Spinosciacharis , Jałoszyński, Paweł, 2014

Jałoszyński, Paweł, 2014, ' The curse of Horaeomorphus ': taxonomy of misplaced Australian Cyrtoscydmini (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae), Zootaxa 3828 (1), pp. 1-76: 38-41

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3828.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B2FEAE60-7E51-45FA-A38F-930A084A5AAA

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F68791-FFF2-1822-8FFE-3F4301B4FE63

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Spinosciacharis
status

gen. n.

Spinosciacharis  gen. n.

Type species: Horaeomorphus puncticeps Franz, 1975: 142  (here designated).

Diagnosis. Body ( Figs. 112, 114 – 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) elongate and flattened; head short and convex; vertex not projecting dorsocaudad, its posterior margin slightly to distinctly concave; supraantennal tubercles distinct but weakly raised and not accompanied posteriorly by pits; frontoclypeal groove present; eyes located in anterior part of head; tempora long and strongly curved toward occipital constriction; tempora, genae and postgenae with dense bristles; 'neck region' distinctly demarcated from anterior part of head capsule by constriction and as narrow as nearly half width of vertex; hypostomal ridges ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; hr) sharply marked and long, reaching nearly to posterior tentorial pits but not connected in middle; posterior tentorial pits ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; ptp) elongate and located distinctly in front of transverse groove demarcating 'neck' ventrally; submentum ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; smn) without lateral sutures; each mandible with robust subapical tooth ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 97 – 101; sat) and densely setose dorsomesal prostheca ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 97 – 101; pst); maxillary palpomeres III and IV ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; mxt 3–4) slender, strongly elongate; pronotum with one pair of small internal antebasal pits ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; ip) which are separated by narrow longitudinal wrinkle or carina ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; mc), external pair of diffused impressions ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; li) and distinct sublateral carinae ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; slc) extending from posterior pronotal corners to 1 / 5 – 1 / 4 PL; prosternum laterally demarcated from hypomera by pronotosternal sutures ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; nss), with indistinct intercoxal carina; procoxal sockets ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; pcs) closed by posterolateral lobes of prosternum; prothoracic hypomera ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; hy) with large internal (adcoxal) parts demarcated from sides of pronotum by complete hypomeral ridges ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; hyr); sides of pronotum with dense thick bristles ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104) well visible in dorsal view; mesoventrite with short anterior ridge ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108; ar) medially connected with mesoventral process ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108; msvp) which is narrow and weakly expanding ventrally and reaching only to middle of mesocoxal cavities, so that mesocoxae are indistinctly separated; ventrolateral foveae ( Fig. 110View FIGURES 109 – 111; vlf) present, dorsolateral foveae absent; anterior metaventral process ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 105 – 108; amvp) present; metaventral intercoxal process ( Fig. 111View FIGURES 109 – 111; mtvp) broadly subtriangular, with small median notch; metacoxae ( Fig. 109View FIGURES 109 – 111; cx 3) narrowly separated in middle; each elytron with two deep and relatively large asetose basal foveae ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 102 – 104; bef) not connected by groove and well visible in dry-mounted specimens; metafemora in males with ventral projection ( Figs. 117–120View FIGURES 117 – 120); aedeagus ( Figs. 121–128View FIGURES 121 – 128) with free and slender parameres.

Description. Body ( Figs. 112, 114 – 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) moderately large (BL 1.78–2.45 mm), flattened and slender, with long appendages, pigmentation brown, cuticle setose.

Head ( Figs. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101, 112, 114– 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) with occipital constriction ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; occ) much narrower than vertex and dividing the head capsule into exposed anterior part and narrow posterior 'neck region' retracted into prothorax; eyes small and slightly oval, located in anterior part of head; tempora long and in posterior half strongly curved posteromesally, with sparse bristles; vertex transverse, uniformly convex, not projecting dorso-caudad, with posterior margin slightly concave and distinctly demarcated from occiput; frons confluent with vertex, transverse and subtrapezoidal, convex, strongly but not abruptly lowering toward labrum; frontoclypeal groove present; antennal insertions broadly separated, located beneath distinct but weakly raised supraantennal tubercles.

