Sciacharoides , Jałoszyński, Paweł, 2014

Jałoszyński, Paweł, 2014, ' The curse of Horaeomorphus ': taxonomy of misplaced Australian Cyrtoscydmini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae), Zootaxa 3828 (1), pp. 1-76: 50-53

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3828.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B2FEAE60-7E51-45FA-A38F-930A084A5AAA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F68791-FFE6-183E-8FFE-3BAB0063FA9A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sciacharoides
status

gen. n.

Sciacharoides  gen. n.

Type species: Horaeomorphus thompsoni Franz, 1975: 145  (here designated).

Diagnosis. Body ( Figs. 160–163View FIGURES 160 – 167) stout to moderately elongate, moderately to strongly convex; head short and convex; vertex not projecting dorsocaudad, its posterior margin slightly convex, nearly straight or slightly concave; supraantennal tubercles from barely discernible to feebly raised, not accompanied posteromesally by pits; frontoclypeal groove absent; eyes located in anterior or median part of head; tempora long and strongly curved toward occipital constriction; tempora, genae and postgenae with moderately dense bristles; 'neck region' distinctly demarcated from anterior part of head capsule by constriction and much narrower than vertex; hypostomal ridges ( Fig. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133; hr) sharply marked just behind cardines and variously long, extending at least to middle between anterior margin of submentum and posterior tentorial pits or farther up to posterior tentorial pits, not connected in middle; posterior tentorial pits ( Fig. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133; ptp) elongate and located distinctly in front of transverse groove demarcating 'neck' ventrally; submentum ( Fig. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133; smn) without lateral sutures; each mandible subtriangular, with variously developed subapical tooth, from rudimentary ( Fig. 132View FIGURES 129 – 133, 151View FIGURES 148 – 152) to distinct ( Fig. 142View FIGURES 141 – 144; sat) but always small, and with densely setose mesal prostheca ( Fig. 132View FIGURES 129 – 133; pst); maxillary palpomeres III and IV ( Fig. 133View FIGURES 129 – 133; mxp 3–4) slender, strongly elongate; pronotum with various antebasal sculpture ( Figs. 135View FIGURES 134 – 136, 145View FIGURES 145 – 147, 154View FIGURES 153 – 155) composed of pits or/and transverse groove, without sublateral carinae and lateral edges; prosternum laterally demarcated from hypomera by pronotosternal sutures ( Fig. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136; nss), in middle between procoxal cavities ( Fig. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136; pcc) variously distinctly raised and forming low and elongate intercoxal carina; procoxal sockets ( Fig. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136; pcs) closed by posterolateral lobes of prosternum; prothoracic hypomera ( Fig. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136; hy) with large internal (adcoxal) parts demarcated from sides of pronotum by hypomeral ridges that can be nearly complete ( Fig. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136; hyr) or indistinct in median ( Fig. 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; hyr) or median and posterior portion ( Fig. 146View FIGURES 145 – 147; hyr); sides of pronotum with variously dense thick bristles ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155) well visible in dorsal view; mesoventrite with short anterior ridge ( Fig. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140; ar) medially connected with mesoventral process ( Fig. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140; msvp) which is narrow and weakly expanding ventrally and reaching only to anterior margin of mesocoxal cavities, so that mesocoxae are not separated; ventrolateral mesothoracic foveae ( Fig. 139View FIGURES 137 – 140; vlf) present, dorsolateral foveae absent; anterior metaventral process absent; metaventral intercoxal process ( Fig. 140View FIGURES 137 – 140; mtvp) broadly subtriangular, without median notch; metacoxae ( Fig. 138View FIGURES 137 – 140; cx 3) contiguous or nearly contiguous; each elytron ( Fig. 136View FIGURES 134 – 136; bef) with two asetose rudiments of basal foveae not connected by groove and barely discernible or not discernible in dry-mounted specimens; aedeagus ( Figs. 168–173View FIGURES 168 – 173) with free and slender parameres.

