Pimelodus yuma

Villa-Navarro, Francisco Antonio, Acero, Arturo & Cala, Plutarco Cala, 2017, Taxonomic review of Trans-Andean species of Pimelodus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae), with the descriptions of two new species, Zootaxa 4299 (3), pp. 337-360: 350-354

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4299.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:7838D461-3D2E-4034-8CA1-ECFE7BD58736

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F68789-FF98-FD3E-3AED-FECCDDA0C015

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pimelodus yuma
status

new species

Pimelodus yuma  , new species, Villa-Navarro & Acero P.

Holotype: CZUT-IC 8525, 150.2 mm SL (XR), Colombia, Tolima, Honda , río Magdalena, puerto Caracolí. 05° 14’ 06’’N, 74° 49’ 04’’W, Collector N.P. Molina, 3 Feb 2004, Det. F.A. Villa-Navarro, 23 Ago 2012.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: CZUT-IC 1259 (11, 108.2– 161.9 mm SL), collected with holotypeGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 878 (7, 103.6– 124.2 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Ortega, Tetuán River   ; CZUT-IC 879 (12, 97.2–136.2 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Ortega, Tetúan River   ; CZUT-IC 920 (1, 134.8 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Ortega, Peralonso River   ; CZUT-IC 966 (4, 96.3–114.6 mm SL), Colombia, Huila, Aipe, Inspección de Policia de El Patá, Patá River , 03° 26’ 57’’ N, 75° 11’ 26’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 967 (1, 89.8 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Natagaima, Anchique River , Resguardo Indígena El Guasimal, 03° 34’ 35’’ N, 75° 7’ 13’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 994 (16, 80.7–94.6 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Natagaima, Magdalena River , Paso de la Barca, 03° 22’ 21’’ N, 75° 11’ 18’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1001 (19, 83.7–129.7 mm SL), Colombia, Huila, Aipe, Patá River, Inspección de Policia del Patá , 03° 26’ 57’’ N, 75° 11’ 26’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1336 (8, 127.4– 154.8 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Magdalena River, municipio Honda , 05° 14’ 65’’ N, 74° 44’ 36’’ W  ; CZUT-IC 1640 (2, 91.6–103.1 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Prado, Prado River, at mouth with Magdalena River , 03° 43’ 47’’ N 74° 52’ 08’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1642 (8, 91.6–120.9 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Prado, vereda La Virginia, Prado River, Puerto El Medio , 03° 45’ 09’’ N, 74° 54’ 53’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1784 (2, 154.8– 156.9 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Magdalena River, municipio Honda , 05° 14’ 65’’ N, 74° 44’ 36’’ W  ; CZUT-IC 1872 (3, 87.9– 109.0 mm SL), Colombia, Alvarado, vereda Caldas Viejo, Alvarado River , 04° 37’ 16.8’’ N, 74° 55’ 21.6’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1943 (1, 114.4 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Chaparral, vereda Guaini, Guaini Creek , 03° 40’ 23.7’’ N, 75° 21’ 07.5’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1978 (2, 120.2– 122.1 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Chaparral, vereda San Batolomé de Amoyá, Amoyá River , 03° 39’ 56.2’’ N, 75° 21’ 13.9’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2013 (5, 120.4– 153.1 mm), Colombia, Bolívar, Magangué, Magdalena River, Port of Magangué , 09° 14’ 82’’ N, 75° 45’ 46’’ W  ; CZUT-IC 2016 (8, 128.4– 166.2 mm), Colombia, Bolívar, Magangué, Magdalena River, Port of Magangué , 09° 14’ 82’’ N, 75° 45’ 46’’ W  ; CZUT-IC 2017 (6, 130.5– 187.2 mm), Colombia, Santander, Barrancabermeja, Magdalena River, Port of Barrancabermeja , 07° 04’ 11’’ N, 73° 50’ 48’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2020 (2, 119.0– 120.9 mm), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River, Port of Caracolí , 05° 14’ 06’’ N, 74° 44’ 04’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2106 (7, 121.1– 148.8 mm), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River, Port of Caracolí , 05° 14’ 06’’ N, 74° 44’ 04’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2404 (10, 130.9– 175.7 mm), Colombia, Sucre, San Marcos, San Jorge River 100 m downstream from bridge over San Jorge River  ; CZUT-IC 2450 (14, 88.8–150.6 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Piedras, Magdalena River, Quebrada Toqui- Toqui , 04° 35’ 59’’ N, 74° 49’ 45’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2409 (14, 96.1–172.5 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River, Port of Caracolí , 05° 14’ 06’’ N, 74° 44’ 04’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2516 (19, 98.2–128.5 mm SL), Colombia, Venadillo, Totare River above union with La China River , 04° 37’ 39’’ N, 74° 52’ 51’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 3031 (25, 94.1–120.9 mm SL), Colombia, Ambalema, Vereda Chorrillo- Cuatro esquinas, Lagunillas River mouth of Magdalena River , 04° 50’ 42’’ N, 74° 46’ 10’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 3832 (5, 95.8–98.8 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, vereda Perico, Guarinó River mouth of Magdalena River , 05° 17’ 12.9’’ N, 74° 44’ 06.7’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 3909 (3, 104.5– 112.1 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Piedras, Opia River, Charco Redondo , 04° 30’ 01.3’’ N, 74° 44’ 54’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 5740 (3, 88.9–94.6 mm SL), Colombia, Cundinamarca, Girardot, Bogotá River, mouth of Magdalena River , 04° 17’ 19.7’’ N, 74° 47’ 45.3’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 5742 (1, 108.1 mm SL), Colombia, Cundinamarca, Arbelaez, Negro River , 04° 15’ 24.3’’ N, 74° 28’ 07.8’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 5783 (1, 85.4 mm SL), Colombia, Cundinamarca, Pandi, Negro River , 04° 14’ 25.5’’ N, 74° 31’ 06.2’’ WGoogleMaps  ; IAvH-P 7852 (3, 148.0– 162.2 mm SL), Colombia, Córdoba, Sinú River (mouth)  ; IAvH-P 8216 (53, 87.1–115.4 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River   ; IAvH-P 8217 (39, 89.6–129.4 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River   ; IAvH-P 8218 (76, 82.7–118.0 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River   ; ICNMHN 11543 (17, 88.4–129.2 mm SL), Colombia, Caldas, La Dorada, Corregimiento de La Victoria, Guarinó River at bridge on Honda – La Dorada road  ; ICNMHN 11733 (3, 105.4– 114.5 mm SL), Colombia, Caldas, La Dorada, Corregimiento de La Victoria, Guarinó River at bridge on Honda – La Dorada road  ; IMCN 3019 (1, 137.7 mm), Colombia, Córdoba, Manso River, tributary of Sinú River   ; IMCN 3465 (2, 78.4–93.2 mm), Colombia, Huila, Aipe, Magdalena River, Paso de la Barca, right bank, downstream, above mouth with Patá River , 03° 26’ 57’’ N 75° 11’ 26’’ WGoogleMaps  ; IMCN 3774 (9, 122.5– 140.6 mm), Colombia, Tolima, Honda, Magdalena River, Port of Caracolí , 05° 14’ 06’’ N 74° 44’ 04’’ WGoogleMaps  ; AMNH 5351 (6, 114.2– 208.1 mm SL); ANSP 139211View Materials (3, 163.6– 179.2 mm SL), Colombia, Caldas, small tributary of La Miel River 6.8 km (by road) dowstream from San Miguel  ; FMNH 10243View Materials (3, 114.8– 137.4 mm SL), Colombia, Apulo, Rio Magdalena  ; FMNH 57680View Materials (17, 41.1–154.3 mm SL), Colombia, Peñas Blancas  ; FMNH 57683View Materials (4, 198.7– 204.8 mm SL), Colombia, below Buenavista  ; FMNH 57684View Materials (5, 121.4– 150.4 mm SL), Colombia, Apulo  ; FMNH 57685View Materials (5, 196.3– 210.8 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Honda  ; FMNH 57686View Materials (5, 184.9– 213.8 mm SL), Colombia, Girardot  ; FMNH 57689View Materials (3, 225.4– 242.7 mm SL), Colombia, Rio Sucio   ; USNM 100766 (1, 117.9 mm SL), Colombia, río Saldaña   ; USNM 116456View Materials (3, 56.1–103.6 mm SL), Colombia, Honda, río Magdalena  ; USNM 76925View Materials (8, 102.3– 182.2 mm SL), Colombia, Apulo. 

