81 length, 2.05 width. Leg measurements: I missing, II 13.50 (3.60, 0.56, 3.68, 4.45, 1.21), III 10.31 (2.94, 0.54, 2.66, 3.00, 1.17), IV 14.57 (4.30, 0.56, 3.96, 4.35, 1.40).

Variation. Males: carapace 1.35, 1.48 length, 1.42, 1.48 width (leg I lost in all specimens).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected among tree buttresses at an altitude of 2252 m.

Althepus suayaiensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 20View FIGURE 20, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34018), Thailand, Tak Province, Phop Phra District, Mae Ku Subdistrict, Tham Sua Yai Cave , 16°40.336'N, 98°40.138'E, 466 m altitude, 14 November 2016GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 2 males, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34019–34020).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all other species by the irregularly serrate margin of the distal conductor and a small triangular protrusion on the middle part of the conductor in males ( Figs 20A–BView FIGURE 20).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 3.95; carapace 1.41 length, 1.36 width; abdomen 2.20 length, 1.13 width. Carapace round, light yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one wider than the others. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 19 small denticles ( Fig. 31CView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, with two irregular brown lines on each side. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I 33.12 (7.69, 0.56 8.34, 14.29, 2.24), II 21.86 (5.90, 0.55, 5.64, 8.14, 1.63), III 19.93 (4.00, 0.52, 5.64, 8.14, 1.63), IV missing. Male palp ( Figs 20A–DView FIGURE 20): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion (two of them were missing, Fig. 20CView FIGURE 20), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 20AView FIGURE 20); bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising distally from bulb, proximal part distinctly wide and slightly curved ( Fig. 20AView FIGURE 20); conductor arising distally from bulb, distinctly wide, middle and distal part with some small protrusions ( Figs 20A–BView FIGURE 20); embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female: Unknown

Variation. Males: carapace 1.13–1.41 length, 1.17–1.36 width, femur I 7.69–8.21.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the cave wall. The cave is located in the bamboo plant community of deciduous forest.

Althepus tadetuensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 21–22View FIGURE 21View FIGURE 22, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34021), Laos, Champasak Province, Tad E-tu, Vacation Villages and Houses , 15°11.527'N, 106°06.204'E, 889 m altitude, 17 November 2012GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 male and 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34022–34023).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. The species can be easily distinguished from all the other species by the four furcate distal part of the conductor in males ( Fig. 21DView FIGURE 21) and by one pair of long, slender spermathecae in females ( Fig. 22AView FIGURE 22).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 3.80; carapace 1.17 length, 1.30 width; abdomen 2.13 length, 1.06 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 22CView FIGURE 22), yellow, with four longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one shortened to form a triangular band around the eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 20 small denticles ( Fig. 31DView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum yellow, with two irregular brown lines on each side. Abdomen elongate, with complex pattern of white and dark-brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I 32.08 (8.01, 0.40, 7.69, 13.08, 2.95), II 30.26 (7.82, 0.40, 8.01, 11.15, 2.88), III 13.70 (3.95, 0.40, 3.50, 4.50, 1.35), IV 19.90 (5.71, 0.40, 5.45, 6.67, 1.67). Male palp ( Figs 21A–DView FIGURE 21): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of the cymbial protrusion (one of them missing, Fig. 21CView FIGURE 21); one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 21AView FIGURE 21); bulb yellow, pyriform; embolus arising retrolaterally from bulb, slender and curved; conductor arising prolatero-distally from bulb, S-shaped, with a transparent lamina and three black divarications arising from distal part; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance almost equal to diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 22D–EView FIGURE 22) but smaller. Internal genitalia with a pair of spermathecae, distinctively long, curved, distal part swollen ( Fig. 22AView FIGURE 22). Measurements: total length 3.60; carapace 1.02 length, 1.33 width; abdomen 2.13 length, 1.09 width. Leg measurements: I 24.00 (6.41, 0.46, 6.54, 10.90, 2.69), II 17.92 (4.55, 0.46, 4.40, 6.09, 2.42), III 12.44 (3.38, 0.46, 2.97, 3.91, 1.72), IV 16.75 (4.81, 0.46, 4.49, 5.45, 1.54).

Variation. Males: carapace 1.13, 1.17 length, 1.22, 1.30 width; femur I: 8.01 (n = 2; leg I lost in one specimen).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected in a pit of the hill at an altitude of 889 m.