Description. Body ( Figs. 160–163View FIGURES 160 – 167) moderately large (BL 1.45–1.85 mm), relatively stout, with long appendages, pigmentation brown, cuticle setose.

Head ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152) with occipital constriction ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; occ) much narrower than vertex and dividing head capsule into exposed anterior part and narrow posterior 'neck region' retracted into prothorax; eyes located in anterior part of head or nearly in middle, oval or kidney-shaped, weakly protruding from the head silhouette; tempora long and strongly curved posteromesally, with sparse bristles; vertex transverse, uniformly convex, not projecting dorso-caudad, with posterior margin nearly straight or slightly concave; frons confluent with vertex, transverse and subtrapezoidal; frontoclypeal groove absent; antennal insertions broadly separated, located beneath distinct but weakly raised supraantennal tubercles.

Labrum ( Figs. 131View FIGURES 129 – 133, 142View FIGURES 141 – 144, 150View FIGURES 148 – 152) transverse, subtrapezoidal ( Fig. 131View FIGURES 129 – 133), subrectangular ( Fig. 142View FIGURES 141 – 144) or semioval ( Fig. 150View FIGURES 148 – 152), with straight or slightly emarginate anterior margin, with short and dense lateral groups of anteroventral setae ( Fig. 131View FIGURES 129 – 133), or long and dense anterior setae ( Fig. 142View FIGURES 141 – 144), or six pairs of thick and pointed anteroventral sensilla ( Fig. 150View FIGURES 148 – 152) projecting from beneath anterior margin, and with small number of long dorsal setae. Mandibles ( Figs. 132View FIGURES 129 – 133, 143View FIGURES 141 – 144, 151View FIGURES 148 – 152) symmetrical, subtriangular, each with broad base and one variously distinct subapical tooth, from rudimentary ( Figs. 132View FIGURES 129 – 133, 151View FIGURES 148 – 152) to small but distinct ( Fig. 143View FIGURES 141 – 144); setose prostheca ( Figs. 132View FIGURES 129 – 133, 143View FIGURES 141 – 144, 151View FIGURES 148 – 152; pst) present, mesal, not expanding onto dorsal surface of mandible and reaching mandibular base. Each maxilla composed of small cardo ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; cd) bearing two setae; subtriangular basistipes ( Figs. 133View FIGURES 129 – 133, 144View FIGURES 141 – 144, 152View FIGURES 148 – 152; bst); elongate mediostipes ( Figs. 133View FIGURES 129 – 133, 144View FIGURES 141 – 144, 152View FIGURES 148 – 152; mst); elongate galea ( Figs. 133View FIGURES 129 – 133, 144View FIGURES 141 – 144, 152View FIGURES 148 – 152; gal) and lacinia ( Figs. 133View FIGURES 129 – 133, 144View FIGURES 141 – 144, 152View FIGURES 148 – 152; lac); large, elongate palpifer ( Figs. 133View FIGURES 129 – 133, 144View FIGURES 141 – 144, 152View FIGURES 148 – 152; pfp); and strongly elongate and moderately large maxillary palp ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; mxp) composed of elongate palpomere I ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; mxp 1), strongly elongate, slightly clavate and slender palpomere II ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; mxp 2), large and strongly elongate, slender palpomere III ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; mxp 3) broadest near middle or in distal third, and small, slender, subconical and pointed palpomere IV ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; mxp 4). Labium ( Figs. 129–130View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148– 149View FIGURES 148 – 152) with large submentum ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; smn) not demarcated laterally from postcardinal parts of hypostomae; subtrapezoidal mentum ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148– 149View FIGURES 148 – 152; mn); and short prementum ( Fig. 141View FIGURES 141 – 144; pmn) bearing narrowly separated at bases long 3 - segmented labial palps ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; lp) and a pair of long lateral bristles inserted on small subrectangular or inversely subtriangular ligula ( Figs. 130View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 149View FIGURES 148 – 152; lg); additionally ligula with 2–4 short setae in middle. Hypostomal ridges ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; hr) sharply marked, extending to middle of distance between anterior margin of submentum and posterior tentorial pits ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 149View FIGURES 148 – 152) or farther ( Fig. 141View FIGURES 141 – 144) nearly up to posterior tentorial pits, but not connecting in middle.

