Hoplodrina implacata ( Wileman & West, 1929 )

Wu, Shipher & Owada, Mamoru, 2018, Revision of the Hoplodrina implacata group (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinae: Caradrinini) of Taiwan, with descriptions of four new species, Zootaxa 4455 (3), pp. 571-581: 573-574

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Hoplodrina implacata ( Wileman & West, 1929 )


Hoplodrina implacata ( Wileman & West, 1929) 

( Figs 1 – 3, 6View FIGURES 1–15, 16View FIGURES 16–23, 24, 25View FIGURES 24–30)

Athetis implacata Wileman & West, 1929  , Novitates Zoologicae 35: 6.

Hoplodrina implacata: Sugi, 1982  , 1: 769 (part), 2: 371, pl. 355: 15 (holotype); Poole, 1989: 513; Sugi, 1992: 195; Wang, 1996: 69, fig; Kononenko, 1997: 291 (part), figs 1, 6, 11.

Hoplodrina euryptera: Sugi, 1960: 26  (part), nec Boursin, 1937.

Type examined. Holotype, ♀, “ Type [red circle label]/ ♀ Arizan, Formosa. 7,500 ft. 23. VIII. 1908, A. E. Wileman/ 1480 F/Wileman Coll. B. M. 1929 – 261/ Athetis implacata  W & W Holotype ♀ / Noctuidae Brit. Mus.  slide No. 16050 ♀ / BMNH (E) 1689129” ( NHMUK; photo examined).

Additional material examined. TAIWAN. 1♂, Taichung Ci., Mt. Shueshan, Chika-shanchuang , 2460 m, 13 – VIII – 1990, leg. M. Owada, slide VK3 ( NSMT)  ; 1♂, Nantou Co., Meifeng , 2100 m, 21 – VII – 2015, leg. S. Wu, slide TFRI182429View Materials ( TFRI)  ; 1♂, [Ilan Co.], Taiheizan [= Taipingshan ], 10 – VIII – 1936, leg. E. & S. Asahina, slide NSMT – SW1334View Materials ( NSMT)  ; 1♂, same collecting locality, 9 – VIII – 1936, leg. E. & S. Asahina (NSMT); 1♂, [Taichung Ci.], Kunugiga-oka [= Lishan area ?], 18-VIII-1936, leg. E. & S. Asahina, slide NSMT3065View Materials ( NSMT)  ; 1♂, Hualien Co., Ci’en , 1950 m, 13 – VIII – 2012, leg. S. Wu & W. C. Chang, slide TFRI163412View Materials ( TFRI)  ; 1♂ (slide SS-559♂), 1♀ (slide SS-6051 ♀), Formosa [ Taiwan], leg. T. Kano, ex Sugi Collection ( NIAES; photo examined). 

Diagnosis. This species represents its close affinity to the Chinese H. minimalis Kononenko, 1997  ( Figs 9View FIGURES 1–15, 22View FIGURES 16–23) and the present described new species H. cienensis  sp. nov. and H. obscura  sp. nov. based on the genitalia. In the male genitalia, H. implacata  differs from other three species by the more protruded valval apex; the prominent saccus as V-shaped with acute apex; the curved harpe rather than straight; the less developed cornutus. In Taiwan, judging on the wing patterns, H. obscura  (undistinguished orbicular and reniform stigmas) and H. persequora  (black orbicular and reniform stigmas) are unique, respectively, the characters for separating the remain species are as follows: Hoplodrina implacata  has longer forewing length (15-16 mm) and silver brown coloration rather than shorter forewing length (13–15 mm) and greyish coloration in H. cienensis  . Hoplodrina implacata  and H. bunun  sp. nov. are roughly similar in appearance, but can be easily distinguished by the separated orbicular and reniform stigmata rather than closely adjacent maculae. H. kononenkoi  sp. nov. can also be distinguished well by its unique, nearly straight forewing submarginal line. It should be stressed that H. implacata  appears in July and August and the other species of this group appear from September to November.

Bionomics. Endemic to Taiwan. The species is distributed in mid-elevation broad-leaved forests of central Taiwan. The adults infrequently occur from July to August.

Notes. The female holotype of Hoplodrina implacata  is examined by photo ( Figs 1, 2View FIGURES 1–15) taken by Shen-Horn Yen (National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, NSYSU), the holotype genitalia is examined by photo ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 24–30) taken by Alberto Zilli (NHMUK). Sugi (1960) incorrectly recorded H. euryptera  from Taiwan. Sugi (1982) illustrated the holotype of H. implacata  and synonymized H. euryptera  with it. Kononenko (1997) elucidated the taxonomic problems of these two distinct species and confirmed H. implacata  occurring only in Taiwan according to four specimens. Among the specimens, two are in NSMT and two are in Shigero Sugi’s collection. The two NSMT specimens have been examined, one of them is actually H. kononenkoi  sp. nov. (see the paratype designation part of that species), and another is true H. implacata  . Through a courtesy of Shin-ichi Yoshimatsu (NIAES) and Daisuke Watabiki (Graduate School of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Atsugi, TUAA), we were able to examine photographs of genitalia slides of a pair of “ H. implacata  ” ex Sugi Collection in NIAES, and confirmed that they are true H. implacata  . The slide of female genitalia, SS-6051♀, is illustrated in this paper ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 24–30). According to S. Yoshimatsu (personal communication), there is a species label of H. implacata  in the Sugi Collection box, but a pair of moths are absent, and only the genitalia slides are available. The collector, T. Kano [Tadao Kano], is a so famous pioneering scientist studying on Taiwan natural history, therefore Sugi might separate the two specimens in a special box. The different shape of corpus bursae in holotype and Sugi’s specimen might probably come from copulation or not. Besides, the ductus bursae, the appendix bursae and the transversal signum are similar.


Natural History Museum, London


National Science Museum (Natural History)


Taiwan Fisheries Research Institute


National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences














Hoplodrina implacata ( Wileman & West, 1929 )

Wu, Shipher & Owada, Mamoru 2018

Hoplodrina implacata: Sugi, 1982

Poole, 1989 : 513
Wang, 1996 : 69
Kononenko, 1997 : 291

Hoplodrina euryptera:

Sugi, 1960 : 26