Jocquestus schenkeli ( Lessert, 1923 )

Lyle, Robin & Haddad, Charles R., 2018, Jocquestus, a new genus of trachelid sac spiders from the Afrotropical Region (Arachnida: Araneae), Zootaxa 4471 (2), pp. 309-333: 327-331

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Jocquestus schenkeli ( Lessert, 1923 )

comb. nov.

Jocquestus schenkeli ( Lessert, 1923)  comb. nov.

Figs 1–8View FIGURES 1–8, 19–40View FIGURES 9–20View FIGURES 21–32View FIGURES 33–36View FIGURES 37–40, 65–69View FIGURES 65–69

Trachelas schenkeli Lessert, 1923: 197  , figs 47–49 (Lectotype ♀, here designated, deposited in Durban Museum, on permanent loan to NMSA: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Zululand, Ngxwala Hill, Ubombo [27°33'S, 32°05'E], leg. L. Bevis, 1915—examined; paralectotype ♀, here designated, deposited in MNHG: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal: Durban [29°59'S, 30°58'E], leg. E.-C. Chubb, 1921—examined); Lessert, 1933: 130, figs 49–50; Lessert, 1936: 277; Bosselaers & Jocqué, 2002: 250, fig. 3H.

Remarks. In the original description, Lessert (1923) mentioned two females, from Ngxwala Hill and Durban. The accompanying labels of the former specimen state TYPE, and those of the latter specimen state COTYPE. Effectively, these specimens could be considered syntypes, and are respectively designated here as the lectotype and paralectotype. Regarding the Ngxwala Hill specimen, it was originally deposited in the Durban Museum ( DMSAAbout DMSA), but the entire type collection from this institution has been sent on permanent loan to the KwaZulu-Natal Museum in Pietermaritzburg ( NMSAAbout NMSA), where it can be properly curated and cared for.

In Lessert’s (1933) paper on Angolan spiders he mentions a male androtype and female specimen from Umbilo (Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 29°53'S, 30°58'E), collected by L. Bevis, and adds (translated) “ T. schenkeli  is described from Zululand and Natal, and I received the two sexes from Portuguese East Africa (P. Lesne) [= Mozambique]”. Since this “ androtype ” was not included in the original description of the species ( Lessert 1923) it cannot carry type status ( ICZN Article 72.4). There is no indication in Lessert (1933) that he examined any material from Angola, nor was any material from this country found during a visit by R.L. to MNHG, so it remains unclear whether J. schenkeli  comb. nov. occurs within Angola at all. The specimens mentioned by Lessert (1936) from “Nova Choupanga” (possibly modern Chupanga, Sofala Region, Mozambique 18°03'S, 35°36'E) probably refer to those from Mozambique mentioned by Lessert (1933). We were only able to examine the female from photographs provided by the MNHG, and the specimen is certainly T. schenkeli  based on genitalic morphology.

Diagnosis. The males of J. schenkeli  comb. nov. can be easily recognised from congeners by the retrolateral origin of the embolus ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 65–69). The female shares with several species the epigynal ridges at an oblique angle to the epigastric furrow, but can be recognised by the very large ST II that are connected along their entire mesal margin ( Fig. 68View FIGURES 65–69), while at least separated for part of their length in J. capensis  sp. nov. ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 41–46), J. obliquus  sp. nov. ( Fig. 59View FIGURES 56–60) and J. roeweri  comb. nov. ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 61–64).

Male (Hell’s Gate, NCA 2005/317). Measurements: CL 1.20–1.70, CW 1.03–1.48, AL 1.40–1.80, AW 1.00– 1.38, TL 2.50–3.50, FL 0.05–0.10, SL 0.63–0.83, SW 0.58–0.80, AME–AME 0.08, AME–ALE 0.05, ALE–ALE 0.38, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.15, PLE–PLE 0.60.

Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 1.23 + 0.65 + 0.93 + 0.68 + 0.30 = 3.79; II 1.10 + 0.48 + 0.75 + 0.73 + 0.43 = 3.49; III 0.85 + 0.38 + 0.33 + 0.58 + 0.28 = 2.42; IV 0.95 + 0.43 + 0.75 + 0.80 + 0.30 = 3.23.

Carapace orange-brown to reddish-brown ( Figs 1View FIGURES 1–8, 19View FIGURES 9–20); carapace finely granulate, covered with short fine setae; fovea short, distinct, slightly thickened, at two thirds CL; ocular region brown, with black rings around eyes; clypeus height approximately equal to AME diameter; AME and ALE equal in size; AME separated by distance equal to 0.7 their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance equal to 0.4 AME diameter; PME and PLE equal in size; PME separated by distance equal to their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 1.7 times PME diameter. Chelicerae brown, paler towards fang base, anterior surface with scattered long fine setae; three promarginal teeth, median tooth largest, distal tooth smallest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest. Sternum brown, darker towards borders; surface smooth, with scattered fine setae. Abdomen dark grey, with two paired cream markings anteriorly, anterior pair separated by faint grey narrow median line, posterior pair fused medially; two pairs of brown to grey sigilla, first pair anterior to midpoint, second pair posterior to midpoint of abdomen ( Figs 2View FIGURES 1–8, 19View FIGURES 9–20). Legs I to IV brown, anterior legs darker than posterior legs; leg I with granulate femora ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 1–8); leg spination: tibiae: I plv 3-10 cusps; metatarsi: I plv 4-6 cusps, rlv 1-2 cusps; tarsi: I plv 0-2 cusps ( Fig. 65View FIGURES 65–69). Palp brown; RPA bent, curving ventrally; palpal tibia broadened distally, not forming distinct RTA; embolus originating retrolaterally on tegulum, curling proximally and prolaterally around tegulum, with sharply pointed embolus tip ending medially near cymbium tip ( Figs 38View FIGURES 37–40, 66, 67View FIGURES 65–69).

Female (Hell’s Gate, NCA 2005/316). Measurements: CL 1.00–1.50, CW 0.83–1.25, AL 1.20–2.00, AW 0.95–1.53, TL 2.20–3.70, FL 0.05–0.10, SL 0.60–0.85, SW 0.58–0.75, AME–AME 0.08, AME–ALE 0.05, ALE– ALE 0.05, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.13, PLE–PLE 0.50.

Length of leg segments (sequence from femur to tarsus, and total): I 1.03 + 0.48 + 0.75 + 0.50 + 0.30 = 3.06; II 0.88 + 0.33 + 0.65 + 0.65 + 0.40 = 2.91; III 0.70 + 0.35 + 0.40 + 0.48 + 0.20 = 2.13; IV 0.88 + 0.35 + 0.60 + 0.68 + 0.25 = 2.76.

Carapace orange to dark reddish-brown ( Figs 2View FIGURES 1–8, 20View FIGURES 9–20); ocular region orange to reddish-brown, with dark rings around eyes; clypeus height equal to 0.5 AME diameter; AME slightly larger than ALE; AME separated by distance slightly larger than their diameter; AME separated from ALE by distance equal to AME diameter; PME and PLE equal in size; PME separated by distance slightly larger than their diameter; PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 1.5 times PME diameter. Chelicerae orange to brown, paler towards fang base; two promarginal teeth, distal tooth largest; two retromarginal teeth, distal tooth largest. Sternum pale orange to brown, darker towards borders. Abdominal markings as for male, anterior marking sometimes darker; dorsal scutum present ( Figs 2View FIGURES 1–8, 20View FIGURES 9–20). Legs I to IV pale brown to brown, anterior legs darker than posteriors. Epigastric region strongly sclerotised; epigyne with oblique epigynal ridges, with hooked CO situated laterally; ST II large, parallel-sided, fused along their entire mesal margin, extending nearly two-thirds epigyne length, with strongly looping duct leading to small globular ST I at epigastric furrow; fertilisation ducts on small round mound on ST II ( Figs 68, 69View FIGURES 65–69).