Non type material: CZUT-IC 608 (1, 85.3 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Coello, Coello River at mouth with Magdalena River , 04° 17’ 32’’ N, 74° 53’ 05’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CAUT-IC 610 (1, 102.6 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Coello, Coello River drainage, Gualanday Creek , 04° 18’ 17’’ N, 75° 02’ 01’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 1641 (1, 83.5 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Prado, vereda La Virginia, Prado River at mouth with Magdalena River , 03° 43’ 47’’ N, 74° 52’ 08’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2404 (10, 130.9– 175.7 mm), Colombia, Sucre, San Marcos, San Jorge River 100 m downstream from bridge over San Jorge River  ; CZUT-IC 2405 (10, 112.2–181.0 mm SL), Colombia, Córdoba, Montería, Sinú River ,  ; CZUT-IC 2474 (14, 103.9– 133.4 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Piedras, vereda Los Pozos, Magdalena River drainage, Toqui-Toqui Creek , 04° 35’ 59’’ N, 74° 49’ 45’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2493 (1, 118.9 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Alvarado, vereda Caldas Viejo, Alvarado River drainage, La Caima Creek , 04° 35’ 57’’ N, 74° 56’ 28’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT- IC 2709 (8, 95.3–132.2 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Piedras, vereda Los Pozos, Magdalena River drainage, Toqui- Toqui Creek , 04° 35’ 59’’ N, 74° 49’ 45’’ WGoogleMaps  ; CZUT-IC 2752 (3, 114.2– 124.8 mm SL), Colombia, Tolima, Alvarado, Chipalo River, under bridge on Alvarado-Piedras road, 04° 33’ 09’’ N, 74° 55’ 14’’ WGoogleMaps  ; USNM 175297View Materials (1, 129.1 mm SL), Colombia, Lorica, río Sinú.  

