Anaphes, Haliday, 1833

Huber, John T. & Thuróczy, Csaba, 2018, Review of Anaphes Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) with key to species in Europe and a world catalogue, Zootaxa 4376 (1), pp. 1-104 : 44-46

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4376.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:04E7DF99-B411-4F40-AA15-50299868BE5D

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5949523

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03FE87E6-FF81-FFC8-C282-EEAECD8C3A90

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Anaphes
status

 

Key to European species of Anaphes . Females

Note. Within Anaphes ( Anaphes ), the species in couplets 11–14 are difficult to distinguish unequivocally. The features used to distinguish flavipes , medius , regulus , and stygius are weak and the synonymies proposed under each are not completely certain. There may be complexes of species within each of the three species or, alternatively, the synonyms proposed are indeed synonyms but under the wrong senior synonym. The authors are not in complete agreement with each other on which synonyms should be under which species and even whether stygius should be treated as separate from under regulus or not. Finally, we may even not have synonymized enough names under one or other of the species we consider valid. Synonyms are listed alphabetically in brackets. Characters such as presence or absence of cross striations on the inner (medial) surface of the scape and relative length of the clava compared to, in particular, fl5 + fl 6 may be useful features to separate some species but need further investigation, even though Soyka used them considerably in his descriptions and keys. Only one Anaphes ( Anaphes ) species, nipponicus, has been described from the eastern Palearctic region. It would key to flavipes, See Samkova et al. (2017) for morphological features to distinguish flavipes from nipponicus.

Within Anaphes ( Patasson ), the last two species keyed, luna and silesicus , are very similar and difficult to distinguish from one another. We may have placed some synonyms under the wrong senior synonym. Alternatively, we may have overestimated the amount of infraspecific variation and therefore placed too many species in synonymy. No Anaphes ( Patasson ) species are described from the Palearctic region east of the Ural mountains.The key could be tried for that area but may not result in correct identifications. Anaphes inexpectatus and A. nitens , introduced from Australia to control Gonipterus spp. on Eucalyptus , are established in parts of southern Europe so are included in the key.

1 Clava 1-segmented (entire) [ Anaphes ( Anaphes )]......................................................... 2

- Clava 2-segmented (divided) [ Anaphes ( Patasson )]....................................................... 15

2(1) Fl2 and fl3 without mps; fore wing with posterior margin slightly outcurved (convex) or straight..................... 3

- Fl2 and fl3 with mps on one or both segments; fore wing with posterior margin slightly incurved (concave)............ 4

3(2) Fl4 without mps [fl5 and fl6 the widest segments]; ovipositor extending forward under mesosoma at most to about level of base of mesocoxa; marginal space about as long as parastigma + stigmal vein......................................................................................................... A. fuscipennis Haliday ( Figs 78 View FIGURE 78 , 79 View FIGURE 79 ) [= capitulatus, filicornis, maculatus, pratensis , neopratensis, stammeri]

- Fl4 with at least one mps; ovipositor extending forward under mesosoma to level of head; marginal space about as long as parastigma + stigmal vein.................................................... A. wolfsthali (Soyka) ( Fig. 87 View FIGURES 86, 87 )

4(2) Funicle with each segment shorter than pedicel length and each not more than 2.0× as long as wide.................. 5

- Funicle with at least one segment longer than pedicel and distinctly more than 2.0× as long as wide.................. 7

5(4) Fl2 with 2 mps; clava 1.6× as long as fl5 + fl6................................. A. quadraticornis (Soyka) ( Fig. 84 View FIGURES83, 84 )

- Fl2 without mps; clava at most 1.5× as long as fl5 + fl6....................................................... 6

6(5) Fl4 with 2 mps; clava same length as fl5 + fl6.................................... A. brevicornis (Soyka) ( Fig. 74 View FIGURES 73, 74 )

- Fl4 without mps; clava 1.5× as long as fl5 + fl6................................. A. globosicornis (Soyka) ( Fig. 82 View FIGURE 82 )