Remark. A. tadetuensis Li et Li sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 25” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus tanhuang Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 23–24View FIGURE 23View FIGURE 24, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34024), Thailand, Rayong Province, Kongdin Subdistrict, Phrayanak Cave , 12°46.000'N, 101°47.913'E, 0 m altitude, 0 9 November 2016GoogleMaps  . Paratype: 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34025).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is derived from the Chinese pinyin 'tán huáng', which means 'spring', referring to coiled, spring-shaped spermathecae ( Fig. 24EView FIGURE 24); noun in apposition.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all other species by the distinctly wide distal part of the folded conductor in male ( Fig. 23AView FIGURE 23) and by the spring-shaped spermathecae in female ( Fig. 24AView FIGURE 24).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.35; carapace 1.50 length, 1.70 width; abdomen 2.50 length, 1.70 width. Carapace round ( Fig. 24CView FIGURE 24), yellowish, with three longitudinal brown bands of different width, the middle shortened to triangular band around eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang provided with 15 small denticles ( Fig. 31EView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, with complex patterns of white and brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I missing, II 32.32 (8.65, 0.71, 8.53, 12.18, 2.25), III 22.84 (6.54, 0.70, 6.09, 7.88, 1.63), IV 32.63 (8.97, 0.71, 9.29, 11.54, 2.12). Male palp ( Figs 23A–DView FIGURE 23): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of cymbial protrusion ( Fig. 23CView FIGURE 23), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 23AView FIGURE 23); bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising prolatero-distally from bulb, slender and curved ( Figs 23C–DView FIGURE 23); conductor arising retrolatero-distally from bulb, distinct wide and distal part gradually narrow ( Fig. 23AView FIGURE 23); embolus and conductor widely separated (the distance almost equal to diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in general features ( Figs 24D–EView FIGURE 24), but larger and darker. Internal genitalia with a pair of spermathecae, coiled, spring-shaped, the distal part swollen ( Fig. 24AView FIGURE 24). Measurements: total length 4.36; carapace 1.38 length, 1.48 width; abdomen 2.50 length, 1.20 width. Leg measurements: I missing, II missing, III missing, IV 16.09 (6.73, 0.56, 6.54, 8.01, 5.45).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected around the entrance zone of a limestone cave.

Althepus thanlaensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 25–26View FIGURE 25View FIGURE 26, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34026), Thailand, Phitsanulok Province, Nakhothai District, Ban Kaset Sut Village, Tham (cave) Than La Cave , 16°54.816'N, 100°43.227'E, 510 m altitude, 17 October 2014GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 male and 2 females, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34027–34029).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all other species by the blade-like conductor ( Figs 25A–DView FIGURE 25) in males, and two pairs of similarly sized spermathecae in females ( Fig. 26AView FIGURE 26).

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.10; carapace 1.44 length, 1.53 width; abdomen 2.30 length, 1.22 width. Carapace rounded ( Fig. 26CView FIGURE 26), yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one wider than the others. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 20 small denticles ( Fig. 31FView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, with patterns of white and brown dorsally and ventrally. Legs brown, femur and tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I 47.75 (10.90, 0.63, 11.54, 21.15, 3.53), II 26.97 (7.05, 0.63, 6.92, 10.13, 2.24), III missing, IV 26.17 (7.37, 0.60, 7.31, 8.97, 1.92). Male palp ( Figs 25A–DView FIGURE 25): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top of cymbial protrusion (one of them missing, Fig. 25AView FIGURE 25), one hooked spine with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 25AView FIGURE 25); bulb yellow, ovate; embolus arising distally from bulb, slender and slightly curved distally; conductor arising distally from bulb, blade-like and increasingly widening; embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 26D–EView FIGURE 26) but larger. Internal genitalia with two pairs of spermathecae, long, curved, distal part swollen ( Fig. 26AView FIGURE 26). Measurements: total length 4.50; carapace 1.36 length, 1.28 width; abdomen 2.78 length, 1.62 width. Leg measurements: I 38.06 (8.65, 0.57, 9.29, 16.34, 3.21), II 21.25 (5.77, 0.54, 5.64, 7.50, 1.80), III missing, IV - (6.03, 0.57, 5.96, 6.54, -).

Variation. Males: carapace 1.42, 1.44 length, 1.50, 1.53 width; femur I: 10.90 (n = 2; leg I lost in one specimen). Prosoma: females 1.36, 1.48 length, 1.28, 1.44 width; femur I: 5.77, 8.65.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the cave wall.

