Roxo, Fábio F., Silva, Gabriel S. C., Zawadzki, Cláudio H. & Oliveira, Claudio, 2017, Neoplecostomus canastra, a new catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) species from upper Rio Paraná basin, Zootaxa 4294 (2), pp. 226-240: 228-236
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Neoplecostomus canastra , sp. n.
Fig. 1View FIGURE 1, Table 1
Neoplecostomus sp. Tamborete — Lucena et al., 2012: 326 [allozyme relationships]. Neoplecostomus sp. 7— Roxo et al. 2012b: 2443 [phylogenetic relationships].— Roxo et al. 2012c: 38 [phylogenetic relationships].
Holotype. MZUSP 121504, 82.5 mm SL, male, Brazil, Minas Gerais state, municipality of Capitólio, córrego Tamborete, rio Grande basin, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W, 21 July 2008, C. H. Zawadzki, B. F. Morales and V. S. Ferreira.GoogleMaps
Paratypes. All from Brazil, Minas Gerais state, municipality of Capitólio, córrego Tamborete , rio Grande basin. LBP 12265View Materials, 12 females, 37.5–70.4 mm SL, 8 males, 54.1–85.4 mm SL, 2 males c&s 64.3–67.5 mm SL, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W, 20 June 2011, F. F. Roxo, A. Ferreira and G. S. C. SilvaGoogleMaps . LBP 13353View Materials, 2 females, 58.4–63.0 mm SL, collected with holotypeGoogleMaps . LBP 13930, 5 females, 41.1–71.8 mm SL, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W, 0 5 November 2011, M. Mehanna and G. S. C. Silva. MNRJ 28659, 1 male, 90.4 mm SL, 2 females, 46.5–50.8 mm SL, 6 November 2004, P. A. Buckup, L. H. Silva and L. Centofante. NUP 10165View Materials, 1 male, 83.4 mm SL, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W, 21 July 2008, collected with holotypeGoogleMaps . NUP 10366View Materials, 3 males, 64.0– 74.5 mm SL, 4 females, 60.5–70.1 mm SL, collected with holotypeGoogleMaps . NUP 13664View Materials, 3 males, 60.3–77.2 mm SL, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W, 20 June 2011, F. F. Roxo, A. Ferreira and G. S. C. Silva. ZUFMS PIS 0 5350, 3 sex not determined, 61.6–64.8 mm SL, collected with holotypeGoogleMaps .
Diagnosis. Neoplecostomus canastra is distinguished from N. bandeirante , N. jaguari , N. langeanii , N. ribeirensis and N. paranensis by the presence of conspicuous dark spots all over the body (vs. body with inconspicuous lighter spots in N. bandeirante and body lacking conspicuous dark spots in N. langeanii , N. jaguari , N. ribeirensis and N. paranensis ). Moreover, the new species differs from N. bandeirante , N. langeanii , N. corumba and N. yapo by having smaller mandibullary width/head length 9.9–12.9% (vs. 15.7–23.7%; 13.4–19.9%; 16.3–18.1%; 14.1–15.2%, respectively), and from N. bandeirante , N. langeanii , N. selenae , N. corumba , N. yapo and N. paraty by having smaller IO/mandibullary width 31.1–41.9% (vs. 45.9–66.5%; 43.6–59.9%; 58.1–72.7%; 49.1–58.4; 46.0–53.6%, 47.5–78.1%, respectively). Additionally, the new species differs from N. bandeirante by absence of moderate keels along each lateral series of plates (vs. presence) and smaller number of lateral line plates 26–29 (vs. 31–36); from N. botucatu and N. paranensis by presence of developed adipose fin (vs. lack or reduction of adipose fin); from N. doceensis by absence of enlarged, fleshy folds between dentaries (vs. presence of enlarged fleshy folds); from N. franciscoensis and N. ribeirensis , by having dorsal-fin spinelet larger than dorsal-fin spine (vs. dorsal-fin spinelet absent to vestigial and thinner than dorsal-fin spine); from N. selenae by lacking enlarged odontodes along lateral margins of snout and along ridges before eyes (vs. having enlarged odontodes along lateral margins of snout and along ridges before the eyes); from N. granosus by having small number of lateral-line plates 26–29 (vs. 34–43); from N. yapo by smaller IO/OD 17.1–36.9% (vs. 39.3–45.1%) and a greater CP length/CP depth 20.4–35.5% (vs. 17.6–19.6%); from N. variipictus by higher number of dentary teeth 9–16 (vs. 7); from N. espiritosantensis by having reduced number of dentary teeth 9–16 (vs. 19–38); from N. jaguari by absence of a conspicuous sexual dimorphism: number of teeth equivalent in male and females (vs. higher number of teeth in the dentary and premaxilla in females), by absence of lateronasal plate (vs. presence of lateronasal plate) and presence of only two posteronasal plates (vs. four to six posteronasal plates), smaller PDS/Fist ds ray length 45.9–52.2% (vs. 53.0–65.7%), smaller Lower CD spine/CP depth 21.4–28.4% (vs. 29.1%–37.1%); from N. microps by having two irregular and conspicuous rows of large and transversally flattened papillae, just posterior to dentary teeth (vs. tree irregular and conspicuous rows of papillae) and from N. paraty by absence of a conspicual horseshoe shaped light blotch posterior to the supraoccipital, with a central dark area which rarely contacts the edge of the light area (vs. presence), and smaller mandibullary width/Head length 9.9–12.9% (vs. 13.9–21.9%).