Gular plate ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; gp) large and subtrapezoidal, with rapidly narrowed anterior part (between transverse impression in front of 'neck region' and posterior tentorial pits; lateral margins of this anterior part of gular plat are not marked); gular sutures ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; gs) superficial; posterior tentorial pits ( Figs. 129View FIGURES 129 – 133, 141View FIGURES 141 – 144, 148View FIGURES 148 – 152; ptp) narrow and straight or slightly arcuate, located clearly in front of transverse impression ventrally demarcating 'neck region'.

Antennae ( Figs. 160–163View FIGURES 160 – 167) moderately long and slender, gradually and only slightly thickening distally or with indistinct club composed of five terminal antennomeres; antennomere XI unremarkable.

Prothorax ( Figs. 134–135View FIGURES 134 – 136, 145– 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153– 154View FIGURES 153 – 155, 160– 163View FIGURES 160 – 167) in dorsal view slightly to strongly elongate and broadest near anterior third, with rounded anterior margin and anterior parts of lateral margins, with barely marked, blunt and strongly obtuse anterior corners; posterior corners distinct, obtuse; posterior margin nearly evenly arcuate or shallowly bisinuate. Pronotum without sublateral carinae, with transverse groove ( Figs. 135View FIGURES 134 – 136, 145View FIGURES 145 – 147, 154View FIGURES 153 – 155; tg), in some species accompanied by internal and lateral pair of pits ( Fig. 135View FIGURES 134 – 136; ip, lp) or interrupted in middle ( Fig. 135View FIGURES 134 – 136). Sides of pronotum with thick and sparse bristles ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155).

Prosternum with short basisternal part ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; bst) distinctly demarcated from procoxal cavities ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; pcc); median part of sternum with narrow and variously distinct prosternal intercoxal carina; procoxal sockets ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; pcs) closed by posterolateral lobes of prosternum; hypomera ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; hy) elongate, each divided into broad lateral part confluent with pronotum and narrower internal (adcoxal) part; hypomeral ridges ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; hyr) weakly marked in median and/or posterior portion; pronotosternal sutures ( Figs. 134View FIGURES 134 – 136, 146View FIGURES 145 – 147, 153View FIGURES 153 – 155; nss) entire.

Mesoscutellum ( Fig. 155View FIGURES 153 – 155; scl 2) subtriangular, in intact specimens hidden by posterior margin of pronotum overlapping with elytral base; mesoscutoscutellar suture ( Fig. 155View FIGURES 153 – 155; sss) present.

Mesoventrite with narrow and distinctly demarcated anterior ridge ( Figs. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 156View FIGURES 156 – 159; ar); mesoventral process ( Figs. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 156View FIGURES 156 – 159; msvp) carinate and moderately expanding ventrally, anteriorly connected with anterior ridge and not reaching anterior margins of mesocoxal cavities, so that mesocoxae are not separated; sides of mesoventrite with shallow procoxal rests ( Figs. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 156View FIGURES 156 – 159; pcr) filled with bristles (= setose impressions) but without asetose impressions; mesanepisternum with short prepectus ( Figs. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 156View FIGURES 156 – 159; pre), sides of mesoventrite with narrow but deep setose ventrolateral foveae ( Figs. 139View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 158View FIGURES 156 – 159; vlf, dlf); dorsolateral foveae absent; mesocoxal projections ( Figs. 137View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 156View FIGURES 156 – 159; mcp) prominent, with mesocoxal sockets located on their mesoventral surface and visible in ventral view. In one species mesanepisterna each with thick and long bunch of dense setae ( Fig. 147View FIGURES 145 – 147; seb), under stereoscopic microscope appearing as solid projection ( Fig. 162View FIGURES 160 – 167).

