Ahermodontus bischoffi ( Všetečka, 1939 )

Byk, Adam, Bezděk, Aleš, Gazurek, Tomasz, Král, David & Tylkowski, Sebastian, 2018, Ahermodontus bischoffi - rediscovery of an endemic dung beetle species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Aphodiinae) in Albania after more than 80 years, Zootaxa 4370 (3), pp. 283-288 : 283-288

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.1145559

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Ahermodontus bischoffi ( Všetečka, 1939 )


Ahermodontus bischoffi ( Všetečka, 1939) View in CoL ( Figs 1A–G View FIGURES 1 , 2A–F View FIGURES 2 )

Aphodius (Ammoecius) bischoffi Všetečka, 1939: 31 View in CoL (original description); Balthasar 1964: 76, 79 (key, redescription); Baraud 1971: 64, 69 (subgeneric placement, key); Mikšić 1971: 68 (checklist); Baraud 1992: 142, 143 (key, diagnosis).

Aphodius bischoffi: Mikšić 1957: 152 View in CoL (checkliST).

Aphodius (Ahermodontus) bischoffi: DellacaSa 1988: 99 View in CoL , 367 (caTalogue); DellacaSa & DellacaSa 2006: 105 (caTalogue). Ahermodontus bischoffi: DellacaSa & DellacaSa 1997: 415 View in CoL (generic PlacemenT, keY); DellacaSa et al. 2002: 279 (reviSion, keY); DellacaSa et al. 2016: 105 (caTalogue).

Type locality. “Albanien (Logara [= Llogara])”.

Type material examined. Albania: Holotype (female), labelled: “LOGARA [printed] || leg. Bischoff | Albania 1934 [printed] || Ammoecius | Bischoffi m. [handWritten] | det. Dr. Všetečka [printed] || Typus [printed, red label, black frame] || Mus. Nat. Pragae | Inv. 65 913 [handWritten, red label] || Ammoecius | bischoffi | Vsetecka, 1939 | Current status | AHERMODONTUS | bischoffi | ( Vsetecka, 1939) | v. Dellacasa, 2001 [printed, ochreous label]”, in NMPC.

Additional material examined. Albania: S of Vlore, Llogara pass, 1050–1100 m, 18.v.2015, M. Šlachta, 1 male in NMPC ; SE of Vlorë, Qafa e Llogarasë pass environs, approximately 950 m, 16.v.2016, K. Orszulik, 1 female in KOFC ; county Vlorë, Llogara, Çikës Mountains , 1200 m, 26.–28.v.2016, A. Byk, T. Gazurek, S. TylkoWski, 60 males and 64 females in DFPE , 1 male and 1 female in IECA.

DeScription of male. Length 3.6–4.7 mm (mean 4.2 mm). Body stout, strongly convex ( Fig. 1A View FIGURES 1 ). Dorsal side lustrous, glabrous, black except broWnish-red margin of clypeus and sometimes 2 lateral elytral intervals. Ventral surface reddish broWn, lustrous, With sparse macrosetation denser on abdominal ventrites. Head appendages and claWs reddish broWn to testaceous.

Head strongly convex. Anterior clypeal margin With 4 upWard directed teeth, median pair longer, narroWer than lateral pair; emargination betWeen median teeth shalloW, on both sides of them markedly emarginate, With narroW marginal rim betWeen lateral teeth and eyes. Genae conspicuously projecting beyond eye outline, finely punctate and macrosetaceous beneath. Anterior part of head Widely transversely carinate, surface steeply deflexed anteriad, delicately rugose and finely granulate betWeen carina and anterior clypeal margin, slightly convex and smooth behind. Frontal suture poorly marked, finely punctate near eyes.

Epipharynx ( Fig. 1B View FIGURES 1 ) Widely transverse, anterior margin shalloWly bisinuate at middle, regularly rounded anteriolaterally. Epitorma subquadrate, sides nearly parallel. Corypha strongly protruding anteriad, Widened and emarginate apically. Acropariae With dense, long macrosetation; prophobae With 3 stout spinules. Chaetopariae With roW of about 25 long, stout spinules. Nesium sclerotized; tormae long, asymmetrical.

Pronotum transverse (length to Width 1.0:1.5), markedly convex, sides slightly convergent anteriad, lateral margins bordered With narroW, marginal rim With short macrosetation. Anterior margin shalloWly, basal broadly rounded. Transverse furroW before narroW basal marginal rim slightly Widenened laterad. Surface With dual punctation: fine punctures regularly distributed throughout, separated by approximately 2-4 times their diameters; coarse punctures dense, distance betWeen them mostly tWice their diameters on sides, sparse or sometimes lacking at middle. Anterior and posterior pronotal margin With macrosetae.

Scutellum small (approximately 1/12 of elytral length), triangular, slightly convex, smooth.

