Prosaspicera optivus Quinlan, 1979

Ros-Farré, P. & Pujade-Villar, J., 2006, Revision of the genus Prosaspicera Kieffer, 1907 (Hym.: Figitidae: Aspicerinae), Zootaxa 1379 (1379), pp. 1-102 : 39-41

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Prosaspicera optivus Quinlan, 1979


Prosaspicera optivus Quinlan, 1979

( Figs 25a & 26a)

Prosaspicera optivus Quinlan, 1979: 108 .

Type material: ( 1 ♀). HOLOTYPE female ( NHM), 10-I- 1975 in Cayo Dist. , Central Farm, on Zea mays , ( CONGO), R. Arkers col. (Id 1644).

Additional material (1♂ & 22 ♀). EL SALVADOR: 1 ♀ ( USNM), 16-I-1959, Santa Tecla , P. A. Berry col. ; 1♀ ( UB), 6-VI-1958, San Andrés , O. L. Cartwright col. ; 1 ♀ ( USNM), 20-VIII- 1972 in Cerro Verde summit, G. F. & S. Hevel col. ; COSTA RICA: 2 ♀ ( CAS), 23 and 24-VII- 1965 in Cartago, Turricalba 2000', H. G. Real col. ; 2 ♀ ( UCR), 20- V- 1983 in Limon, Los Diamantes , Guapiles, 200m, P. Hanson col. ; 1 ♀ ( CNCI), VIII- 1980, San Isidoro , 700-800m, N. L. H. Krauss col. ; ECUADOR: 1 ♀ ( UB), 16-V- 1975 in Napo, Baeza (72 Km E), in seep, water-fall ele, 4200m., A. B. Gurney col. ; GUATEMALA: 1 ♀ ( CAS), 17-VIII- 1963 in Nueva Concepción , D. Q. Cavagnaro & M. E. Irwin col. ; PANAMA: 1 ♀ ( USNM), 26-VIII- 1918 in Pueblo Bravo , papaya plantation A574, H. Morrison col. ; PERU: 1 ♀ ( USNM), 28-II-1978, Cusco, 30-50km W of Quincemil. P.M. Marsh col. 1 ♀ ( CAS) 17-IX-1954, 10mi. SW.las Palmas , Huanuco, 1000m, E. I. Slinger

& E. S. Ross col.; BRAZIL: 1 ♀ ( NHM), II- 1937 in Nova Teutonia 27º11' B. 52º23' L., F. Plaumann col.; MEXICO: 1 ♀ ( USNM), 28-II-1936, nº 12399 , Browniu col.; VENEZUE- LA: 1 ♀ ( CAS), 10/ 13-IX- 1957 in Guanare , estado Portugesa, B. Malkin col.; USA: 1 ♀ ( UB) 19-IV- 1952 in Grenville S.C., G. & L. Townes col.; 1 ♀ ( CAS), 13-IX- 1951 in Columbia S. C., L. & G. Townes col.; 1 ♂ ( MHMLAC), 18-VI- 1919 in Washington D. C. , R. M. Fouts col.; REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA: 1 ♀ ( UB), 26/XI/1991, Independencia, 32km MW La Descubierta, Sierra Neiba, 1850m, cloud forest trail ., Masner & Peck col.; 1 ♀ ( CNCI), 17/ 19-I-1989, Sierra de Bahoruco, ' Las Abejas’ , 1300m; dry montane for ., L. Masner leg.; HONDURAS: 1 ♀ ( CNCI), 2/IV/1988, Merida 2km NW La Azulita, Honduras , T. Finnamore & L. G. Baxfield sweep .; TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: 1 ♀ ( UB), X-1959, Orange Grove 6mi, E. of St.Augustine .

Diagnosis. Prosaspicera optivus is similar to P. similis and P. ensifera because they have a very wide parascutal sulcus, scutellum in lateral view sloping towards basis of scutellar spine, scutellar foveae very deep with a conspicuous posterior margin and vertex incised. Nevertheless, in P. optivus the scutellar carina ( Fig. 25a) is longer and more robust than in P.similis ( Fig. 25b), and shorter than in P. ensifera ( Fig. 23a), the notauli are wider than in P.similis ; the vertex is more incised than in P.similis , but not so strongly incised as in P. ensifera ( Fig. 6c).

Redescription. Length. Females 2.7–3.4 mm.; male 3.2 mm.

Coloration. Head black or reddish black. Mesosoma black, laterally black to reddish brown. Legs and antenna yellowish brown to medium brown. Metanotum reddish black.

Head. Frons coriaceous, with longitudinal furrow from central ocellus to antennal foramina. Lateral frontal carinae prominent, area between them and eye coriaceous. Occipital carina conspicuously angled behind dorsal 1/3 of eye. Gena very wide, expanded, glabrous and coriaceous, with short transverse carinae and sometimes shining. Vertex widely incised, centrally flat, shining and smooth or weakly coriaceous, in posterior part smooth and shining centrally and coriaceous laterally, with one longitudinal carina on each side of median vertical groove, which is smooth. Ocelli prominent and with protuberance behind them. Occiput with one weak transverse carina, smooth.

Antenna. Filiform; Antennal formula: 3.5(2.2): 1.9(1.5): 5.9(1.5): 5.9(1.5): 5.8(1.5): 5.5(1.5): 5(1.8): 4.1(2): 4(2): 3.5(2): 3.5(2): 3.5(2):7(2). MALE. Filiform; Antennal formula: 4(2.8): 1.3(2): 5.5(1.9): 6(1.9): 6(1.9): 6(1.9): 6(1.9): 5.8(1.9): 5.5(1.9): 5(1.9): 5(1.9): 4.9(1.9): 4.5(1.9): 7(1.9).

Mesosoma. Lateral surface of pronotum finely coriaceous, sparsely pubescent, slightly carinated dorsally. Subpronotal plate coriaceous and with scattered setae. Mesoscutum very sparsely pubescent, coriaceous, with weak transverse carinae between notauli. Antero-admedian lines prominent, reaching 1/3 the length of mesoscutum and confluent, median ridge prominent, not divided before median mesoscutal furrow. Notauli weakly alutaceous, sometimes coriaceous in larger specimens, wide, wider centrally. Median mesoscutal furrow weakly alutaceous. Area between notauli and end of median mesoscutal furrow prominent. Parascutal sulcus very wide, smooth, without pubescence, ending near anterior end of notauli. Mesopleura smooth. Scutellum 1.35 to 1.65 times mesoscutum length. Scutellar foveae rounded, deep, smooth and shining, sometimes alutaceous in large specimens, strongly limited in posterior part; interfoveal line little raised and going to first 1/2 of spine; lateral carinae weakly present to the first 1/3 of spine. Scutellar disc coriaceous; spine striated. End of scutellar, disc in lateral view, steeply sloping towards basis of scutellar spine, which is almost straight or slightly curved and reaches the basal vein of wing.

Wings. Forewing membrane hyaline. Radial cell 2.00 to 2.22 times longer than wide. Marginal pubescence absent. R1 absent, Rs straight.

Biology. Unknown.

Distribution. Afrotropical, Neotropical and Nearctic. Originally recorded from Congo; also from Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, República Dominicana, Peru, Brazil, Venezuela, USA, and Trinidad and Tobago in this study.


University of Nottingham


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Laboratoire de Biostratigraphie


California Academy of Sciences


University of California


Canadian National Collection Insects


Museum Wasmann


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics














Prosaspicera optivus Quinlan, 1979

Ros-Farré, P. & Pujade-Villar, J. 2006

Prosaspicera optivus Quinlan, 1979: 108

Quinlan, J. 1979: 108