Metaventrite ( Figs. 138–139View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 157– 158View FIGURES 156 – 159; v 3) subrectangular, anteriorly fused with mesoventrite, posteriorly nearly straight with broadly subtriangular and rounded metaventral intercoxal process ( Figs. 140View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 159View FIGURES 156 – 159; mtvp) without median notch; anterior metaventral process absent. Metanepisterna and metepimera narrow.

Metafurca with short stalk and divergent lateral furcal arms ( Figs. 139View FIGURES 137 – 140, 147View FIGURES 145 – 147, 158View FIGURES 156 – 159; lmfa).

Elytra ( Figs. 136View FIGURES 134 – 136, 155View FIGURES 153 – 155, 160– 163View FIGURES 160 – 167) oval, each with two rudiments of asetose basal foveae ( Figs. 136View FIGURES 134 – 136, 155View FIGURES 153 – 155; bef) not connected by groove; humeral denticles and subhumeral lines absent.

Hind wings well-developed, about twice as long as elytra.

Legs ( Figs. 160–163View FIGURES 160 – 167) long and slender; procoxae subglobose, mesocoxae oval, metacoxae strongly transverse; all trochanters short; all femora moderately strongly clavate; tibiae and tarsi long and slender.

Aedeagus ( Figs. 168–173View FIGURES 168 – 173) elongate and lightly sclerotized, thin-walled, with symmetrical median lobe and symmetrical assemblage of internal sclerites containing H-shaped subapical median structures and often with bunches of long hair-like structures on surface of internal sac; parameres free and slender, with apical setae.

Etymology. The name Sciacharoides  is derived from Sciacharis  , to underline similarities between these taxa. Gender masculine.

Composition and distribution. Four species of Sciacharoides  are known from the easternmost part of Australia (Queensland and New South Wales) ( Fig. 197View FIGURES 193 – 198). The genus may be broader distributed, but some species might have been misplaced in other genera, e.g. Sciacharis  or Euconnus  .

Remarks. Sciacharoides  differs from Sciacharis  in the following characters: the sublateral pronotal carinae absent (present in Sciacharis  ); the mesoventral process developed only in front of mesocoxal cavities (extending between mesocoxal cavities in Sciacharis  ) and in consequence the mesocoxae not separated (clearly separated by mesoventral intercoxal process in Sciacharis  ); and the basal elytral foveae rudimentary (well-developed in Sciacharis  ). Species of Sciacharoides  are also stouter and more convex than Sciacharis  . It is possible that other species from Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia placed by Franz in Sciacharis  may in fact belong to Sciacharoides  ; all members of this complex require a comprehensive revision.

Among Australian Cyrtoscydmini  only Palaeoscydmaenus  has the mesocoxae contiguous and not separated by mesoventral process ( Jałoszyński 2012 c), but this genus has lateral sutures of submentum, open procoxal sockets, asetose impressions of mesoventrite, lacks thick bristles on the head and prothorax, and lacks basal elytral foveae.

Species included hereby in Sciacharoides  show minor  but intriguing differences in the antebasal sculpture of the pronotum, length of hypostomal ridges, and in the general body shape. These differences may in future be used to subdivide Sciacharoides  into subgenera; currently too few species are known to draw conclusions about their possible relationships.

Some species described from Australia and New Zealand under Sciacharis  (or its junior synonyms) may in fact belong to Sciacharoides  . For instance, aedeagi illustrated by Franz (1975) for Euconnus (Allomaoria) parvicollis ( Lea, 1914)  , E. quinarius Franz, 1975  , E. relatus  ( Broun, 1893 b) (all currently in Sciacharis  s. str.) seem to contain structures of the internal sac similar to those of Sciacharoides  , including the H-shaped sclerite. For this reason only four species previously misplaced in Horaeomorphus  are revised here, and although several other, presumably undescribed species, are known to the author, they will be treated separately, when all Australian species of Sciacharis  have been verified (Jałoszyński, in preparation).