Chelonus (Microchelonus) madagasakarensis Braet et Rousse
Braet, Yves, Rousse, Pascal & Sharkey, Michael, 2012, New data on African Cheloninae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) show a strong biogeographic signal for taxa with spined propodea, Zootaxa 3385, pp. 1-32: 7-11
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|Chelonus (Microchelonus) madagasakarensis Braet et Rousse|
( Figs 15–21View FIGURES 15 – 21)
MALE (Holotype). Body length 4.5 mm, fore wing length 3.2 mm.
Head ( Figs 18–19View FIGURES 15 – 21). Head 0.71 x as length as height (in lateral view). Antennal socket inserted close top of eye. Antenna with 24 flagellomeres (left antenna missing apical segment). Scapus 2.43 as long as wide, longer than first flagellomere, without apical lobe. First flagellomere 5 x as long as wide, shorter than second. Penultimate flagellomere 1.50 x as long as wide, 0.18 x as long as first flagellomere, shorter than apical flagellomere. Apical flagellomere acute. Eye length 1.9 x length of temple (in dorsal view), 1.7 x as high as broad, setose (white setae). Maxillary palpus of normal length (ending between fore and middle coxa). Clypeus flat in lateral view, with horizontal lower margin, without apical teeth, weakly punctate. Malar suture absent. Malar space equal to basal width of mandible, 0.22 x eye height. Face straight in lateral view (with small median bump between toruli), finely rugose, with short, sparse setae. Temple not swollen in dorsal view, striate/rugose, with short, sparse setae. Frons costate/striate, weakly concave, without carina between toruli, without lateral carina. POL 1.75 x ocellar diameter, 2.5 x OOL. Vertex striate, with strong transverse sculpture, with short, sparse setae. Occipital carina complete, joining hypostomal carina at mandible.
Mesosoma ( Figs 19–20View FIGURES 15 – 21). Pronotum areolate and punctate, dorsally without modifications. Pronotal furrow absent. Mesosoma 1.34 x as long as wide in lateral view, 1.17 x as long as wide in dorsal view. Mesoscutum sharply raised anteriorly, at right angle with pronotum, medio-anteriorly coriaceous/acinose (with some weak transverse rugae posteriorly on median lobe), median lobe anteriorly without median groove. Mesoscutum with dense, short setae. Mesoscutum medially, near scutellar sulcus, mostly with large punctures or areola, somewhat longitudinally reticulate. Notaulus present anteriorly, not impressed posteriorly, anteriorly areolate, shortened, ending at middle of mesoscutum; notauli not meeting each other, ending their course in large longitudinally rugulose-reticulate area on medio-posterior part of mesoscutum. Scutellar sulcus transversely long and narrow, 10 x as wide as long, 1.67 x as long as scutellum, smooth, with 8 complete carina. Scutellum with lateral carinae, weakly raised in lateral view (convex), smooth and punctate. Subalar groove areolate. Mesopleuron areolate above sternaulus, areolate to punctate below sternaulus, with short, sparse setae. Precoxal sulcus absent but surface of mesopleuron at this level slightly depressed and with several large, transverse areola looking (this area could be viewed as a faint and large precoxal sulcus transversely rugose/scrobiculate, at least partly) Surface of mesosternum weakly punctate. Propodeum 0.2 x as long as mesosoma (in dorsal view), completely or partly sculptured, rugose/areolate, carinated areas completely absent. Propodeum vertical posteriorly, with short, sparse setae. Propodeal transverse carina short, without acute angles or apophysis. Surface of metapleuron rugulose, with short, sparse setae. Metapleural flange absent. Wings: Pterostigma 2.3 x as long as wide. Marginal cell of fore wing closed distally. Vein r 1.25 x as long as vein 3 -SR, 0.25 x as long as vein SR 1, 0.5 x as long as vein 2 -SR. Vein 2 -SR of fore wing present. Vein 1 -SR+M absent. Vein r-m of fore wing with wide bulla. Vein m-cu interstitial. Vein cu-a of fore wing postfurcal. Vein CU 1 a (relative to cubital vein (2 -CU 1) of fore wing) not interstitial, arising beyond middle of distal vein of subdiscal cell. Vein CU 1 b postfurcal with m-cu. First subdiscal cell of fore wing closed distally (vein 2 cu-a present). Vein 2 – 1 A long. Hind wing vein 1 -SC+R present. Subbasal cell of hind wing of medium size. Hind wing vein M+CU 1.67 x as long as vein 1 -M. Hind wing vein r absent, m-cu absent. Basal cell of hind wing closed. Hind wing vein cu-a present, subbasal cell entirely glabrous. Legs: Fore femur and mid femur not swollen. Hind coxa shortened (less than one third length of metasoma), dorsally and ventrally punctate. Hind femur not swollen, 2.92 x longer than wide. Hind femur with sparse setae, dorsally and ventrally punctate. Hind tibia 5 x as long as wide, 2.35 x longer than hind basitarsus, with dense, stout and rather short setae, apically without specialized patch of setae on its inner side. Hind basitarsus 5.33 x as long as wide, 0.80 as long as tarsomeres 2–5. Tarsal claws with basal lobes.
