Astrotischeria trilobata Diškus & Stonis,

Jonas R. Stonis, Arūnas Diškus, Fernando Carvalho Filho & Owen T. Lewis, 2018, American Asteraceae-feeding Astrotischeria species with a highly modified, three-lobed valva in the male genitalia (Lepidoptera, Tischeriidae), Zootaxa 4469 (1), pp. 1-69: 14-27

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Astrotischeria trilobata Diškus & Stonis

sp. nov.

Astrotischeria trilobata Diškus & Stonis  , sp. nov.

( Figs. 9, 10View FIGURES 7–10, 20–69View FIGURES 20–27View FIGURES 28–33View FIGURES 34–37View FIGURES 38–42View FIGURES 43–45View FIGURES 46–50View FIGURES 51–53View FIGURES 54–62View FIGURES 63–69, 233View FIGURE 233, 245–248View FIGURES 245–248)

Type material. Holotype: ♂, BOLIVIA, Nor Yungas Province, Coroico , 16°11'54"S, 67°43'13"W, elevation 1650 m, mining larva on Austroeupatorium inulaefolium (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob.  ( Asteraceae  ), 26.iv.2014, ex pupa v.2014, field card no. 5166, A. Diškus, genitalia slide no. AD752 ♂ (ZMUC)GoogleMaps  . Paratypes: 4 ♂, 10 ♀, same label data as holotype, genitalia slide nos AD749 ♂, AD751 ♂, AD912♀, AD914♀, head and forewing venation slide no. AD913♀ (ZMUC); 7♂, 7♀, 16°12'24"S, 67°43'54"W, 1680 m, on Austroeupatorium  , 07–, card no. 5237, A.Diškus, J.R. Stonis, 5 ♂, ECUADOR, Loja Province, Vilcabamba, 4°16'06"S, 79°10'40"W, elevation 1990 m, 22.i.2017, field card no. 5225, A. Diškus, genitalia slide nos AD910♂ (from mature pupa, adult not preserved), AD915♂ (ZMUC).

Diagnosis. The combination of two very wide, apically pointed dorsal lobes of valva and the rather slender but pointed apical lobes of phallus in the male genitalia distinguishes A. trilobata  sp. nov. from all other Astrotischeria  , including other members of the A. trilobata  group. The fact that it feeds on Austroeupatorium  also makes this species distinctive.

Male ( Figs. 28, 32View FIGURES 28–33, 34–36View FIGURES 34–37). Forewing length: 2.8–3.5 mm; wingspan: 6.3–7.3 mm. Head: face and palpi pale ochre; frontal tuft comprised of ochre cream and some grey-ochre lamellar scales; antenna with about 42 segments, distinctly longer than half the length of forewing; flagellum metallic grey, annulated with grey-black to black; sensillae very long and fine, cream. Thorax and tegula ochre, speckled with grey-black scales, particularly densely anteriorly. Forewing of the Bolivian specimens ( Figs. 28–33View FIGURES 28–33, 37View FIGURES 34–37) densely speckled with black scales (with metallic grey bases) only laterally; a characteristic, very wide but sinuous longitudinal zone left non-speckled, orangeochre; forewing of the Ecuadorian specimens ( Figs. 34–36View FIGURES 34–37) darker: sometimes black scales irrorate almost whole forewing with no ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 34–37) or very little dark ochre longitudinal zone left ( Figs. 34, 35View FIGURES 34–37); fringe black-grey on costal margin and tornus, distinctly greyish ochre on termen; fringe-line distinct, formed by black scales; forewing underside brown-black to grey-black, without spots or androconia. Hindwing very slender, black-grey to black on both upper and underside, without androconia; fringe blackish grey. Legs densely speckled with grey scales with little purple iridescence, distally ochreous cream on upper side. Abdomen dark metallic grey to black-grey with some blue and purple iridescence on upper side and laterally, ochreous cream on underside; anal tufts rather indistinct, grey on upper side; genital plates ochreous cream.

Female ( Figs. 20–27View FIGURES 20–27, 29–31, 33View FIGURES 28–33, 37View FIGURES 34–37). Similar to male but forewing pattern usually brighter; sometimes thorax without dark scales, purely ochre. Otherwise as male.

