Crematogaster montenigrinus, Karaman, M., 2008
Karaman, M., 2008, Two new species of the Crematogaster scutellaris group, Crematogaster gordani, sp. nov. and C. montenigrinus sp. nov. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Crna Gora (Montenegro) with key of, Natura Montenegrina, Podgorica 7, pp. 5-24: 14-19
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Crematogaster scutellaris schmidti atratula Zimmermann HNS , 1934: 24; Crematogaster scutellaris HNS smidti(sic!) var. atratula Santschi HNS , 1937: 311; Crematogaster scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. atratula Bolton HNS , 1995: 148.
Material examined: 2 workers, Opatovo (Boka Kotorska Bay), August 18, 1985, leg. M. G. Karaman; 1 worker, West Mouth of Bojana River (Velika Plaža, Ulcinj), July 16, 2004, leg. M. G. Karaman.
Type material: Holotype (1 worker marked by 02-08) and paratype (1 worker marked by 957P) are deposited in Natural History Museum of Montenegro, Podgorica.
Deposition of additional paratype: KARAMAN's Collection in Podgorica (Crna Gora) (1 worker marked by M-254H)
Diagnosis: Head is, in frontal view, without sculpture, smooth and shining. Thorax finely sculptured, covered with sparse, appressed silvery hairs. Propodeal spines are long, acute, with gently upcurved tips, length of spines is about 2,5 times as long as their basal width. On mesonotum appears distinct longitudinal keel. Whole body, including appendages, dark brown to black. Base of gaster, around the joint edge, is brighter, rest of abdomen is black.
HOLOTYPE, WORKER (Figs. 13-15; Plate 1: G-I):
Total lenght: 3 mm. Head is, in frontal view, without sculpture, smooth and shining, covered with silvery appressed pubescence, these hairs are separated at their bases by a distance equal as length of hairs. Antennal scape is covered with dense, appressed hairs. Mandibles are paler than rest of the head, longitudinally striated, bearing 3-4 teeth each.
Sculpture of thorax weak, covered with sparse, appressed silvery hairs. Propodeal spines are long, acute, with tips gently upcurved, length of spines is about 2,5 times as long as their basal width. On mesonotum appears distinct longitudinal keel. Mesopropodeal furrow deeply impressed. Petiole trapezoid, like that in other species of scutellaris HNS complex.
Abdominal segments entirely covered with longitudinally oriented, appressed, long silvery hairs whose bases are separated by distance equal as half length of a hair.
Colour: Whole body, including appendages, dark brown to black. Base of gaster, around the joint edge, is brighter, rest of abdomen is black. Total length, measurement of 3 workers: 2.9-3.1 mm.
Crematogaster montenigrinus HNS , sp. nov. belongs to C. scutellaris HNS group of species. Total body length of workers of this species is smallest in compare with other workers of this group in south Europe. Body colour is generaly dark brown to black, as in C. laestrygon HNS and C. algirica HNS . But C. montenigrinus HNS has distinctly longer propodeal spines (compare with C. laestrygon HNS ) and smaller total body lenght (compare with C. algirica HNS ). Workers of Crematogaster montenigrinus HNS has weaker sculptured thorax than those in C. schmidti HNS . Longitudinal keel less prominent compare with that in C. schmidti HNS and C. gordani HNS .
The name of the species is derived from the place where Zimmermann (1934) and we collected samples: Montenegro (Crna Gora).
Crematogaster scutellaris schmidti atratula HNS described by ZIMMERMAN (1934), has remained uninvestigated ever since. Apart from a citation by SANTSCHI (1937), BOLTON (1995) and JOHNSON (2007), no other data of this taxon appear in the literature.