Metasoma ( Figs 16 –17, 21View FIGURES 15 – 21). Metasoma without sutures on carapace, shape of carapace in dorsal view rectangular, 2.33 x as long as large. Carapace anteriorly longitudinally rugose-areolate, posteriorly with small areolate rugae. Carapace with large, oval apical opening, length of apical opening 1.44 x as long as wide. Carapace ventral opening 0.64 x as long as total length of carapace, presence of ventral border. Apical opening mostly visible in lateral view.
Color. Head entirely orange-yellowish, palpi yellow, mandible light brownish-yellow but brownish apically. Mesosoma yellowish orange, metanotum yellowish, propodeum mostly dark-reddish. Scapus, pedicellus yellowish; flagellomeres light brown. Fore wing lightly infuscate, veins at base of fore wing whitish, veins and pterostigma brownish, parastigma yellowish. Membrane of fore wing weakly infuscate in apical half, more infuscate below stigma, presence of large patch without dark setae (and then the membrane looking lighter) below parastigma until vein CU 1. Hind wing veins yellowish, membrane hyaline. Fore tarsus, mid coxa, mid and hind trochanters, and mid tibia all yellowish; mid femur mostly, mid tarsus light brown except tarsus 5 darker; hind coxa, hind femur, apical third of hind tibia dark-brownish; hind tarsus strongly infuscate; hind tibia on its basal 2 / 3, hind tibial spurs whitish. Basal 0.1 part of carapace with semicircular black patch and apical 0.58 blackish.
Morphological variations. The paratype is entirely similar to holotype.
Hosts records. None.
Comments. This species may be distinguished from all Cheloninae from Madagascar and mainland Africa by the rectangular shape of metasoma and the body color. The apical opening of the metasoma suggests it to be a member of the subgenus Microchelonus . But it differs from all other Microchelonus by the number of flagellomeres.
Etymology. From the name of the country in local language.
Distribution records. Ethiopian ( Madagascar).
Material examined. HOLOTYPE ɗ ( IFENM), Verbatim label data: " Madagascar: Prov. Mahajanga, Umgeb. Katsepy, 17–28.XII. 1993, Madl". PARATYPES: ɗ ( IFENM), same label as the Holotype. Both specimens are in good condition.
FEMALE (Holotype). Body length 3.25 mm, fore wing length 2.8 mm.
Head ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 9 – 14). Head 0.77 x as length as height (in lateral view). Antennal socket inserted near middle level of eye. Antenna with 14 flagellomeres. Scapus 2.10 x as long as wide, apically narrower than its width at mid-length, longer than first flagellomere, without apical lobe. First flagellomere 4 x as long as wide, longer than second flagellomere. Penultimate flagellomere twice as long as wide, 0.33 x as long as first segment, shorter than apical segment, apical segment rather robust and weakly acute apically. Nine last flagellomeres with placodes on half side only, surface lacking placodes smooth. Eye length 2.50 x length of temple (in dorsal view), eye 1.47 x as high as broad, setose with dense, long erect setae. Maxillary palpus of normal length, ending between fore and middle coxa. Clypeus flattened in lateral view, with horizontal lower margin without apical teeth, shining with fine punctures. Malar suture absent but malar space with several rugae between eyes and mandible. Malar space 1.33 x basal width of mandible, 0.36 x eye height. Face straight in lateral view, smooth, shining, finely punctate, with short, sparse setae. Temple not swollen in dorsal view, smooth, shining and very finely sparsely punctate, with short, sparse setae. Frons smooth medially with short transverse striae between antenna and anterior ocellus. Frons flat, without carina between antennal socket or lateral carina. POL 2 x ocellar diameter, 4 x OOL. Vertex smooth (weakly and sparsely punctate), with faint and poorly defined transverse striate sculpture (transversely close to posterior ocelli), with short, sparse setae. Occipital carina complete, joining hypostomal carina at mandible.
Mesosoma ( Figs 11–12View FIGURES 9 – 14). Pronotum smooth (latero-ventrally), medio-laterally sparsely striate/costate and dorsally punctate (all shining). Pronotal furrow small. Mesosoma 1.30 x as long as wide in lateral view, 1.53 x as long as wide in dorsal view. Mesoscutum sharply raised anteriorly, at right angle with pronotum (median lobe weakly protruding anteriorly, in lateral view), medio-anteriorly with large punctures, median lobe without median groove anteriorly. Mesoscutum with short, sparse setae. Surface of mesoscutum areolate medially, near scutellar sulcus. Notaulus entirely absent. Scutellar sulcus 8 x as wide as long, 1.70 x as long as scutellum, smooth. Scutellar sulcus with six complete carina. Scutellum rounded laterally, flattened in lateral view, shining and very finely and sparsely punctate. Subalar groove areolate. Mesopleuron areolate but rather smooth and punctate ventrally, with short, sparse setae. Precoxal sulcus absent. Surface of mesosternum weakly punctate. Propodeum 0.22 x as long as mesosoma (in dorsal view), rugose-areolate, carinated areas absent. No visible transverse carina dividing propodeum.
