Jałoszyński, Paweł, 2014, ' The curse of Horaeomorphus ': taxonomy of misplaced Australian Cyrtoscydmini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae), Zootaxa 3828 (1), pp. 1-76: 65-71

publication ID

publication LSID

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name



Sciacharis  ( Maorinus Franz  )

Maorinus Franz, 1980 a: 291  ; replacement name for preoccupied Maoria Franz  ; elevated to the genus rank by Kuschel (1990); reduced to subgenus of Sciacharis Broun  by Jałoszyński (2014 b).

Maoria Franz, 1975: 14  ; as subgenus of Euconnus  , preoccupied, nec Laporte, 1868, nec Pilsbry, 1892, nec Warren, 1912, nec Cameron, 1945. Type species: Phagonophana alacer Broun, 1915  (des. orig.).

Sciacharis  and its subgenus Maorinus  were recently redefined and details of their morphological structures, including diagnostic features, were illustrated ( Jałoszyński 2014 b). One of Australian species described in Horaeomorphus  , H. tasmaniensis  , was found to belong to Maorinus  . Maorinus  differs from Sciacharis  s. str. in the internal (adcoxal) part of prothoracic hypomeron anteriorly demarcated from prosternum and posteriorly confluent with the external part of hypomeron; in the mesoventral intercoxal process continuous, not interrupted in middle and clearly separating mesocoxae; and in the distinctly thickened maxillary palpomere III. Moreover, the general appearance of Maorinus  is different from Sciacharis  s. str. and some species may resemble various subgenera of Euconnus  rather than Sciacharis fulva Broun, 1893 a  , the type species of Sciacharis  . This is because of the elongate head and usually strongly convex and darkly pigmented body, and not short, subtrapezoidal head and flattened, light brown body as that found in Sciacharis  s. str. Sufficient number of non-type specimens of Horaeomorphus tasmaniensis  available during this study made it possible to overcome limitations of studying the whole-body temporary transparent mounts (a method used previously (Jałoszyński 2014 b)) and to add new details to the redescription of Maorinus  based on the scanning electron microscopy and disarticulated specimens.

Redescription. Body ( Figs. 185–186View FIGURES 185 – 188) moderately large (in studied specimens about 2.2–2.5 mm of BL), strongly convex, moderately slender, with long appendages, pigmentation brown, cuticle setose.

Head ( Figs. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177, 185– 186View FIGURES 185 – 188) elongate, with occipital constriction ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; occ) much narrower than vertex and dividing the head capsule into exposed anterior part and narrow posterior 'neck region' retracted into prothorax; eyes moderately large and nearly circular but strongly protruding from head silhouette, located in anterior part of head; tempora long and strongly curved posteromesally, with dense bristles; vertex transverse, convex, slightly projecting dorsocaudad, with posterior margin convex and densely covered with bristles; frons confluent with vertex, transverse and subtrapezoidal, its anterior portion steeply but not abruptly lowering toward labrum; frontoclypeal groove absent; antennal insertions broadly separated, located beneath distinctly raised supraantennal tubercles.

Labrum ( Fig. 175View FIGURES 174 – 177) transverse with rounded lateral margins and shallow median emargination in anterior margin bordered at each side by angulate projection, with six long and pointed anteroventral (anterior epipharyngeal) sensilla and short fine trichia projecting from beneath anterior margin; dorsal setae sparse and long. Mandibles symmetrical, subtriangular, each with broader than long basal portion and one small subapical tooth ( Fig. 176View FIGURES 174 – 177; sat); prostheca ( Fig. 176View FIGURES 174 – 177; pst) present, dorsomesal, expanding far onto dorsal surface of mandible and reaching mandibular base. Each maxilla composed of small cardo ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; cd) bearing two setae; subtriangular basistipes ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; bst); elongate mediostipes ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; mst); elongate galea ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; gal) and lacinia ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; lac); large, elongate palpifer ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; pfp); and strongly elongate and moderately large maxillary palp ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; mxp) composed of elongate palpomere I ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; mxp 1), strongly elongate, slightly clavate and slender palpomere II ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; mxp 2), large and moderately elongate, distinctly thickened palpomere III ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; mxp 3) broadest nearly in middle, and small, slender, subconical and pointed palpomere IV ( Fig. 177View FIGURES 174 – 177; mxp 4). Labium with large submentum ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; smn) not demarcated laterally from postcardinal parts of hypostomae; subtrapezoidal mentum ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; mn); and moderately long prementum bearing narrowly separated at bases long 3 -segmented labial palps ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; lp) and a pair of long bristles on small inversely subtriangular ligula ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; lg). Hypostomal ridges ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; hr) sharply marked and extending to near middle between anterior margin of submentum and posterior tentorial pits but not connecting in middle.

Gular plate ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; gp) large and subtrapezoidal, with rapidly narrowed anterior part distinctly demarcated laterally by longitudinal grooves; gular sutures ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; gs) superficial; posterior tentorial pits ( Fig. 174View FIGURES 174 – 177; ptp) narrow and slightly arcuate, located clearly in front of transverse impression ventrally demarcating 'neck region'.

Antennae ( Figs. 185–186View FIGURES 185 – 188) moderately long and slender, gradually and distinctly thickening distally; antennomere XI unremarkable.