Description. Counts and measurements are presented in Table 1. Body elongate and depressed. Greatest width at cleithrum, narrowing to caudal peduncle. Dorsal body profile in lateral view gently convex, ascending from snout tip to dorsal-fin origin and descending to first caudal-fin procurrent ray. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin. Trunk and caudal peduncle dorsally rounded in cross-section; body ventrally flattened to anal-fin origin, flattened or slightly rounded to caudal fin. Dorsal body surface completely covered by dermal plates, excepting for a naked area around dorsal-fin base. First plates from mid-ventral series smaller than area surrounding each plate. Snout tip naked. Ventral head surface naked except by a plate bearing odontodes in front of gill openings.
Percents of head length
Head width 80.5 77.9 86.8 83.3 2.0 Head depth 54.5 50.2 56.8 53.1 1.8 Snout length 62.2 58.4 65.8 62.7 1.6 OD 8.2 8.2 12.4 10.3 1.2 Interorbital width 30.8 30.2 36.4 32.4 1.4 Mandibullary width 11.0 9.9 12.9 12.0 0.6 Other percents
Snout length/OD 13.3 13.1 20.5 16.5 2.2 IO/OD 26.8 17.1 36.9 28.4 6.1 IO/mandibullary width 35.8 31.1 41.9 37.0 2.6 PDS length/first ds ray length 49.0 45.9 52.2 49.1 1.5 CP length/CP depth 24.3 20.4 35.5 23.9 2.8 Pelvic-fin length/CP depth 29.1 23.8 37.6 27.2 2.9 Lower cd spine/CP depth 27.1 21.4 28.4 23.9 1.8 Abdomen with conspicuous, small dermal plates between insertions of pectoral and pelvic fins, forming a thoracic shield surrounded by naked areas. Head wide and depressed. Head and snout rounded in dorsal view. Interorbital space straight to slightly concave in frontal view. Median ridge rising from snout tip to area between nares, more evident in larger specimens. A pronounced ridge from nares to superior margin of orbit. Snout convex in lateral profile. Odontodes from snout without distinct swollen skin. Eye moderately small (7.96–9.90% of HL), dorsolaterally placed. Lips well developed and rounded. Lower lip far from reaching pectoral girdle and covered with papillae, wider anteriorly; two irregular and conspicuous rows of large and transversally flattened papillae, just posterior to dentary teeth; posterior row of papillae distributed along whole dentary ramus. Maxillary barbel short, completely adnate with lower lip. Teeth long, slender and bicuspid; medial cusp longer than lateral. Dentary rami forming an angle of approximately 125°–130°.
Dorsal-fin ii,7; origin slightly posterior to vertical passing through pelvic-fin origin; nuchal plate not covered by skin; dorsal-fin spinelet half-moon shaped and wider than dorsal-fin spine base; dorsal-fin locking mechanism absent. Dorsal fin posterior margin slightly rounded, not reaching vertical through end of pelvic-fin rays when adpressed. Pectoral fin I,6; spine depressed and curved inward (more pronounced in larger specimens), shorter than longest branched ray, posterior margin slightly convex, reaching or almost reaching pelvic-fin insertion when adpressed. Pelvic fin i,5; posterior margin nearly straight, reaching to almost reaching anal-fin insertion when adpressed. Pelvic-fin unbranched ray ventrally flattened, with dermal flap on its dorsal surface in males. Anal fin i,5; posterior margin nearly straight. Caudal fin i,14,i; furcate, lower lobe longer than upper. Pectoral spine and unbranched pelvic-fin rays with odontodes on lateral and ventral portions. Anal-fin unbranched ray with odontodes only ventrally. Red-colored odontodes present all over body, but more pronounced on shield of abdominal plates. Well-developed adipose fin, preceded by azygous plate.