Diagnosis. Pimelodus yuma  can be diagnosed from all other trans-Andean species of Pimelodus  , except Pimelodus crypticus  n. sp., by its uniform color pattern, without spots or stripes on the body, fins, dorsal surface of the head and supraoccipital process; it differs from P. crypticus  n. sp. in having a shorter preventral distance (42.1– 47.0% SL vs. 47.7–53.2% SL); it differs from P. blochii  in having a greater interorbital width (36.2–42.8% HL vs. 27.3–31.7% HL); it differs from P. coprophagus  by a shorter predorsal distance (34.9–38.9% SL vs. 39.0–42.7% SL). Additionally, it differs from P. punctatus  and P. navarroi  by a narrower mouth (27.1–34.9% HL vs. 36.0– 44.7% HL); it differs from P. crypticus  and P. grosskopfii  by a shorter adipose fin (16.4–20.3% SL vs. 23.4–28.2% SL) ( Fig. 13View FIGURE 13) and greater dorsal –adipose distance (16.6–22.5% SL vs. 9.2–14.5% SL).

Description. N=144. Morphometric data presented in Table 2. Body deeper than wide; roof of cranium ornamented with small (but visible) smooth granules. Eye diameter less than interorbital width. Snout slightly convex, projected beyond mandibular symphysis. Mouth subterminal, when closed, less than half of premaxillary tooth patch exposed; those teeth conical, small and narrow. Fontanel open from mesethmoids to frontals, ending at vertical through center of eye. Maxillary barbels reaching up to base of middle caudal-fin rays; inner mental barbels reaching tips of internal pectoral-fin rays, outer mental barbels reaching pelvic-fin bases.

Dorsal fin lepidotrichia II,6; the first a spinelet narrow and sharp, spine strong, slightly curved and sharply pointed. Adipose fin short, its margin triangular with apex at vertical through base of first or second branched analfin ray. Pectoral fin I,9–10; spine strong, sharply pointed, forming slight arc. Pelvic fins i,5; with first branched ray longest, inserted at vertical through base of last dorsal-fin ray. Anal fin iv –v,9–10; first branched ray longest. Caudal fin i,15,i; forked, lobes pointed, dorsal lobe slightly longer than ventral.

Lateral line complete, extending beyond base of caudal fin for half the length of middle caudal-fin rays. Cleithral process extensive, strong, triangular, posterodorsal margin slightly concave, ventral margin convex. Apparently without sexual dimorphism.

Color in alcohol. ( Fig. 12View FIGURE 12) Body tan, head and dorsum slightly darker; some specimens silvery. Lateral line without any color or stripe to highlight it, ventral region lighter tan or whitish. No spots or stripes. Base of dorsal spine dark. All fins yellow, lighter distally; ventral caudal-fin lobe without diffuse dark band. Upper margin of adipose fin hyaline; dorsal surface of maxillary barbels tan.

Distribution. Magdalena River and tributaries, lower part of Cauca River, and Sinu River ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Etymology. Yuma is a noun in apposition and refers to the name given by the indigenous people to the Magdalena river.

Remarks. To clear up the taxonomic confusion concerning Pimelodus blochii  , it is necessary to begin with a consideration of the description of Silurus clarias  by Linné (1758) to determine if the description pertained to specimens from the Americas or from Africa. Although in the description the meristic variation of the specimens examined is explicit, in the last paragraph there is a reference to an African species (Hasselqv. iter. 369. Silurus Scheilan  niloticus. pag. 306), which clarifies why its habitat included America and rivers of Africa (Habitat in Americae, Africae fluviis, pag. 306).