Labrum ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 97 – 101) transverse and semioval with slightly emarginate anterior margin, with small number of long dorsal setae. Mandibles symmetrical, subtriangular, each with broad base and large subapical tooth ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 97 – 101; sat), also distal mesal margin of basal part forms broad and blunt tooth in front of densely setose dorsomesal prostheca reaching mandibular base. Each maxilla composed of small cardo ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; cd) bearing three setae; subtriangular basistipes ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; bst); elongate mediostipes ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; mst); elongate galea ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; gal) and lacinia ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; lac); large, elongate palpifer ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; pfp); and strongly elongate and moderately large maxillary palpus ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; mxp) composed of elongate palpomere I ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; mxp 1), strongly elongate, slightly clavate and slender palpomere II ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; mxp 2), large and strongly elongate, slender palpomere III ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; mxp 3) broadest near distal third, and small, slender, subconical and pointed palpomere IV ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 97 – 101; mxp 4). Labium ( Figs. 97–98View FIGURES 97 – 101) with large submentum ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; smn) not demarcated laterally from postcardinal parts of hypostomae; subtrapezoidal mentum ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; mn); and short prementum bearing narrowly separated at bases long 3 -segmented labial palpi and a pair of median bristles inserted on small subtrapezoidal ligula ( Fig. 98View FIGURES 97 – 101; lg). Hypostomal ridges ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; hr) sharply marked, long and extending nearly to posterior tentorial pits but not connecting in middle.

Gular plate ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; gp) large and subtrapezoidal, with rapidly narrowed anterior part; gular sutures ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; gs) superficial; posterior tentorial pits ( Fig. 97View FIGURES 97 – 101; ptp) narrow and straight, located clearly in front of transverse groove ventrally demarcating 'neck region'.

Antennae ( Figs. 112, 114 – 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) long and slender, gradually but only slightly thickening distally; antennomere XI unremarkable.

Prothorax ( Figs. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104, 112, 114– 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) in dorsal view weakly to strongly elongate and broadest near anterior third, with rounded anterior margin and anterior parts of lateral margins, with barely marked, blunt and strongly obtuse anterior corners; posterior corners distinct, obtuse; posterior margin shallowly bisinuate. Base of pronotum with distinct sublateral carinae ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; slc) extending from posterior pronotal corners and as long as 1 / 5 – 1 / 4 of PL; base with one pair of small internal pits ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; ip) in middle separated by narrow longitudinal wrinkle or carina ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; mc), and with variously distinct lateral impressions ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104; li) adjacent to sublateral carinae. Sides of pronotum with thick and sparse bristles ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 102 – 104).

Prosternum with long basisternal part ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; bst) distinctly demarcated from procoxal cavities ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; pcc); median part of sternum slightly raised and forming narrow and indistinct prosternal carina; procoxal sockets ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; pcs) closed by posterolateral lobes of prosternum; hypomera ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; hy) elongate, each divided into broad lateral part confluent with pronotum and narrower internal (adcoxal) part; hypomeral ridges ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; hyr) complete; pronotosternal sutures ( Fig. 102View FIGURES 102 – 104; nss) entire.

Mesocutellum ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 102 – 104; scl 2) subtriangular, in intact specimen hidden by posterior margin of pronotum overlapping with elytral base; mesoscutoscutellar suture ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 102 – 104; sss) present.

Mesoventrite ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108) with narrow and distinctly demarcated anterior ridge ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108; ar); mesoventral process ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108; msvp) carinate and moderately expanding ventrally, anteriorly connected with anterior ridge and terminated near middle of mesocoxal cavities, indistinctly separating mesocoxae; sides of mesoventrite with shallow procoxal rests ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108; pcr) filled with bristles (= setose impressions) but without asetose impressions; mesanepisternum with moderately long prepectus ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 105 – 108; pre), sides of mesoventrite with moderately broad and deep setose ventrolateral foveae ( Figs. 108View FIGURES 105 – 108, 110View FIGURES 109 – 111; vlf); dorsolateral foveae absent; mesocoxal projections ( Figs. 105, 107View FIGURES 105 – 108, 109– 110View FIGURES 109 – 111; mcp) prominent, with mesocoxal sockets ( Figs. 105, 107View FIGURES 105 – 108, 109– 110View FIGURES 109 – 111) located on their mesoventral surface and visible in ventral view.

Metaventrite ( Figs. 109–110View FIGURES 109 – 111; v 3) subrectangular, anteriorly fused with mesoventrite, posteriorly shallowly bisinuate and with broadly subtriangular metaventral intercoxal process ( Fig. 111View FIGURES 109 – 111; mtvp) bearing small median notch; anterior metaventral process present ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 105 – 108; amvp). Metanepisterna and metepimera narrow.