Color in alcohol. Ground color of dorsal surface of head and body varying from red to almost yellowish. Head, dorsum, flanks and fins covered by some conspicuous dark spots, sometimes forming blotches of variable shapes and sizes. Dorsal color pattern with five transverse dark bands in juvenile individuals, in mature individuals this pattern became less visible. A clear spot on naked area of snout tip. Orbital margin lighter, mainly on its superior portion. Body lateral portion with an upper darker region and a lower lighter one, just below lateral line, not easily visualized some specimens. Dorsal fin with irregular series of dark dots on rays. Caudal fin irregularly dark at base and distal portion of rays, leaving two lighter areas on median portion and rays tips, in some specimens. Pectoral, pelvic, anal, and adipose fins with dark dots forming normally diffuse irregular bands. Ventral surface of head and abdomen mostly unpigmented, except lateral margins of body and from pelvic fin to caudal-fin base; upper lip dark brown, except for its lighter narrow margin.
Sexual dimorphism. Mature males bearing a papilla in the urogenital opening and a membrane along dorsal portion of unbranched pelvic-fin ray. Males seem to reach a greater length as seen in paratypes.
Distribution. The species is known only from the type-locality in Minas Gerais state, municipality of Capitólio, córrego Tamborete, rio Grande basin, 20°38'54''S, 46°09'52''W ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2).
Habitat. Neoplecostomus canastra was found in a clear-water steam about 0.25–1.5 m deep. The bottom was composed of small to medium-sized rocks, loose stones, and sand. The water in the sampled site was clear and fastflowing. Juveniles and adults were observed hidden between rocks during the day in shallow places ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2).
Etymology. The species name canastra refers to the hills (Serra da Canastra ) located at south portion of Minas Gerais state where córrego Tamborete drainages originates. Headwaters of the São Francisco and Paraná rivers flow to opposite directions from these hills. A noun is apposition.
Genetic analysis and species delimitation hypothesis. Sequence data for 591 bps fragments of COI were obtained for a total of 55 Neoplecostomus specimens. No sequences showed insertions, deletions, stop-codons, sequencing errors due to contamination or paralogy. The nucleotide frequencies are A = 23.67%, T/U = 25.42%, C = 31.68%, and G = 19.23%. The global transition/transversion (Ti/Tv) ratio was 3.09. A total of 143 nucleotides were variable in the data set of Neoplecostomus specimens (~24% of total). The data were not saturated considering that the Iss.c value is greater than the Iss, and the R² value is 0.98 for transitions and 0.71 for transversions. The best nucleotide evolution model for COI gene evaluated was TN93. The tree represented is a majority-rule consensus obtained by 2,500,000 generations of Bayesian Inference ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). We used the Yule model to estimate the ultrametric tree considering that it has the high Bayes factor compared to other models (Yule model = -2160,07 ±0.20; Birth Death model = -2160,75 ±0.16; Coalescent Constant Population = -2161,16 ±0.24).
The overall mean genetic distance among all sequences was 6.7±0.7%. Genetic distances among Neoplecostomus species and specimens of the same species are shown in Table 3. The rate of genetic variation ranges from 1.0% (±0.4) among N. selenae and N. botucatu , to 14.2% (±1.9) among N. ribeirensis and N. franciscoensis . The rate of genetic distance of the new species N. canastra , range from 1.6% (±0.5) with N. langeanii , and 10.2% (±1.6) with N. ribeirensis . The distance among specimens of N. canastra was 0.2% (±0.2).
Our data indicate eleven morphospecies groups representing nominal Neoplecostomus species, and one group representing the new species that is described herein ( N. canastra ). Based on a 2% threshold of genetic distance our analysis suggested that the 12 morphospecies can be divided in 10 clusters ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). The same result was found using the GMYC model, under the single-threshold method. The threshold time was -0.007195772, the likelihood of null model was 404.8779 and the maximum likelihood of GMYC model was 405.5791. Both approaches, the GMYC and the 2% threshold, identified N. botucatu plus N. selenae and N. canastra plus N. langeanii as members of the same cluster.