7(4) Fl4 without mps or (in ovipositor) with 1 mps on one or both antenna.......................................... 8

- Fl4 with 2 mps...................................................................................... 9

8(7) Fore wing 9× as long as wide, with longest marginal setae about 1.8× as long as widest wing width; microtrichia long, the apex of any one of them extending just past base of next one; metatarsomere 1 slightly longer than metatarsomere 2............................................................................... A. ensipennis (Soyka) ( Fig. 76 View FIGURES 75, 76 )

- Fore wing at most about 6.2× as long as wide, with longest marginal setae about 1.4× as long as widest wing width; microtrichia shorter, the apex of any one of them at most barely extending to base of next one; metatarsomere 1 slightly shorter than metatarsomere 2................................................... A. ovipositor Soyka ( Fig. 83 View FIGURES83, 84 ) [= brevitarsis, germaniacus (i.e., angustipennis Soyka not Debauche), tenuipennis]

9(7) Metatarsomere 1 distinctly longer than 2...................................... A. crassipennis (Soyka) ( Fig. 75 View FIGURES 75, 76 ) [= acutipennis, aries , cultripennis, dilatatus, fennicus, ferrierei, gracillimus, laticornis , luteicornis , neoserenus, pilosipennis, serenus, siegerfeldi, sulphuripes, tarsalis, thoracicus, wertaneki]

- Metatarsomere 1 at most slightly longer than metatarsomere 2, but usually equal or slightly shorter than 2............ 10

10(9) Fl2 at most 2.4× as long as wide; fl1 + fl2 together not longer than fl3.................. A. gauthieri Debauche ( Fig. 80 View FIGURES 80, 81 ) [= avalae, breviventris, flavus, leonhardwitzi, nigricornis]

- Fl2 at least 2.5× as long as wide; fl1 + fl2 together longer than fl3.............................................. 11

11(10) Fore wing at most 4.4× as long as wide, with marginal setae less than 0.8× maximum wing width; marginal space separated from medial space by double line of microtrichia; hind wing fairly wide, apparently with two irregular rows of several microtrichia............................................................. A. arenbergi Debauche ( Fig. 73 View FIGURES 73, 74 )

- Fore wing at least 4.7× as long as wide, with marginal setae at least 0.9× maximum wing width; marginal space separated from medial space by a single line of microtrichia; hind wing narrower, with at most one irregular line of a few microtrichia................................................................................................. 12

12(11) Clava at most 3.2× as long as wide.................................................................... 13

- Clava at least 3.4× as long as wide.................................................................... 14

13(12) Ovipositor sheaths at least about 1.1× as long as metatibia............................. A. medius (Soyka) ( Fig. 81 View FIGURES 80, 81 ) [= intermedius, lacensis, pulchripennis, ranalteri, speciosus]

- Ovipositor sheaths at most about 1.0× as long as metatibia............................. A. regulus Walker ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ) [= autumnalis, gracilior, soykai (i.e., crassicornis Soyka not Walker)]

14(12) Fore wing with apex narrower and slightly more pointed; clava at least 3.9× as long as wide.................................................................................................... A. flavipes Förster ( Fig. 77 View FIGURE 77 ) [= antoniae, auripes, ciliatus, elegans, lemae , longispinosus, mirabilis, neospecialis, pilicornis, piliscapus, spinosus, varicolor]

- Fore wing with apex wider and slightly more rounded; clava at most 3.8× as long as wide. A. stygius Debauche ( Fig. 86 View FIGURES 86, 87 )

15(1) Back of head with occipital groove short, directed medially towards occipital foramen, thus forming an angle with supraorbital trabecula and strongly diverging away from posterior margin of eye ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 32–35 ); fore wing posterior margin with either a short hyaline section subapically, separating distal dark margin from proximal dark margin or entire posterior margin hyaline, contrasting with dark anterior margin.............................................................. 16

