Aglaophenia tubiformis Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890

Gravili, Cinzia, Vito, Doris De, Camillo, Cristina Gioia Di, Martell, Luis, Piraino, Stefano & Boero, Ferdinando, 2015, The non-Siphonophoran Hydrozoa (Cnidaria) of Salento, Italy with notes on their life-cycles: an illustrated guide, Zootaxa 3908 (1), pp. 1-187: 82-83

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Aglaophenia tubiformis Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890


Aglaophenia tubiformis Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890  

Fig. 56 View FIGURE 56 A–D

See Svoboda & Cornelius (1991) for a complete synonymy.

Material examined. HCUS-S 0 63 (Hydrozoa Collection, University of Salento—fauna of the Salento Peninsula).

Description (based on our own observations; Svoboda 1979; Svoboda & Cornelius 1991):

Hydroid. Hydrorhiza as a dense, anastomosing network when on flat surface but more elongated when on algal substrate; colonies erect; hydrocauli monosiphonic, up to 150 mm, unbranched or dichotomously branched, coenosarc filled with zooxanthellae, axis basally without thecae, with several transverse nodes, followed by one (rarely 2) prosegment separated by oblique nodes, remaining internodes each with 3 nematothecae and a pseudonematotheca hydrocladia alternate, divided into cormidia by transverse nodes, cormidia composed of one hydrotheca and 3 nematothecae; hydrotheca deep (length/breadth at rim: 1.4– 2); rim with 9 more or less equal cusps; intrathecal adcauline septum moderately developed; mesial nematotheca arising between the middle and upper third of hydrotheca, free portion of variable length, lateral nematothecae reaching or overtopping the hydrothecal rim, nemathotheca with a gutter shaped aperture; corbulae comprising 4–8 pairs of ribs, with the first one free, male with slits between ribs, female with almost completely fused ribs, colonies dioecious. Colours: hydrocauli and hydrocladia yellowish to brown, corbulae brown.

Cnidome. Microbasic mastigophores.

Habitat type. Algal sublitoral rocky (depth range: 0–40 m) ( Boero & Fresi 1986; Svoboda & Cornelius 1991).

Substrate. Preferentially settling on algae, sponges, bryozoans, barnacles.

Seasonality. From January to December ( Boero & Fresi 1986; De Vito 2006; Galea 2007; Puce et al. 2009; this study).

Reproductive period. February–October ( Boero & Fresi 1986; Peña Cantero & García Carrascosa 2002; Galea 2007; Puce et al. 2009); all year (De Vito 2006; this study).

Distribution. Northeastern Atlantic, Mediterranean ( Svoboda 1979; Svoboda & Cornelius 1991; Ramil & Vervoort 1992; Medel & López-González 1996; Peña Cantero & García Carrascosa 2002; Bouillon et al. 2004; Galea 2007; Gravili et al. 2008 a; Puce et al. 2009; Soto Ãngel & Peña Cantero 2013).

Records in Salento. Common at: La Strea, Porto Cesareo ( Presicce 1991; Faucci & Boero 2000): Torre dell'Inserraglio, S.ta Caterina, Montagna Spaccata, Torre Vado, Ponte del Ciolo ( Presicce 1991); Costa Merlata, Otranto ( Fraschetti et al. 2002); ( Presicce 1991); Otranto ( Stabili et al. 2008; De Vito 2006; Gravili 2006; Gravili et al. 2008 a; this study). Other Apulian records: Gargano ( Fraschetti et al. 2002).

Remarks. This species contains intracellular zooxanthellae of the species Symbiodinium microadriaticum   in all endodermal tissues, including eggs and developing planulae; their role in nutrition was described by Svoboda (1981).

References. Broch (1933) as A. pluma   f. typica, A. dichotoma   f. gracilis   , and A. elongata   , in part; Morri (1979 c), Svoboda (1979), Morri (1980 b), Svoboda & Cornelius (1991), Boero & Fresi (1986), Ramil & Vervoort (1992), Medel & Vervoort (1995), Morri & Bianchi (1999), Piraino et al. (1999), Faucci & Boero (2000), Fraschetti et al. (2002), Peña Cantero & García Carrascosa (2002), Bouillon et al. (2004), De Vito (2006), Gravili (2006), Galea (2007), Gravili et al. (2008 a), Puce et al. (2009).