Aquicultura, Universidade Estadual de Maringá.
Collection No. Fish No GenBank Species Location (river, city, state, hydrographic basin)
LBP5035 24682 FJ434533 Neoplecostomus yapo Ribeirão Atlântico, Mandaguaçu , Paraná, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP3560 9701 FJ434529 Neoplecostomus yapo Rio Fortaleza, Tibagi, Paraná, Rio Paranapanema basin
LBP3560 9700 GQ214782 Neoplecostomus yapo Rio Fortaleza, Tibagi, Paraná, Rio Paranapanema basin
LBP3560 9699 GQ214783 Neoplecostomus yapo Rio Fortaleza, Tibagi, Paraná, Rio Paranapanema basin
LBP5034 24681 GQ214781 Neoplecostomus yapo Represa Três Pontes, Londrina , Paraná, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7525 34834 GQ214788 Neoplecostomus botucatu Ribeirão Água de Madalena, Botucatu , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7525 34835 GQ214785 Neoplecostomus botucatu Ribeirão Água de Madalena, Botucatu , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7525 34836 GQ214787 Neoplecostomus botucatu Ribeirão Água de Madalena, Botucatu , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7525 34832 GQ214784 Neoplecostomus botucatu Ribeirão Água de Madalena, Botucatu , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7525 34833 GQ214786 Neoplecostomus botucatu Ribeirão Água de Madalena, Botucatu , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7383 34843 FJ965506 Neoplecostomus selenae Ribeirão das Batéias, Riacho Grande , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7383 34844 GQ214791 Neoplecostomus selenae Ribeirão das Batéias, Riacho Grande , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7383 34846 GQ214789 Neoplecostomus selenae Ribeirão das Batéias, Riacho Grande , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7383 34842 GQ214792 Neoplecostomus selenae Ribeirão das Batéias, Riacho Grande , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP7383 34845 GQ214790 Neoplecostomus selenae Ribeirão das Batéias, Riacho Grande , São Paulo, Rio Paranapanema basin LBP2732 17441 FJ434532 Neoplecostomus paranensis Córrego Mocoquinha, Cajuru , São Paulo, Rio Grande basin
LBP2732 17446 GQ214803 Neoplecostomus paranensis Córrego Mocoquinha, Cajuru , São Paulo, Rio Grande basin
NUP6104 29279 GQ214814 Neoplecostomus paranensis Rio Verde, Caldas, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin
LBP2732 17440 FJ965505 Neoplecostomus paranensis Córrego Mocoquinha, Cajuru , São Paulo, Rio Grande basin
LBP2732 17448 GQ214802 Neoplecostomus paranensis Córrego Mocoquinha, Cajuru , São Paulo, Rio Grande basin
LBP6195 29290 GQ214797 Neoplecostomus langeanii Rio Muzambinho, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin LBP6195 29291 GQ214798 Neoplecostomus langeanii Rio Muzambinho, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin LBP5901 27990 GQ214800 Neoplecostomus langeanii Rio Muzambinho, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin LBP5901 27991 GQ214799 Neoplecostomus langeanii Rio Muzambinho, Muzambinho, Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin LBP6173 29260 GQ214801 Neoplecostomus langeanii Córrego da Prata, Muzambinho , Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin LBP7466 33421 JN089810 Neoplecostomus canastra Córrego Tamborete, Capitólio , Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin LBP7466 33425 KJ754544 Neoplecostomus canastra Córrego Tamborete, Capitólio , Minas Gerais, Rio Grande basin
……continued on the next page 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 – N. bandeirante
2 – N. botucatu
3 – N. corumba
5 – N. canastra
7 – N. langeanii 0.3%±0.2
8 – N. microps 9.0%±1.4 0.7%±0.2 9 – N. paranensis 1.5%±0.4 8.5%±1.3 0.4%±0.2 10 – N. ribeirensis 10.6%±1.7 12.4%±1.9 11.1%±1.7 0.3%±0.1 11 – N. selenae 2.7%±0.7 9.7%±1.5 3.2%±0.7 11.8%±1.8 0.1%±0.1 12 – N. yapo 4.7%±0.9 11.9%±1.7 4.4%±0.8 13.3%±1.9 5.2%±0.9 1.5%±0.4
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