Other material examined. D.R. CONGO: Haut-Shaba  : Katanga, Elisabethville , 11°40'S, 27°28'E, leg. C. Seydel, 1♂ 1♀ ( MRAC 137457View Materials)GoogleMaps  . MOZAMBIQUE: Nova Choupanga [possibly modern Chupanga , Sofala Region, 18°03'S, 35°36'E], leg. P. Lesne, 1♀ (examined from photographs) ( MNHG)GoogleMaps  . SOUTH AFRICA  : Eastern Cape: Addo Elephant National Park  , Woody Cape Nature Reserve, 33°20.604'S, 25°44.346'E, leg. L. Wiese, 1.XII.2009 (by hand, coastal forest), 1♀ (NCA 2015/1529); same locality, leg. L. Wiese, 1.XII.2004 (beating, coastal forest)  , 1♀ (NCA 2013/1139); Amatola Mountains, Hogsback , 32°36.285'S, 26°56.580'EGoogleMaps  , leg. University of the Free State Entomology students, 25.III.2007 (beats, foliage, Afromontane forest ), 1 imm. 1♀ (NCA 2007/1216)  ; same locality, Ashfield-on-Hogsback, 32°34.993'S, 26°55.472'E, 1330 m a.s.l., leg. J. Neethling & C. Luwes, 30.IX.2011 (canopy fogging, Afromontane forest ), 1♂ 8♀ (NCA 2012/1890)GoogleMaps  , 3♂ 3♀ ( MACNAbout MACN); same locality, Tyume Forest, 32°35.987'S, 26°55.880'E, 1140 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, J. Neethling, A. van Rooyen & R. du Preez (canopy fogging, Afromontane forest , Xymalos monospora  )GoogleMaps  , 1♀ (NCA 2014/456); Coffee Bay , 31°58.862'S, 29°09.199'EGoogleMaps  , leg. C. Haddad & R. Lyle, 28.X.2006 (beats, coastal dune forest), 3 imm. 6♂ 1♀ (NCA 2006/1552); Cwebe Nature Reserve , 32°14.588'S, 28°54.772'EGoogleMaps  , leg. C. Haddad, 30.X.2006 (grassy litter), 1♂ (NCA 2007/3933); Fort Fordyce Nature Reserve , 32°41.133'S, 26°29.875'EGoogleMaps  , 1090 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad & J. Neethling 30.XI.2013 (canopy fogging, Afromontane forest , mixed canopy)  , 1♀ (2012/4277); Grahamstown, 33°18'S, 26°31'E, P. Croeser, 20.IX.1979 (on fig tree in garden), 1♂ (NCA 83/424); Kei Mouth, 32°41.206'S, 28°22.497'E, leg. C. Haddad, 8.XII.2003 (beats, coastal dune forest), 1♀ (NCA 2006/1293); Mkhambathi Nature Reserve, 10 m a.s.l., 31°16.399'S, 30°01.373'E, leg. III-UKZN, 27.I.2008 (tree beats, forest ECMF13 (7307)), 1♂ (NCA 2010/236). KwaZulu-Natal: Durban, Bluff [29°55'S, 31°01'E], leg. F. Wanless & A. Russell-Smith, 17.IV.1976 (coastal dune scrub, shrub layer)GoogleMaps  , 2♂ (BMNH); iSimangaliso Wetlands Park, Crocodile Centre, 28°21.407'S, 32°25.183'E, 24 m a.s.l., leg. J.A. Neethling & C. Luwes, 14.V.2012 (canopy fogging, wetland, Breonadia salicina  ), 3♂ 5♀ (NCA 2012/4265); same locality, Eastern Shores Nature Reserve, 28°21.383'S, 32°25.166'E, leg. R. Fourie & C. Haddad, 3.VII.2007 (beats, short shrubs), 1 imm. 1♂ 2♀ (NCA 2007/2908)GoogleMaps  ; same locality, Hell’s Gate, 28°00'S, 32°28'E, leg. J. Esterhuizen, 12.IV.2004 (tsetse fly trap, block B), 1♀ (NCA 2005/316)GoogleMaps  ; same data as previous but 3.V.2004, 1♂ (NCA 2005/317)GoogleMaps  ; same locality, Meersig Plantation, 28°14.125'S, 32°29.350'E, 14 m a.s.l., leg. J.A. Neethling & C. Luwes, 14.V.2012 (canopy fogging, wetland, Syzygium cordatum  )GoogleMaps  , 2♂ 5♀ (NCA 2012/4263); same locality, Mission Rocks Beach, 28°15.961'S, 32°28.922'E, 90 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 30.XI.2015 (beating shrubs and trees)GoogleMaps  , 2♀ (NCA 2015/2590); same locality, Mission Rock Beach Area , 28°15.888'S, 32°28.882'E, 82 m a.s.l., leg. J.A. Neethling & C. Luwes, 12.V.2012 (canopy fogging, indigenous bush, Trichilia emetica  )GoogleMaps  , 1♀ (NCA 2012/ 4259); same locality, St. Lucia, 28°23.005'S, 32°04.428'E, 21 m a.s.l., leg. J.A. Neethling & C. Luwes, 13.V.2012 (canopy fogging, coastal forest, Trichilia dregeana  ), 2♀ (NCA 2012/3981)GoogleMaps  , 1♂ 1♀ (NCA 2012/4261); Ithala Game Reserve, Doornkraal Camp, 27°30.735'S, 31°12.231'E, leg. C. Haddad & R. Fourie (beating, shrubs), 2 imm. 1♀ (NCA 2007/2861); same locality, Onverdacht Picnic Site , 27°31.972'S, 31°18.973'EGoogleMaps  , 790 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 30.IV.2018 (beating shrubs, riparian woodland), 3♂ 4♀ (NCA 2018/20); same locality, Ngubhu Picnic Site, 27°31.527'S, 31°12.748'E, 625 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 30.IV.2018 (beating shrubs, riparian woodland)GoogleMaps  , 2♂ (NCA 2018/21); Midlands, Baynesfield, 29°45.732'S, 30°21.054'E, leg. I. Yekwayo, 1.V.2014 (pitfall trap, grassland), 1♂ (NCA 2015/1529); Mount Edgecombe , 29°43.332'S, 31°03.042'E, leg. C.J. Cilliers, 28.IX.1979 (by hand)GoogleMaps  , 1♀ (NCA 2006/1520); Ndumo Game Reserve, 26°53'S, 32°19'E, leg. C. Haddad, 4.XII.2000 (beating, semi-aquatic vegetation), 1♂ (NCA 2004/309); same locality, Red Cliffs , 26°51.164'S, 32°12.365'EGoogleMaps  , leg. C. Haddad, 4.XII.2000 (beats, semi-aquatic vegetation, Usutu River bank), 1 imm. 1♂ (NCA 2002/411)  ; same locality, Red Cliffs road, 26°51.641'S, 32°13.233'E, leg. C. Haddad, 7.IV.2017 (beating shrubs, Mahemane thicket)GoogleMaps  , 3♂ 2♀ (NCA 2017/ 1472); same locality, Shokwe Pan, 26°52.502'S, 32°12.637'E, leg. Z. Mbo, 30.I.2014 (beats, shrubs and trees)GoogleMaps  , 2♂ (MACN); Near Enseleni [28°41'S, 31°59'E], leg. P. Reavell, 7.III.1980 (dense sandveld, bush in climbers), 1♀ (NMSA 13128); Ophathe Game Reserve, Overgrazed savanna, 28°22.135'S, 31°23.363'E, 560 m a.s.l., leg. C. Haddad, 3.X.2008 (beats, shrubs), 2 imm. 2♂ 2♀ (NCA 2008/2878); Richards Bay , 28°47'S, 32°06'EGoogleMaps  , leg. T. Wassenaar, 10.III.1995 (beating low vegetation), 1♀ (NCA 99/352), 1♀ (NCA 99/371); same