Zelus conjungens ( Stal , 1860)
Zhang, Guanyang, Hart, Elwood R & Weirauch, Christiane, 2016, A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens, Biodiversity Data Journal 4, pp. 8150-8150: 8150
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|Zelus conjungens ( Stal , 1860)|
Zelus atripes Champion, 1898, p. 259, Tab. XV. fig. 22, orig. descr. and fig.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Maldonado, 1990, p. 326, cat. syn. nov. (current study).
Type status: Lectotype. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00041000; occurrenceRemarks: Lectotype of Zelusconjungens ( Stål, 1860). (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Rio Jan / Stal / Lectotype Zelusconjungens (Stal) / designated by E.R.Hart / NHRS-GULI 000000320; recordedBy: Stal; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusconjungens; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: ( Stål, 1860); Location: country: BRAZIL; stateProvince: Rio de Janeiro; locality: unknown ; verbatimElevation: NHRS-GULI 000000320; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2013; Event: eventDate: No date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: NHRS Type status: Paralectotype. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00041000; occurrenceRemarks: Paralectotype of Zelusconjungens ( Stål, 1860). (New Designation by Zhang, Hart & Weirauch, 2016). Verbatim label info: Rio Jan / Stal / Lectotype Zelusconjungens (Stal) / designated by E.R.Hart / NHRS-GULI 000000320; recordedBy: Stal; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusconjungens; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: ( Stål, 1860); Location: country: BRAZIL; stateProvince: Rio de Janeiro; locality: unknown ; Event: eventDate: No date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: NHRS Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Holotype of Zelusatripes Champion, 1898 (junior synonym of Zelusconjungens). Bears the following labels: Type / Panama (Bouchard) / Zelusatripes Ch. / B.C.A. Sp. figured; recordedBy: Boucard; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelusconjungens; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: ( Stål, 1860); Location: country: PANAMA; Record Level: institutionCode: BMNH
Figs 57, 58, 59
Male: (Fig. 57a, b, c) Large, total length 16.64-19.80 mm (mean=18.34 mm, Suppl. material 2); robust. COLORATION: Variably yellowish-brown to brownish-black. Dorsal surface of head brown, mixed brownish-black; ventral surface brown. Anterior pronotal lobe variably brown to brownish-black, nearly entirely brownish-black in some specimens, never entirely yellowish-brown, with at least brownish-black spots. Posterior pronotal lobe usually brownish-black in center, margins yellowish-brown, entirely yellowish-brown in occasional specimens. Corium and clavus with proximal portion brownish-black, distal portion yellowish-brown, entire surface yellowish-brown in some specimens. Legs with or without bands. Lateral and ventral surfaces varying from most yellowish-brown with brownish-black spots to nearly entirely brownish-black. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Very similar to that in Z. armillatus ; adpressed setae more sparse. STRUCTURE: Head: Cylindrical, L/W = 2.29. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye smallish; lateral margin only slightly wider than postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 1.4: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter smaller than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle bearing small projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc slightly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with short tuberculate processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex blunt, very slightly projected upward. Legs: Robust. Hemelytron: Slightly surpassing apex of abdomen, not more than length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell large and broad; Cu and M of cubital cell converging towards R. GENITALIA: (Fig. 58) Pygophore: Ovoid; slightly expanded laterally near base of paramere in dorsal view; posteriorly expanded sac-like sclerite between paramere and medial process. Medial process robust; broad; short; posteriorly directed; basally slightly protruding; apex in posterior view truncate, with very inconspicuous lateral prongs. Paramere: Cylindrical; moderately long, not reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad; slightly curved dorsad; apical part not enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite shield-shaped; lateral expansion arising close to base; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, flat, laterally angulate; apex rounded; posterior margin of foramen broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally separate. Basal plate arm moderately robust; separate; converging; in lateral view slightly curved; bridge moderately long; extension of basal plate expanded onto arm.
Female: (Fig. 57d, e, f) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 20.74-22.64 mm (mean 21.68 mm, Suppl. material 2). Mesofemur swollen.
Among species of the Zelus armillatus species group, the medial process in Z. conjungens is the broadest, being more than 2x the diameter of paramere and more than 1.5x the diameter of ocellus. Other characters helpful for identification may include the lateral processes on apex of medial process minute, inconspicuous. Most similar to Z. armillatus , but can be separated by characters aforementioned, and also the lateral expansion on dorsal phallothecal sclerite close to basal arm not as sharp process. In females the mesofemur is swollen nearly throughout, much thicker than profemur, which will serve as a basis for separation from the females of Z. armillatus .
Southern Central America, northern South America and Southern Brazil (Fig. 59). Countries with specimen records: Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Venezuela and Brazil.
Mayr (1866) synonymized Z. conjungens with Z. armillatus , the former as the junior synonym. We here resurrect this species on the basis of the characters described in the diagnosis. Two disjunct populations are recognized for this species, one in Southern Brazil and another in Central America and Northern South America. The latter represents a species formerly described by Champion, Z. atripes , which is here considered conspecific with Z. conjungens , as in both species the females show a swollen femur and the medial processes of males are broad. However, male genitalia of the two populations are somewhat different and may warrant a further closer examination. In any area in which the species occurs there is apparently a great range of color and pattern variations, but there does seem to be a general trend toward the lighter colorations in Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.
Van der Heyden et al. (2014) reported this species as Z. armillatus when it was first discovered from Costa Rica. That identification is incorrect and should have been Z. atripes , which is now a synonym of Z. conjungens . Zelus armillatus does not occur in Central America.
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