When Bloch (1782) described Silurus clarias  he synonomized Silurus clarias Linné, 1758  , although the meristics did not coincide (B 6; D I,8; P I,11; V 7; A 11; C 18 vs. B 9; D I,7; P I,10; V 7; A 11; C 17) (pl. 35, fig. 1 & 2) and he restricted the habitat to South America and the Nile (Habitat in fluviis Americae australis et Nilo) ( Bloch & Schneider, 1801; pag. 379). Later, Lacépède (1803) when including Pimelodus clarias  , mentioned it as “ Le pimélode scheilan”, in the first subgenus of Pimelodus  he assumed that it was the same species described by Linné (1758) and he limits the species to rivers of Brasil and Surinam, but absent from the Nile (“ On pêche le scheilan dans le eaux douces du Brésil et dans celles de Surinam; mais on le trouve aussi dans le Nil. ”, pag. 100). However, it is clear that the species mentioned as “ Le pimélode scheilan” is Silurus Scheilan  niloticus of Linné (1758) which comes from African rivers.

When Valenciennes (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840) described Pimelodus Blochii  n. (sic), he makes it clear that this species is that illustrated by Bloch (1785) in plate XXXV, fig. 1 and 2, and that it is not the Silurus clarias  of Hasselquist (which is Synodontis clarias  ); or the “schal scheilan” of Lacépède (which is Silurus Scheilan  niloticus); nor that of Gronovius No. 83 that Linné had associated (which is the “pimélode de Seba”); being then a species name attributed to Bloch. Its meristic description (B 8; D I,6; A 13, the first three hidden in the margin; C 17 and several small ones; P I,9; V 6) differentiate it from the species of Linné (1758) and Bloch (1785), as does its habitat which was limited to equatorial America, particularly Guyana, because his samples came from Cayenne or from Suriname but not from Colombia and, for this reason, is not found in the Nile or other rivers of Africa, nor in the trans-Andean drainages of South America, a position supported in the omission of Colombia by Bloch when giving the range of the species.

In spite of the mentioned situation, Eigenmann & Eigenmann (1890: 171–172) considered that Bloch restricted the epithet to the American form, accepted the binomen Pimelodus clarias (Bloch, 1785)  as valid, and considered as synonyms: Silurus clarias Bloch, 1785  ; Pimelodus clarias Lacépède, 1803  (Crixas, Arguay, Ucayale, Amazonas, Magdalena River, Orinoco River, Mamoní River, Huallaga River); Bagre (Ariodes) clarias Müller & Troschel, 1848  (Guyana Waina Barima); Ariodes clarias Müller & Troschel, 1849  (Guyana); Pseudariodes clarias Bleeker, 1863  (Guyana); Silurus callarias Bloch & Schneider, 1801  ; Pimelodus maculatus Lacépède, 1801  (Plata River, Lake Maracaibo, Cayenne, Maracaibo, rivers of Guyana, Negro River, Amazonas, La Plata, Montevideo, das Velhas River, San Francisco River, Amazon River between Pará and Santarem, Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Calabozo); Pimelodus rigidus Spix, 1829  ; Pimelodus blochii Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1840  (Cayenne, Surinam); Piramutana blochii Günther, 1864  (Calderon); Pimelodus arekaima Schomburgk, 1841  (Essequibo); Mystus ascita Gronow  ; Pseudorhamdia ascita Bleeker, 1862  ; Pimelodus macronema Bleeker, 1864  (Surinam); Pseudariodes albicans Lütken, 1878  (La Plata River and its tributaries); Pseudariodes pantherinus Lütken, 1874  (Venezuela); Pseudorhamdia piscatrix Cope, 1870  (Pebas, Ambyiacu River, Peruvian Amazon); and Piramutana macrospila Günther, 1880  (Plata River).

Eigenmann’s expansion of the concept of this species complicated the taxonomy even more because it included specimens with great morphological variety and dissimilar morphometric and coloration characteristics such as Pimelodus maculatus  , the type species of the genus. At the same time, this explains the apparently extensive geographic distribution of Pimelodus clarias (Bloch, 1785)  from Argentina (Río de La Plata) to trans- Andean Colombia (Río Magdalena) ( Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1891; pag. 29). Finally, Mees (1974) accepted the arguments of Valenciennes, where it is clearly established that the specific epithet “ clarias  ” is not applicable to the species of Pimelodus  because it is an incorrect application of Silurus clarias Hasselquist  and as such Pimelodus blochii Valenciennes, 1840  is the name applicable to the species described from Surinam.

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History