Propodeum vertical posteriorly, with short, sparse setae. Propodeum laterally with two long spines and medially two (rather acute) apophyses. Median tubercle present and short (as long as wide). Distance between median tubercles shorter than distance between median and lateral tubercles. Propodeal lateral tubercle twice as long as its transverse width, straight, with rounded apex. Surface of metapleuron areolate, with short, sparse setae. Metapleural flange absent. Wings: Pterostigma 2.7 x as long as wide. Marginal cell of fore wing closed distally. Vein r as long as vein 3 -SR, 0.15 x as long as vein SR 1, 0.36 x as long as vein 2 -SR. Vein 2 -SR of fore wing present. Vein 1 -SR+M absent. Vein r-m of fore wing, with wide bulla. Vein m-cu antefurcal or interstitial. Vein cu-a of fore wing, postfurcal. Vein CU 1 a (relative to cubital vein (2 -CU 1) of fore wing) not interstitial, arising behind middle of distal vein of subdiscal cell. Vein CU 1 b interstitial or postfurcal with m-cu. First subdiscal cell of fore wing closed distally (vein 2 cu-a present). Vein 2 – 1 A long. Hind wing vein 1 -SC+R present. Subbasal cell of hind wing distinctly enlarged. Hind wing vein M+CU 1.47 x as long as vein 1 -M. Hind wing vein r absent, m-cu absent. Basal cell of hind wing closed. Hind wing vein cu-a present. Legs: Femora not swollen. Hind coxa shortened, shining, dorsally and ventrally smooth. Hind femur 3.70 x as long as wide. Hind femur with sparse setae, smooth and sparsely punctate. Hind tibia 4.70 x as long as wide, 2.30 x as long as hind basitarsus, with dense, stout and rather short setae, apically without specialized patch of setae on its inner side. Hind basitarsus 6 x as long as wide, 0.75 x as long as tarsomeres 2–5.
Metasoma ( Figs 10, 13– 14View FIGURES 9 – 14). Metasoma without visible sutures on carapace. Carapace areolate anteriorly (with two short median carina), smooth posteriorly (shining). Carapace without apical opening. Carapace ventral opening as long as metasoma, presence of ventral border, carapace weakly emarginate ventro-apically. Hypopigium large and exerted. Genitalia and ovipositor: Ovipositor sheath 0.43 x as long as metasoma. Ovipositor sheath apically weakly spatulated and with small setae, straight, with unmodified, short and thin setae.
Color. Scapus mainly yellowish; apex of scapus, pedicellus brownish, flagellum dark brownish. Head blackish, mandible yellowish (margins only weakly brownish), palpi whitish. Mesosoma entirely blackish. Fore wing hyaline, veins of fore wing brownish, parastigma of fore wing and veins of hind wing yellowish. Legs yellowish; fore tarsus, outer side of mid tibia, mid tarsus, rather infuscate to brownish; hind femur apically testaceous; hind femur mostly whitish on inner side, infuscate elsewhere; hind tarsus entirely infuscate; hind tibial spurs whitish. Carapace entirely yellowish but brownish on its shining apex. Ovipositor entirely yellowish-brown but apically brownish.
Hosts records. None.
Morphological variation. The paratype has the scapus rather orange and the flagellum rather dark yellowish (especially distal segments).
Comments. This species is also very distinctive among all species of African Chelonus . It is the only species which has a yellowish metasoma (except apically) (vs. usually entirely blackish or sometimes with one or two white patch(es) basally), shining apex of metasoma (usually it is rugose or finely areolate). Other species of Chelonus with entirely yellowish carapaces can be found in Europe (e.g., Chelonus erythrogaster Lucas, 1849 ), Africa (e.g., Chelonus mediterraneus Schmiedeknecht et Fahringer, 1934 , C. (M.) ensifer Granger, 1949 ), Oriental region (van Achterberg, personal communication) and at least one undescribed neotropical species. But none of them have a dark patch apically on carapace.
Distribution record. Ethiopian ( La Réunion).
Etymology. A random combination of letters.
Type material. Holotype: Ψ ( MNHN): " La Réunion, K, Sainte-Suzanne, forêt Dugain, 780m ""Piège Malaise au sol, taillis de Psidium cattleianum " 02–08.XII. 2001, Attié Marc leg."" Chelonus sp 3 Ψ, G. Delvare det.". Paratypes: Ψ ( MNHN), "St Denis / Le Brulé, sur fougère, alt. 1150m, VIII. 2003, coll. IDR".
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