locality, leg. T. Wassenaar, 10.XII.1995 (on pisteal water lettuce)GoogleMaps  , 1♀ (NCA 99/370); Richards Bay area , 28°46'S, 32°06'EGoogleMaps  , leg. P. Reavell, 4.II.1983, 1♀ (NCA 95/125); Shakaskraal , 29°24.600'S, 31°15.600'EGoogleMaps  , leg. C.J. Cilliers, 13.II.1979 (by hand), 1♂ (NCA 2006/1522); Tembe Elephant Park , 27°01'S, 32°24'EGoogleMaps  , leg. C. Haddad, 8.I.2002 (beats, deep sand forest), 1♂ (NCA 2002/412); same locality, leg. A. Honiball, 15.III.2003, 1♂ 2♀ (NCA 2 004/266)GoogleMaps  ; same locality, 26°57.505'S, 32°24.437'EGoogleMaps  , leg. C. Haddad, 23.I.2006 (beats, pioneer grassland), 1 imm. 1♀ (NCA 2006/1545); Umlalazi Nature Reserve , 1.5 km E of Mtunzini, 28°58'S, 31°48'EGoogleMaps  , leg. R. Miller, 4.XI.1979 (coastal indigenous forest), 1♂ 1♀ ( NMSA 12805View Materials); same locality, R. Miller, XII.1978 (indigenous forest)GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( NMSA 12330View Materials); University of Zululand , 28°45'S, 31°45'EGoogleMaps  , leg. P.E. Reavell, 7.II.1983 (in climbers in swamp forest), 1♀ ( NMSAAbout NMSA); Vernon Crookes Nature Reserve, near Park Rynie , 30°16'S, 30°34'EGoogleMaps  , leg. R. Maartens, 25.III.1985, 1♀ (NCA 86/ 586). Limpopo: Lekgalameetse Nature Reserve , Farm Malta, 24°09.702'S, 30°15.228'EGoogleMaps  , leg. P. Webb (by hand, on ground), 1♀ (NCA 2015/3343); Mogwadi [ Dendron , 23°22'S, 29°19'E]GoogleMaps  , leg. H.K. Munro, 1970, 1♂ (NCA 76/ 373); Venda, Tshulu, 22°34'S, 30°48'E, leg. S.H. Foord, 20.II.2008 (branch beating), 1♂ (NCA 2008/2894). Mpumalanga: Kruger National Park, Skukuza, beneath Sabie, 25°07'S, 31°55'E, leg. S. Neser, 13.VIII.1991 (on plant)GoogleMaps  , 4♂ 1♀ (NCA 2002/364), 1♀ (NCA 2002/365). ZIMBABWE: Hakamela, Malilangwe Private Wildlife Reserve, 21°04'S, 31°52'E, leg. M.S. Cumming, 15.III.2004 (sweep netting)GoogleMaps  , 1♂ (NCA 2008/2889).

Distribution. Distributed in central and southern Africa, south of the equator ( Fig. 70View FIGURE 70).

Habitat and biology. This species is widespread in the savanna, forest and Indian Ocean coastal belt biomes of southern Africa, and was occasionally also collected in grasslands. It was commonly collected by beating Sideroxylon inerme  (white milkwood) in coastal forests and Searsia lucida  (glossy currant) in savanna habitats, and canopy fogging various trees in Afromontane and coastal forests, but was less abundant on other tree species.


Durban Museum


KwaZulu-Natal Museum


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia














Jocquestus schenkeli ( Lessert, 1923 )

Lyle, Robin & Haddad, Charles R. 2018


Trachelas schenkeli

Lessert, 1923 : 197 Lessert, 1933 : 130 Lessert, 1936 : 277 Bosselaers & Jocqué, 2002 : 250