Remark. A. thanlaensis Li et Li sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 173” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus tharnlodensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 27View FIGURE 27, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: female (IZCAS-Ar 34030), Thailand, Phang Nga Province, Tap Pud District, Tham Thong Lang Subdistrict, Tharn Lod Cave , 08°31.138'N, 98 °33.915'E, 116 m altitude, 27 October 2014.GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. The species resembles A. lakmueangensis Li et Li, 2017 (Liu et al. 2017) and A. muangensis Li et Li, 2017 (Liu et al. 2017) in having one pair of spermathecae in females, but can be distinguished by the longer stalks of spermathecae ( Fig. 27AView FIGURE 27), compared with the shorter stalks of spermathecae in A. muangensis, and by the larger, arch-shaped pore plates ( Fig. 27AView FIGURE 27), compared with the smaller pore plates in A. lakmueangensis and A. muangensis in females..

Description. Female (holotype): Total length 3.80; carapace 1.18 length, 1.28 width; abdomen 2.13 length, 0.90 width. Carapace round ( Figs 27C–EView FIGURE 27), yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands of different widths, the middle one wider than the others. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with one tooth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 24 small denticles ( Fig. 31GView FIGURE 31). Labium brown. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, brown, with one longitudinal yellow band and two latitudinal yellow bands dorsally, and two narrow white bands ventrally. Legs brown, femur and tibia with white annulations. Leg measurements: I - (8.61, 0.53, 9.94, 22.44, -), II 22.72 (5.50, 0.50, 5.60, 9.62, 1.50), III 14.33 (4.00, 0.51, 3.75, 4.80, 1.27), IV 19.57 (5.77, 0.50, 5.51, 6.60, 1.19). Female epigyne as in Fig. 27AView FIGURE 27. Internal genitalia with a pair of spermathecae, curved, distal part swollen, each side with a pore plate at its base.

Male: Unknown.

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the cave wall.

Remark. A. tharnlodensis Li et Li sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 360” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

Althepus viengkeoensis Li et Li  sp. nov.

Figs 28–29View FIGURE 28View FIGURE 29, 31–32View FIGURE 31View FIGURE 32

Type material. Holotype: male (IZCAS-Ar 34031), Laos, Vien Tiane Province , Vang Vieng District , North of Vieng Keo Village, Lom Cave, 18°57.458'N, 102°26.245'E, 314 m altitude, 0 2 December 2012GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 1 female, same data as holotype (IZCAS-Ar 34032).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective and refers to the type locality; adjective in genitive case.

Diagnosis. This new species can be easily distinguished from all other species by the depigmented carapace and a sigmoid conductor ( Fig. 28AView FIGURE 28) in males and one pair of duct-like spermathecae in female.

Description. Male (holotype): Total length 4.60; carapace 1.62 length, 1.80 width; abdomen 2.50 length, 1.63 width. Carapace rounded ( Fig 29AView FIGURE 29), light yellow, with three longitudinal brown bands, the middle shortened to form a triangular band around the eyes. Anterior margin of thoracic region distinctly elevated. Clypeus brown. Cheliceral promargin with two teeth, followed by a lamina, retromargin with two small teeth, posterior surface of fang with 22 small denticles ( Fig. 31HView FIGURE 31). Labium brown, with two light, round areas basally. Sternum brown. Abdomen elongate, brown, with a yellow humanoid streak dorsally and two yellow bands ventrally. Legs brown. Leg measurements: I missing, II missing, III - (6.54, -, -, -, -), IV - (8.59, 0.68, 9.68, -, -). Male palp ( Figs 28A–DView FIGURE 28): tarsus with three slightly curved, serrated bristles at the top ( Fig. 28AView FIGURE 28) and one hooked spine slightly bent with tip directed proximally ( Fig. 28AView FIGURE 28); bulb light yellow, ovate; embolus arising retrolatero-distally from bulb, slightly curved distally; conductor arising prolatero-distally from bulb, slightly curved, with distal part curling until it nearly closes ( Figs 28A–BView FIGURE 28); embolus and conductor widely separated (distance less than diameter of bulb).

Female (paratype): Similar to male in color and general features ( Figs 29D–EView FIGURE 29) but larger. Internal genitalia with a pair of spermathecae, slender, transparent ( Fig. 29AView FIGURE 29). Measurements: total length 4.84; carapace 1.50 length, 1.48 width; abdomen 2.60 length, 2.03 width. Leg measurements: I missing, II missing, III 18.22 (5.45, 0.65, 4.50, 6.09, 1.53), IV 24.47 (7.18, 0.67, 7.05, 7.69, 1.88).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality ( Fig. 32View FIGURE 32).

Natural history. Collected on the wall deep in the cave.

Remark. A. viengkeoensis Li et Li sp. nov. was labeled as “sp. 22” in the analysis of Li and Li (2018).

IZCAS

Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences