Pediobius maleficus Gumovsky

Gumovsky, Alex, 2018, New enigmatic species of the genus Pediobius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from Afrotropics, with notes on related genera, Zootaxa 4438 (2), pp. 201-236: 226-227

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4438.2.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:688C9DA1-BE32-4FC6-B726-65CA36358473

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03F687C9-FA26-B47A-FF27-6CF61275C90A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pediobius maleficus Gumovsky
status

sp. n.

Pediobius maleficus Gumovsky  , sp. n.

( Figs 14 View Figure , 15 View Figure , 17B, F View Figure , 18C View Figure )

Diagnosis. Head in dorsal view ( Fig. 17F View Figure ) about 3.3× as broad as long, face mostly finely reticulated, but smooth below antennae, frontal sutures complete, antennal toruli situated just below level of lower eye margins ( Fig. 17B View Figure ); head with strong bristles, which at least 2.0× longer than flagellar setae; lower face narrowed and elongate, with nearly straight or concave genae ( Fig. 17B View Figure ), malar space about 0.6× as long as eye height, mouth opening about 0.8× as long as malar space; mandible with two teeth; occipital margin sharp and distinctly curved ( Fig. 17F View Figure ); antennal scape dark metallic; mesoscutum and mesoscutellum with coarse sculpture ( Fig. 14C View Figure ), notauli marked anteriorly by fine sutures, by shallow depressions posteriorly; entire dorsum with setae longer than flagellar setae; mesoscutellum with one pair of setae; propodeum with distinct nucha bearing two foveae, its submedian areas 2.0× as broad as long, submedian carinae subparallel anteriorly and diverging posteriorly ( Fig. 18C View Figure ); propodeal callus with 2 setae; metatibial spur slightly longer than metabasitarsus, about 2.5–2.7× as long as breadth of metatibia, subcosta of submarginal vein with two strong bristles; forewing with speculum partly closed below, with basal setal line present as two short setae and cubital setal line of 6 setae at underside of wing; stigmal vein with short uncus and sphaerical stigma, as long as postmarginal vein; fore wing transparent; WIP mostly with very narrow apical violet band followed by wide blue area ( Fig. 15E, F View Figure ); metasomal petiole short, robust, about 0.5–0.7× as long as propodeum, Gt1 occupying approximately 1/3 length of gaster.

Type material. Holotype ♀, DRC, North Kivu Province, “ Congo belge, Nyongera (pres Rutshuru ), Kivu, 1218 m (Butumba), 17-vii- 1935, G.F. de Witte: 1667 ” (deposited in: RMCAAbout RMCA)  .

Paratypes: ♀, ibid., “ Congo belge  : Kivu, Nyongera (pres Rutshuru), 1218 m ( Butumba ), 18-vii-1935, G.F. de Witte: 1663”; 2 ♀  , ibid., 18-vii-1935, 1663”; 2 ♀  , ibid., Mongala Province, Bumba, “Coll. Mus. Congo, Bumba , XII-1939 - I-1940, H. De Saeger ” ( RMCAAbout RMCA); ♀  , CARAbout CAR, Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Parc National de Dzanga-Ndoki, Mabéa Bai , 21.4 km 53° NE Bayanga, 3°02.01'N 16°24.57'E, 510 mGoogleMaps  , 3.v.2001, S. van Noort, Sweep, CAR01-S01, Lowland Rainforest, marsh clearing, SAM-HYM-P067853; ♀, ibid., 7–8.v.2001, Malaise trap, CAR 01View MaterialsGoogleMaps  - M68, SAM-HYM-P069892; ♀, ibid., 6.v.2001, CAR 01View MaterialsGoogleMaps  -S59, SAM-HYM-P066772; ♂, ibid., CAR 01View Materials -S71, SAM-HYM- P066676; ♂GoogleMaps  , ibid., Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Réserve Spéciale de Forêt Dense de Dzanga-Sangha, 12.7 km 326° NW Bayanga , 3°00.27'N 16°11.55'E, 420 m, 12.v.2001, S. van Noort, Sweep, CAR 01View MaterialsGoogleMaps  - S128, Lowland Rainforest, SAM-HYM-P065304; ♀, Gabon, Prov. Ogoové-Maritime, Réserve des Monts Doudou , 25.2 km 304° NW Doussala, 2°13.63'S 10°23.67'E, 660 mGoogleMaps  , 17.iii.2000, S. van Noort, Sweep, GA 00-S128, Lowland Rainforest, undergrowth, low canopy in forest, SAM-HYM-P0023562; ♀, ibid., Reserve de la Moukalaba-Dougoua , 7 km NW Doussala; 02°19'84"S, 10°32'65"E, 110 m, 21.III.2000, S. van Noort, sweep, GA00-S147, Coastal Lowland Rainforest, forest margin along road, SAM-HYM-P0023702; ♂, ibid., GA00-S147, SAM-HYM-P00 23703 ( SAMCAbout SAMC); 3 ♀, Kenya, Maai-Mahui, 24–25 March 2013, plain, hills & along small stream (left side of the road to Nairobi) (A. Gumovsky) ( SIZKAbout SIZK)GoogleMaps  .

Other (non-type) material. ♀, Cameroon, North-West Province, “ MSFAbout MSF, Dimban, Sanyere, 17-12-[19]81, leg. S.G. Compton, Sweep ”, donated to SAM 1994View Materials, SAM-HYM-P 011852  ; ♀, ibid., South-West Province, Musone, Lk Mboandong [? Lake Mbwandong ], 10-12-[19]81, leg. S.G. Compton, Sweep ”, donated to SAM 1994View Materials, SAM-HYM- P 011920 ( SAMCAbout SAMC)  ; ♀, DRC, North Kivu Province , “ Congo belge  : Kivu, Rutshuru ( Envir. Du poste), 1218 m, 18/ 23-vi-1934, G.F. de Witte: 447” ( RMCAAbout RMCA)  ; ♀, CARAbout CAR, Prefecture Sangha-Mbaéré, Parc National de Dzanga-Ndoki, Mabéa Bai , 21.4 km 53° NE Bayanga, 3°02.01'N 16°24.57'E, 510 m, 3.v.2001, SGoogleMaps  . van Noort, Sweep, CAR 01View Materials -S04, Lowland Rainforest, marsh clearing, SAM-HYM-P067854; ♂, ibid., Réserve Spéciale de Forêt Dense de Dzanga- Sangha , 12.7 km 326° NW Bayanga, 3°00.27'N 16°11.55'E, 420 m, 12.v.2001, SGoogleMaps  . van Noort, Sweep, CAR01- S128, Lowland Rainforest, SAM-HYM-P 065303; ♀, ibid., Réserve Spéciale de Forêt Dense de Dzanga-Sangha, 12.7 km 326° NW Bayanga , 3°00.27'N 16°11.55'E, 420 m, 10–11.v. 2001, S. van Noort, Malaise trap, CARAbout CAR 01-M82, Lowland Rainforest, SAM-HYM-P06 9938 ( SAMCAbout SAMC)GoogleMaps  .

Description. Female. Body length about 2.3–3.0 mm. Body dark, with bright metallic luster in places ( Fig. 14A–C View Figure ): face green ( Figs 14F View Figure , 17B View Figure ), propodeum and Gt1 bright metallic blue; entire antenna and legs dark metallic, fore wing transparent, two proximal tarsomeres pale, two terminal tarsomeres darker.

Head about 1.4× as broad as mesosoma ( Fig. 17F View Figure ), 3.3× as broad as long in dorsal view, with regularly distributed bristles. Occipital margin with sharp carina ( Fig. 17F View Figure ). POL about 1.7× OOL. Head in frontal view 1.4– 1.5× broader than high ( Figs 14F View Figure , 17B View Figure ). Eye nearly bare, with rather short sparse setae; its height about 1.7× as long as malar space. Lower face narrowed and elongate, genae somewhat concave in most specimens ( Figs 14F View Figure , 17B View Figure ) or occasionally (some of the non-type specimens) nearly straight ( Fig. 15C, D View Figure ). Mouth opening in same plane as lower face, its breadth about 0.8× malar space; cutting edge of mandible with two teeth. Upper margins of antennal toruli situated just below level of lower eye margins ( Figs 14F View Figure , 17B View Figure ). Combined length of pedicel and flagellum just slightly longer than maximum  head breadth (measured between outer eye margins, Fig. 14F View Figure ). Scape 5.6–6.0× as long as broad, and about 0.5× as long as head height; pedicel nearly 3.8× as long as broad. Funicle with F1 about 4.2–4.7× as long as broad and 1.1–1.3× as long as F2, F2 2.6–3.3× and F3 about 2.1–2.7× as long as broad; clava about 1.5–2.0× as long as broad, slightly longer than F3.

Mesosoma about 4.8× as long as broad ( Fig. 14A–C View Figure ). Pronotum short, conical, its collar situated notably lower than level of convex mesoscutum and visible as a wide strip in dorsal view, bearing sharp transverse carina and small lateral shoulders. Mesoscutum just weakly convex in lateral view, with fine reticulation, notaular depressions marked as fine sutures anteriorly, and as shallow depressions posteriorly ( Fig. 14C View Figure ). Axilla lightly but distinctly reticulated, with 1 short seta. Anterior margin of mesoscutellum advanced medially, coarsely reticulated, with elongate meshes anteriorly, rounded posteriorly ( Fig. 18C View Figure ). Dorsellum very narrow, subrectangular in shape, with acute tip and two flanges on sides (resultant from fused anterolateral foveae). Propodeum smooth, but with narrow frosted areas near posterior end of lateral plica and submedian carinae, with broad anterior groove just under dorsellum and deep foveae on sides of the groove ( Fig. 18C View Figure ). Submedian carinae subparallel anteriorly and diverging posteriorly, delimiting somewhat sunken median strip stretching to robust nucha, which bears two large foveae anteriorly and smooth or coriaceous flange posteriorly; median strip bearing median carina or carinulae, or smooth ( Fig. 18C View Figure ); propodeal callus with 2 setae. Fore wing 2.5× as long as broad ( Fig. 14B View Figure ), with speculum partly closed below, with basal setal line present as two short setae and cubital setal line of 6 setae at underside of wing; marginal vein nearly 2.0× as long as wide costal cell, stigmal vein short, with short uncus and sphaerical stigma, slightly longer than breadth of marginal vein in its broadest part, as long as short postmarginal vein. WIP mostly with very narrow apical violet band followed by wide blue field ( Fig. 15E, F View Figure ) or (non-type specimens) with this field narrow ( Fig. 15G, H View Figure ). Metatibial spur long, about 2.5–2.7× as long as breadth of metatibia, slightly longer than metabasitarsus. Metatibia about 0.8–0.9× as long as metatarsus, metabasitarsus about 2.6–3.0× as long as breadth of metatibia.

Metasoma slightly longer than head plus mesosoma ( Figs 14A, B View Figure , 15A View Figure ). Metasomal petiole short, robust, tubular, with distinct collar ( Fig. 18C View Figure ); about 0.5–0.7× as long as propodeum. Gaster elongate ovate, about 3.0× as long as broad; Gt1 smooth polished, occupying approximately 1/3 length of gaster, Gt7 elongate, about 2.0× as long as wide.

Male. Body length about 1.6–1.7 mm. Very similar to female except for: antennal scape about 5.5× as long as broad; pedicel about 1.6–1.7× as long as broad, F1 about 4.0×, F2 about 3.0×, F3 slightly less than 3.0× as long as broad; clava about 4.0× as long as broad, with distinct constriction between two segments and short terminal spine ( Fig. 14D, E View Figure ). Metasoma about 0.8× as long as head plus mesosoma. Metasomal petiole 3.3× as long as broad, about 1.4× longer than propodeum. Gaster subpentagonal, about 1.5× as long as broad.

Etymology. The specific epithet is a Latin for evil or magic and reflects the confusing similarity of this species with P. askari  .

Distribution. Kenya, DRC, CARAbout CAR, Cameroon, Gabon.

Host. Unknown.

Comparative remarks. The species resembles P. askari  due to the narrowed lower face and coarse sculpture of head and dorsum. However, it differs from P. askari  by the shorter lower face ( Fig. 14E, F View Figure ) and transparent wings ( Fig. 14A, B View Figure ). Although this species is rather recognizable, there are some specimens possessing morphological features which are deviant if compared to most other specimens including the holotype. One female specimen from Cameroon (SAM-HYM-P 011852, Fig. 15A–D View Figure ) is characterized by the same WIP of fore wing ( Fig. 15E View Figure ) as in the holotype and paratypes ( Fig. 15F View Figure ), but also has the straighter genae ( Fig. 15B–D View Figure ). The four other females and one male (from Cameroon, CARAbout CAR and DRC) have the forewing WIP with the blue apical band being narrower ( Fig. 15G, H View Figure ) than in other specimens. These variations are considered intraspecific here; however, the bearers of the features are not included in the type series.

RMCA

Royal Museum for Central Africa

CAR

Museo de Historia Natural La Salle

SAMC

Iziko Museums of Cape Town

SIZK

Schmaulhausen Institute of Zoology

MSF

Sauriermuseum Frick