Metafurca with long stalk and divergent lateral furcal arms ( Fig. 110View FIGURES 109 – 111; lmfa).

Elytra ( Figs. 104View FIGURES 102 – 104, 112, 114– 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) oval, each with two moderately large, deep and asetose basal foveae ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 102 – 104; bef) not connected by groove; humeral denticles and sub-humeral lines absent.

Hind wings well-developed, about twice as long as elytra.

Legs ( Figs. 112, 114 – 116View FIGURES 112 – 116) long and slender; procoxae subglobose, mesocoxae oval, metacoxae strongly transverse; all trochanters short; all femora moderately strongly clavate; tibiae and tarsi long and slender. Males of all species have variously shaped projections on ventral margin of metafemora ( Figs. 117–120View FIGURES 117 – 120).

Aedeagus ( Figs. 121–128View FIGURES 121 – 128) elongate and moderately darkly sclerotized, relatively thin-walled, with symmetrical median lobe and symmetrical, complicated assemblage of internal sclerites; parameres free and slender, with apical setae.

Etymology. Spinosciacharis  is a combination of the stem Sciacharis  (a genus name) with the prefix spino - referring to the femoral spines found in males of all species. Gender feminine.

Composition and distribution ( Fig. 196View FIGURES 193 – 198). Three species of Spinosciacharis  are distributed in the southeastern part of the Australian continent (New South Wales and Victoria) and one in Tasmania.

Remarks. Among all Australian genera of Cyrtoscydmini  , Spinosciacharis  is most similar to Horaeomorphus  in the general body form, but to Sciacharis  s. str. in ventral structures. The flattened and slender body with weakly rounded sides of elytra, the shape of pronotum, and the femoral projections in males may be mistaken with similar features of some Horaeomorphus  species. Spinosciacharis  clearly differs from Horaeomorphus  in numerous characters: the absence of pits on posteromesal margins of weakly marked supraantennal tubercles (in Horaeomorphus  pits present and tubercles prominent); posterior tentorial pits located far in front of the anterior margin of 'neck region' (in Horaeomorphus  pits are adjacent to the anterior margin of 'neck region'); much narrower occipital constriction; absence of median antebasal pronotal pit (present in Horaeomorphus  ); presence of sublateral pronotal carinae (absent in Horaeomorphus  ); narrow, ridge-like prosternal intercoxal carina (carina narrow but subrectangular with distinct lateral margins in Horaeomorphus  ); basal elytral foveae not connected by inversely U-shaped groove (in Horaeomorphus  groove present); narrow anterior ridge of mesoventrite (broad in Horaeomorphus  ); presence of ventrolateral mesothoracic foveae (absent in Horaeomorphus  ); mesocoxae indistinctly separated by narrow mesoventral process only in their anterior half (distinctly separated in Horaeomorphus  ); presence of anterior metaventral process (absent in Horaeomorphus  ); and metaventral intercoxal process without spines (with a pair of long spines in Horaeomorphus  ). Spinosciacharis  is similar to Sciacharis  s. str. in the general body shape (especially the shape of the head), all ventral characters of the head; the presence of pronotal internal antebasal pits and sublateral carinae; feebly developed prosternal intercoxal carina; presence of two distinct basal elytral foveae; presence of only ventrolateral mesothoracic fovea; and the shape of metaventral intercoxal process. Spinosciacharis  differs from Sciacharis  s. str. in robust subtriangular mandibles with two subapical teeth (one small subapical tooth beneath narrow apical tooth and above strongly broadened mandibular base in Sciacharis  s. str.); sublateral pronotal carinae extending much farther anteriorly; prosternum completely demarcated from adcoxal parts of hypomera (in Sciacharis  s. str. prosternum partly fused with hypomera); the mesoventral intercoxal process not interrupted (in Sciacharis  s. str. interrupted near anterior margins of mesocoxal cavities); and the presence of anterior metaventral process (absent in Sciacharis  s. str.). The same characters, except for the prosternum completely separated vs. partly fused with hypomera differentiate Spinosciacharis  from Sciacharis  ( Maorinus  ). The latter taxon has an elongated head, distinctly thickened maxillary palpi, hypomeral ridges not reaching posterior margins of adcoxal parts of hypomera; and long mesoventral intercoxal process extending from just behind anterior ridge of mesoventrite up to posterior margins of mesocoxal cavities (all these characters different in Spinosciacharis  ). The similarities between Spinosciacharis  and Sciacharis  may in future justify placing the former as a subgenus of Sciacharis  .