The original description was based upon workers collected near the Monastery Sveta Savina, Herceg Novi, on the Adriatic coast of Crna Gora (Montenegro). Original description given by Zimmermann:
„Das ganze Tier fast gleichmäßig dunkelschwarzbraun, nahezu schwarz, Gaster kaum dunkler, Fühler und Beine nur wenig heller als Kopf und Thorax, somit sehr bedeutend dunkler als die Form jonia, bei der auch die dunkelsten Stücke, die wir gesehen haben, einen beträchtlichen Farbenunterschied zwischen Gaster und Vorderkörper aufweisen. Oberflächenskulptur des Kopfes, Form des Thorax und der Dornen wie bei C. scutellaris schmidti HNS , die Oberseite des Thorax ebenso wie bei dieser kräftig längsgerunzelt; auf dem Mesonotum ein deutlicher Mittelkiel. - Die neue Form unterscheidet sich von C. scutellaris schmidti HNS , bezw. jonia aber auch durch ihre Größe: sie ist beträchtlich und konstant kleiner als diese, nämlich 3'0 - 3'4 mm lang, während C. scutellaris schmidti HNS , bezw. jonia 3'5 - 4'0 mm."
SANTSCHI (1937) mentioned this species in his key to the workers of scutellaris HNS group of species: „- Tête et thorax brun rouge plus ou moins foncé. Balkans, Egée... sp. scutellaris HNS smidti var. ionia For. HNS ; - ou noirâtre, Dalmatie... var. atratula Zimm. HNS "
BOLTON (1995) mentioned that Crematogaster scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. atratula Zimmermann HNS , 1935 (sic!):21 (w.) YUGOSLAVIA is unavailable name, in accordance with ICZN rules. Finally, Crematogaster scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. atratula HNS has been treated as junior synonim of C. schmidti HNS (JOHNSON, 2007).
We collected the material of this taxon from coast of Montenegro, establishing distinct taxonomical differences from other species of this group. By this way, we established new species Crematogaster montenigrinus HNS sp. nov. (ICZN articles 23.3.5; 45.5.1) (ICZN, 2000).
COMMENTS AND DISCUSSION
Body of workers of Crematogaster montenigrinus HNS is by colour similar to that of Crematogaster auberti HNS , dark brown to black. Clear distinction between these taxa is prominent keel on alitrunk, present in C. montenigrinus HNS , missing in C. auberti HNS . Similar body colour appears also in C. laestrygon HNS , but in this species propodeal spines are smaller than these in C. montenigrinus HNS .
Variety nigra HNS ( C. scutellaris var. nigra Krausse HNS , 1912), is described from Sardinia, with only one sentence in original description: «Diese neue schwarzköpfige Varietät entdeckte ich bei». EMERY (1916) mentioned that Krausse had collected entirely black workers mixed with workers provided with red heads and concluded that it might be colour variety, only (C. scutellaris var HNS . (aberr.?) nigra HNS ). In his key to the worker caste from Italy, he mentioned that the sculpture of var. nigra HNS is the same as that in C. scutellaris HNS . BARONI-URBANI (1971) considered var. nigra HNS as synonym of C. scutellaris HNS .
C. laestrigon var. maura Forel HNS , 1909, was found in Algeria and originaly described as Crematogaster auberti r. laestrygon var. maura HNS . The workers of this variety is with smaller propodeal spines than those in C. montenigrinus HNS , propodeum is only bituberculate («Les épines du métanotum sont presque dentiformes», FOREL, 1909). Worker body size is distinctly longer (L= 4.0 - 4.8 mm) than that in C. montenigrinus HNS (2.9-3.1 mm).
C. laestrygon var. atlantis Santschi HNS , 1937, described from Algeria and Tunisia, is with body dark brown to black in workers. Its propodeal spines are smaller than those in montenigrinus HNS . SANTSCHI, in his original description, mentioned that those spines in workers of var. atlantis HNS are shorter than those in C. laestrygon HNS .
The smallest workers in C. scutellaris HNS complex (L= 2.7-3.2 mm) appear in C. scutellaris var. alii Forel HNS , 1907. F O R E L, in his original description, observes that body colour of var. alii HNS likes that in C. schmidti HNS (base of gaster is redish brown, rest of gaster is brown). Propodeal spines are shorter than those in C. schmidti HNS , and longer than those in C. jehovae HNS .
Other species, races and varietes of genus Crematogaster HNS with trapezoidal petiole and propodeal keel on alitrunk cited for Europe, Near East, Mediterraneann or North Africa, can not be confused with Crematogaster montenigrinus HNS , as follow:
C. scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. hybrida Emery HNS , 1916, described from Italy, are with body colour intermediate between C. scutellaris HNS and C. schmidti HNS . It is unavailable name (AGOSTI & COLLINGWOOD, 1987);
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