Elytra strongly convex, someWhat Widened posteriad, length to Width 1:1.1; humeral tooth sharply pointed. Surface With 10 Wide and deep, coarsely punctate (Wider, deeper, and coarser posteriolaterally) striae separated by Wide, convex, smooth intervals. Intervals 8 and 9 joined basally forming smooth humeral tubercle; striae 6, 8, and 9 shortened, not reaching elytral apex. Epipleura punctate and shortly macrosetaceous in basal part, gradually narroWed toWards apices. Metathoracic Wings reduced ( Fig. 1C View FIGURES 1 ), narroW, hind margin slightly emarginate apically.

Metaventral plate ( Fig. 2F View FIGURES 2 ) With medial rhomboidal depression distinctly punctate and macrosetaceous anteriorly.

Protibiae With 3 large, external teeth, ventromedial edge With longitudinal carina bearing large tooth situated subbasally. Terminal protibial spur someWhat flattened, slightly bent doWnWards and distinctly forked apically ( Fig. 1D View FIGURES 1 ). Outer surface of mesotibiae and metatibiae With 2 transverse carinae; macrosetae on carinae and apical margin uniformly short. Mesotibial superior terminal spur straight and sharp, as long as mesotarsomere 1 and equal to length of mesotarsomeres 2 and 3 combined; inferior spur strongly flattened, bluntly terminated, hooked inWards ( Fig. 1E View FIGURES 1 ). Both metatibial terminal spurs straight and sharp; superior spur equal in length to metatarsomere 1 and to length of metatarsomeres 2 and 3 combined.

Aedeagus as in Figs 1F–G View FIGURES 1 .

Sexual dimorphiSm. In general habitus male of A. bischoffi is similar to female ( Fig. 2A View FIGURES 2 ) – relevant diagnostic sexual characters are listed in Table 1.

Male Female

ToTal bodY lengTh 3.6–4.7 mm (mean 4.2 mm) ToTal bodY lengTh 3.9–5.2 mm (mean 4.5 mm) Terminal SPur of ProTibia diSTincTlY forked aPicallY ( Fig. 1D View FIGURES 1 ) Terminal SPur of ProTibia SharP or (in old SPecimenS) worn

aPicallY ( Fig. 2C View FIGURES 2 )

Inferior Terminal SPur of meSoTibia STronglY flaTTened, blunT, Inferior Terminal SPur of meSoTibia STraighT and SharP ( Fig. 2D View FIGURES 2 ) hooked inwardS ( Fig. 1E View FIGURES 1 )

Rhomboidal dePreSSion of meTavenTral PlaTe deePer, diSTincTlY Rhomboidal dePreSSion of meTavenTral PlaTe Shallow, SmooTh, PuncTaTe, and macroSeTaceouS anTeriorlY ( Fig. 2F View FIGURES 2 ) and glabrouS ( Fig. 2E View FIGURES 2 )

PoSTerior margin of meTaThoracic wing SlighTlY emarginaTe PoSTerior margin of meTaThoracic wing markedlY emarginaTe aPicallY ( Fig. 1C View FIGURES 1 ) aPicallY ( Fig. 2B View FIGURES 2 )

Specimens collected by A.B., T.G. & S.T. in 2016 Were found in fragments and edges of old relict pine forests ( Pinus heldreichii H. Christ ) ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ) and less frequently in shady places or open terrain, alWays betWeen 900–1400 m – having never been encountered beloW or above this elevation. All specimens Were collected in old, dry excrement of cattle and goat, With no fresh dung noted at this locality. There Were tWo nearby pastures about 200 m aWay With both fresh and old excrement of horses, donkeys and coWs, but no specimens of A. bischoffi Were found there. Both specimens collected by Martin Šlachta in 2015 and Kamil Orszulik in 2016, respectively, Were taken from under stones on a meadoW situated near the place described above. During our studies (end of May) the species Was numerous, but despite intensive search it has not been found beyond the Çikës Mountains or in immediate vicinity. Because no specimens Were found in fresh dung, A. bischoffi seems to be facultative saprophagous rather than coprophagous species.

In light of these observations, population of A. bischoffi presents itself as numerous but geographically restricted: the species is locally distributed and as such endangered. Its effective preservation Will require care for conserving the habitat, old pine forests on the Çikës Mountains, Which does not seem possible Without attempts to artificially develop a neW generation of trees under the canopy of the old trees.


National Museum Prague














Ahermodontus bischoffi ( Všetečka, 1939 )

Byk, Adam, Bezděk, Aleš, Gazurek, Tomasz, Král, David & Tylkowski, Sebastian 2018

Aphodius (Ahermodontus) bischoffi:

DellacaSa 2016: 105
DellacaSa 2006: 105
DellacaSa 2002: 279
DellacaSa 1997: 415
DellacaSa 1988: 99

Aphodius bischoffi: Mikšić 1957 : 152

Miksic 1957: 152

Aphodius (Ammoecius) bischoffi Všetečka, 1939 : 31

Baraud 1992: 142
Baraud 1971: 64
Miksic 1971: 68
Balthasar 1964: 76
Vsetecka 1939: 31
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