Male genitalia ( Figs. 9, 10View FIGURES 7–10, 38–50View FIGURES 38–42View FIGURES 43–45View FIGURES 46–50). Capsule 505–560 µm long, 240–280 µm wide. Uncus ( Figs. 42View FIGURES 38–42, 44–47View FIGURES 43–45View FIGURES 46–50) consisting of two long lateral lobes and two short, rounded median lobes ( Figs. 42View FIGURES 38–42). Valva divided ( Figs. 9, 10View FIGURES 7–10, 39View FIGURES 38–42, 45–47View FIGURES 43–45View FIGURES 46–50): ventral lobe slender, 50–85 µm wide, 305–340 µm long (excluding basal process); dorsal lobes consisting of two lobes: an inwardly curved, distally pointed, 160 µm long lobe ( Figs. 11, 12View FIGURES 11–15, 38View FIGURES 38–42, 43, 45–47View FIGURES 43–45View FIGURES 46–50) and longer, slightly dentate ( Figs. 44View FIGURES 43–45, 48View FIGURES 46–50), distally pointed lobe ( Figs. 9, 10View FIGURES 7–10, 38View FIGURES 38–42, 45View FIGURES 43–45, 48View FIGURES 46–50); transtilla absent; basal process of valva long ( Figs. 38View FIGURES 38–42, 43View FIGURES 43–45, 47View FIGURES 46–50). Anellus thickened, with 3–4 setae laterally ( Figs. 38View FIGURES 38–42, 47View FIGURES 46–50), and two rounded apical lobes ( Figs. 41View FIGURES 38–42, 43View FIGURES 43–45). Phallus 400–435 µm long, distally deeply bifurcated, without spines ( Figs. 40View FIGURES 38–42, 49, 50View FIGURES 46–50).

Female genitalia ( Figs. 51–53View FIGURES 51–53). Total length 1135–1200 mm. Ovipositor small, clothed with short, stout and darker, modified setae (‘peg setae’) ( Figs. 51, 53View FIGURES 51–53); area between ovipositor lobes triangularly shaped ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 51–53), with tiny papillae and some setae. Second pair of lobes, lateral and anterior to the ovipositor lobes, significantly smaller, bearing very long slender setae. Anterior and posterior apophyses very long and stout, particularly the posterior ones ( Figs. 51, 53View FIGURES 51–53); remaining three apophysis pairs ( Figs. 51, 52View FIGURES 51–53) formed as slender rod-like and wide lobe-like projections (prela, Fig. 53View FIGURES 51–53). Tips of one pair of rod-like prela articulating with anterior apophyses in a groove in half of their length ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 51–53). Vestibulum without antrum, however vestibulum may look thickened laterally because of prela ( Fig. 52View FIGURES 51–53). Ductus bursae widened posteriorly, with pectinations (numerous indistict, blunt spines). Corpus bursae round ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 51–53), without spines or signum. Ductus spermathaecae very narrow, with about 4.5 coils ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 51–53), utriculus very small, oval-shaped ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 51–53).

Bionomics ( Figs. 54–69View FIGURES 54–62View FIGURES 63–69). Host plant: Austroeupatorium inulaefolium (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Rob.  , Asteraceae  , a plant species native to South America, from Panama to Argentina and possessing some antimicrobial activity against intracellular and extracellular organisms (Bua et al. 2017). Mining larvae recorded from January (in southern Ecuador) and April, June (in Bolivia). Blotch mine (at early stage triangular, afterwards irregular, Figs. 57–69View FIGURES 54–62View FIGURES 63–69) either without frass or usually with little black or brown-black loose or compact granules of frass irregularly deposited predominantly in the narrow corner of the mine ( Figs. 58, 60, 61View FIGURES 54–62, 69View FIGURES 63–69); the initial, slender part of leaf mine sometimes looks pale green because the unconsumed upper tissue of plant ( Figs. 57–61View FIGURES 54–62, 69View FIGURES 63–69); old leaf mine usually looks pale brown or whitish brown. Silk-lined nidus inside of the mine usually rather indistinct. Larva pale yellowish green, with dark green intestine and blackish brown head ( Figs. 62–65View FIGURES 54–62View FIGURES 63–69). Mining larva better visible from underside of the leaf than upper side; sometimes larva can hardly be seen, particularly in early stages of development because the larva can hide itself in the narrow part of the leaf. Pupation inside of leaf mine, in a silklined nidus, without cocoon; pupa brown. Exit slit on usually on upper side, only sometimes on underside of the leaf. Adults known from February and May, July.

Distribution ( Fig. 233View FIGURE 233). Known from the south Ecuadorian ( Figs. 245–247View FIGURES 245–248) and Bolivian ( Fig. 248View FIGURES 245–248) Andes at the elevation of about 1600–2000 m.

Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin tris (three) and lobatus (lobed) in reference to the threelobed valva in the male genitalia.