Prothorax ( Figs. 178–179View FIGURES 178 – 180, 185– 186View FIGURES 185 – 188) in dorsal view strongly elongate, broadest near anterior third, with slightly concave anterior margin; anterior corners relatively distinct, strongly obtuse and blunt; anterior parts of lateral margins rounded; posterior corners blunt but distinct, nearly right; posterior margin deeply bisinuate. Pronotum with distinct sublateral carinae ( Fig. 179View FIGURES 178 – 180; slc), without antebasal transverse groove, with two pairs of large internal and lateral pits ( Fig. 179View FIGURES 178 – 180; ip, lp) and indistinct median longitudinal wrinkle or carina ( Fig. 179View FIGURES 178 – 180; mc). Sides of pronotum with thick and dense bristles ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180) well visible in dorsal view.

Prosternum with short basisternal part ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180; bst) distinctly demarcated from procoxal cavities ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180; pcc); median part of sternum with narrow intercoxal carina; procoxal sockets ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180; pcs) closed by posterolateral lobes of prosternum; hypomera ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180; hy) elongate, each divided into broad lateral part confluent with pronotum and narrower internal (adcoxal) part; hypomeral ridges ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180; hyr) incomplete, marked only in posterior portion of internal part of each hypomeron; pronotosternal sutures ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 178 – 180; nss) entire.

Mesocutellum ( Fig. 180View FIGURES 178 – 180; scl 2) subtriangular, in intact specimens hidden by posterior margin of pronotum overlapping with elytral base; mesoscutoscutellar suture ( Fig. 180View FIGURES 178 – 180; sss) present.

Mesoventrite with narrow and distinctly demarcated anterior ridge ( Fig. 181View FIGURES 181 – 184; ar); mesoventral process ( Fig. 181View FIGURES 181 – 184; msvp) carinate and moderately expanding ventrally, anteriorly connected with anterior ridge and reaching posterior margins of mesocoxal cavities, so that mesocoxae are clearly separated; sides of mesoventrite with shallow procoxal rests ( Fig. 181View FIGURES 181 – 184; pcr) filled with bristles (= setose impressions) but without asetose impressions; mesanepisternum with moderately long prepectus ( Fig. 181View FIGURES 181 – 184; pre), sides of mesoventrite with narrow and deep setose ventrolateral and dorsolateral foveae ( Fig. 183View FIGURES 181 – 184; vlf, dlf); mesocoxal projections ( Fig. 181View FIGURES 181 – 184; mcp) prominent, with mesocoxal sockets located on their mesal surface and in ventral view only partly visible.

Metaventrite ( Figs. 182–183View FIGURES 181 – 184; v 3) subrectangular, anteriorly fused with mesoventrite, posteriorly shallowly bisinuate with broadly subtriangular and metaventral intercoxal process ( Fig. 184View FIGURES 181 – 184; mtvp) with short median notch; metacoxae ( Fig. 183View FIGURES 181 – 184; cx 3) nearly contiguous; anterior metaventral process absent. Metanepisterna and metepimera narrow.

Metafurca with long stalk and divergent lateral furcal arms ( Fig. 183View FIGURES 181 – 184; lmfa).

Elytra ( Figs. 180View FIGURES 178 – 180, 185– 186View FIGURES 185 – 188) oval, each with two distinct and deep asetose basal foveae ( Fig. 180View FIGURES 178 – 180; bef) not connected by groove; humeral denticles and subhumeral lines absent.

Hind wings well-developed, about twice as long as elytra.

Legs ( Figs. 185–186View FIGURES 185 – 188) long and slender; procoxae subglobose, mesocoxae oval, metacoxae strongly transverse; all trochanters short; all femora moderately strongly clavate; tibiae and tarsi long and slender.

Aedeagus ( Figs. 189–192View FIGURES 189 – 192) elongate and lightly sclerotized, thin-walled, with symmetrical median lobe and symmetrical internal armature; parameres free and slender, with apical setae.

Spermatheca ( Fig. 183View FIGURES 181 – 184; sp) large and globular, located deeply in metathorax.

Composition and distribution. Sciacharis  ( Maorinus  ) currently includes 46 species ( Jałoszyński 2014 b), only five of them occur in Australia (four only in Tasmania), while the rest inhabits New Zealand. However, these numbers are valid combinations under Sciacharis  ( Maorinus  ), while most of these species were assigned to Maorinus  (originally to Euconnus  ( Maoria  )) apparently without examination of important ventral characters and their generic status requires verification. Moreover, Kuschel (1990) synonimized two pairs of names of New Zealand Maorinus  (as Euconnus  ) without giving any reasons for doing so ( Jałoszyński 2014 b) and these decisions require verification.

Remarks. One deviation from the body plan described previously ( Jałoszyński 2014 b) was found in the species studied during the present work. The mesoventrite of Sciacharis (Maorinus) alacer ( Broun, 1915)  , the type species of Maorinus  , and that of Maorinus  sp. illustrated in Jałoszyński (2014 b; Fig. 21View FIGURES 18 – 21; species highly similar to M. alacer  and misidentified as such by Franz) has only the ventrolateral foveae, while in Sciacharis (Maorinus) tasmaniensis  comb. n. there are two distinct pairs of foveae ( Fig. 183View FIGURES 181 – 184). All other characters do not differ. The presence vs. absence of the dorsolateral foveae does not seem a sufficient criterion to place this species in a separate genus or subgenus. The character variability within Sciacharis  and its subgenera is too poorly known to propose conclusive solutions other than used here, i.e. placing Horaeomorphus tasmaniensis  in Sciacharis  ( Maorinus  ). Other Australian species of Maorinus  (not misplaced in Horaeomorphus  ) will be revised in a separate paper (Jałoszyński, in preparation).













Jałoszyński, Paweł 2014


Franz 1980: 291


Franz 1975: 14