- Back of head with occipital groove longer, not directed medially towards occipital foramen, thus in line with supraorbital trabecula and weakly diverging from posterior margin of eye ( Figs 4 View FIGURES 3–8 , 90c View FIGURE 90 ); fore wing posterior margin almost always without a short hyaline section subapically (e.g. Figs 31 View FIGURES 29–31 , 39 View FIGURES 36–39 , 94 View FIGURES 94, 95 ), the entire posterior and apical margin uniformly dark..... 19

16(15) Marginal and medial spaces small, and medial space delimited posterobasally by at least 3 lines of microtrichia; fl2–fl6 with J- shaped mps (fig. 7 in Huber & Prinsloo 1990; Fig. 60 View FIGURES 60–62 ); fore wing wide, with apex distinctly truncate (fig. 1 in Huber & Prinsloo 1990; Fig. 72 View FIGURES71, 72 )..................................................... A. nitens (Girault) ( Figs 60–72 View FIGURES 60–62 View FIGURES 63, 64 View FIGURES 65, 66 View FIGURES 67, 68 View FIGURES69, 70 View FIGURES71, 72 ) [= gonipteri]

- Marginal and medial spaces larger and more distinct, and medial space delimited posterobasally by 1 line of microtrichia; fl5–fl6 with straight mps (e.g., fig. 9 in Huber & Prinsloo 1990, and figs 43 and 46 in Huber 1992); fore wing narrower, with apex more evenly rounded (e.g., fig. 3 in Huber & Prinsloo 1990, and figs 27 and 28 in Huber 1992)................ 17

17(16) Ovipositor extending forward almost to head, trombone shaped; fl4 without mps (occasionally with 1 mps), the segment shorter and narrower than fl3 or fl5............................................... A. collinus Walker ( Fig. 90 View FIGURE 90 ) [= aestivus, aterrimus, declinatus, discolor, discolorsimilis, latus, minor, nigerrimus, ornatus, ovatus, pallidus, pallipes, relictus, stubaiensis, tenuis , trijohanni ]

- Ovipositor extending forward at most to level of mesocoxa; fl4 with 2 mps (occasionally with 1 mps in inexpectatus or no mps in brevis , the segment usually as long and wide as fl3 or fl5, but sometimes shorter ( Figs 36, 37 View FIGURES 36–39 )................. 18

18(17) Funicle segments longer, length/width of fl2–fl5 each at least 3.1...................... A. brevis Walker ( Figs 32–49 View FIGURES 32–35 View FIGURES 36–39 View FIGURES 40, 41 View FIGURES 42, 43 View FIGURES 44, 45 View FIGURES 46, 47 View FIGURES 48, 49 ) [= brunneus, latipterus, maculicornis, malchinensis, maradonae , pectoralis, pinguicornis, rotundipennis]

- Funicle segments shorter, Length/width of fl2–fl5 each at most 2.9...... A. inexpectatus Huber & Prinsloo ( Figs 50–59 View FIGURES 50, 51 View FIGURES 52, 53 View FIGURES 54, 55 View FIGURES 56, 57 View FIGURES58, 59 )

19(15) Fl2–fl4 without mps; fore wing narrow and parallel sided, its width near apex equal to width at apex of venation............................................................................. A. angustipennis Debauche ( Fig. 88 View FIGURES 88, 89 )

- Fl2–fl4 with 1 or 2 mps on at least one of the segments, usually on two or three of them........................... 20

20(19) Fl2 with 1 or 2 mps................................................................................. 21

- Fl2 without mps................................................................................... 24

21(20) Fl2 with 1 mps.......................................................... A. debilipennis (Soyka) ( Fig. 93 View FIGURES92, 93 ) [superadditus]

- Fl2 with 2 mps.................................................................................... 22

22(21) Fl6 at most 2.2× as long as wide................................................ A. maialis Debauche ( Fig. 99 View FIGURES 98, 99 ) [= aequus, devius, semiflavus, vulgarisimilis]

- Fl6 at least 3.0× as long as wide....................................................................... 23

23(22) Fore wing narrow, at least 6.0× as long as wide; ovipositor shorter than gaster, at most 0.8× as long as metatibia, not extending under mesosoma; metatarsomere 1 distinctly longer than metatarsomere 2 [scape narrow, with ventral margin not very convex; fore wing with marginal space long]................................... A. lineipennis (Soyka) ( Fig. 95 View FIGURES 94, 95 ) [= chrysomelae , dessarti, longipennis, obscurus, semimedius]

- Fore wing wider, at most 5.6× as long as wide; metatarsomere 1 at most only slightly longer than metatarsomere 2; ovipositor at least as long as gaster, at least 1.1× as long as metatibia........ A. longicornis Walker (part) ( Figs 96, 97 View FIGURES 96, 97 [male]) [= acutiventris , additus , archettii, ater, balteatus, campestris, communis, consimilis, distinctus, dubius, duplicatus, elongatus, eulongicornis , fabarius, falsus, flavitarsis, kressbachi, leptoceras , longior, malkwitzi, neodistinctus, neoflavus, pallidicornis, pannonicus, piceicornis, rufus, timidus]

24(20) Ovipositor not extending forward under mesosoma, shorter than almost globular and apically rounded gaster and less than 0.7× as long as metatibia; fl2 shorter than pedicel and shorter than fl3, at most 1.7× as long as fl1.................................................................................................. A. diana (Girault) ( Fig. 94 View FIGURES 94, 95 ) [= apilosus, compressus, globosus, heterotomus, lameerei , minimus, niger, parciventris, reductus, valkenburgicus]

- Ovipositor extending at least slightly forward under mesosoma and at least 1.1× as long as metatibia; fl2 almost always at least as long as pedicel, at least as long as fl3 and at least 2.0× as long as fl1.................................... 25

25(24) Metatarsomere 1 distinctly longer than metatarsomere 2................................................... 26

- Metatarsomere 1 shorter, equal to or, at most, barely longer than metatarsomere 2............................... 27

26(25) Fore wing at least 8.0× as long as wide.................................... A. parallelipennis (Soyka) ( Fig. 100 View FIGURES 100, 101 ) [= rectipennis]

- Fore wing at most 6.0× as long as wide.......................................... A. longicornis Walker (part) [gabitzi, medioacutus, sibbei]

27(25) Ovipositor at least 1.7× as long as metatibia length................................. A. crassus (Soyka) ( Fig. 89 View FIGURES 88, 89 ) [= stratipennis]

- Ovipositor at most 1.6× as long as metatibia length....................................................... 28

28(27) Fore wing at least 9.0× as long as wide......................................... A. crassipilis (Soyka) ( Fig. 92 View FIGURES92, 93 ) [linearis]

- Fore wing at most 7.6× as long as wide................................................................. 29

29(28) Fore wing with microtrichia on dorsal surface of membrane long, the apex of microtrichia usually overlapping the base of the next............................................................... A. crassicornis (Walker) ( Fig. 91 View FIGURE 91 ) [arcuatus, fortipennis, longipilis, nemorosus, lucidus, serbicus, variatus, weidenhofi]

- Fore wing with microtrichia on dorsal surface of membrane shorter, the apex of each not usually extending to base of the next............................................................................................. 30

30(29) Metatarsomere 1 as long as metatarsomere 2; fl2 usually as long as fl3..................... A. luna (Girault) ( Fig. 98 View FIGURES 98, 99 ) [aequipennatus, albipes, bicolor , brachygaster , devillei , differens, dorcas , euryale , hundsheimensis, neobrevior, neustadti, ordinarius, palliditarsis, pilosissimus, speciosior, swiedecki, vulgaris, wratislawensis]

- Metatarsomere 1 shorter than metatarsomere 2; fl2 usually shorter than fl3.............. A. silesicus (Soyka) ( Fig. 101 View FIGURES 100, 101 ) [brevior, calvescens , exiguus, exiguosimilis, flavicornis, neobrevior, obsoletus, pellucens, similis]

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Mymaridae