Acrozoanthus australiae Saville-Kent , 1893, Saville-Kent, 1893

Reimer, James D., Poliseno, Angelo & Hoeksema, Bert W., 2014, Shallow-water zoantharians (Cnidaria, Hexacorallia) from the Central Indo-Pacific, ZooKeys 444, pp. 1-57: 6

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.444.7537

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FB83BDD3-958A-456D-BFEA-9C6C28D3E4D5

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0889229B-068B-CE3E-8604-ED4865987E75

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ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Acrozoanthus australiae Saville-Kent , 1893
status

 

Taxon classification Animalia Zoantharia Zoanthidae

1. Acrozoanthus australiae Saville-Kent, 1893   Figures 2A, 3

Specimens examined

(n=16). RMNH Coel 23405, Tg. Bengteng (=Galghoek), Ambon, Moluccas, depth = 3 to 4 m, collected November 10, 1990 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 23406, outer bay, Ruhmatiga, Hitu, Ambon, Moluccas, depth = approx. 3 m, collected December 3, 1990 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 23407, station 17, southeast side of Pombo Island, Ambon, Moluccas, depth = 6 m, collected November 17, 1994 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 23408, west-northwest of Barrang Lompo, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, depth = 1.5 to 4 m, collected December 23, 1994 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 23409, entrance of harbor near light beacon, northwest of Gusung, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi, depth = 5 to 7 m, collected October 7, 1990 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 23410, 7.5 km west of Makassar, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi (05°07'S, 119°20'E), depth = NA, collected May 31, 1994 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 23411, west of Gusung (= Lae–Lae Keke) (=1 km northwest of Makassar), Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi (05°07.5'S, 119°23'E), depth = NA, collected May 31, 1994 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 24100, station MAL04, south coast northeast of Cape Hahurong, Ambon, Moluccas (03°47'S, 128°06'E), depth = 2 to 28 m, collected June 6, 1996 by J.C. den Hartog; RMNH Coel 40361, NNM–LIPI–WWF Expedition station BAL.16, southeast side of Pulau Serangan, Bali (08°44'48"S, 115°14'26"E), depth = to 10 m, collected April 6, 2001 by J. Goud; RMNH Coel 40549, Snellius–II Expedition station 4.011, reef edge west of Mai, Maisel Islands, Banda Sea (05°28'S, 127°31'E), depth = 1 to 30 m, collected September 7, 1984; RMNH Coel 40550, Snellius–II Expedition station 4.001, near Tawiri, Ambon Bay, Moluccas (03°42'S, 128°07'E), depth = approx. 1.5 to 8 m, collected September 4, 1984; RMNH Coel 40554, Snellius–II Expedition station 4.006, near Eri, Ambon Bay, Moluccas (03°45'S, 128°8'E), depth = approx. 1.5 to 5 m, collected September 4, 1984; RMNH Coel 40556, Snellius–II Expedition station 4.006, near Eri, Ambon Bay, Moluccas (03°45'S, 128°8'E), depth = approx. 1.5 to 5 m, collected August 29, 1984; RMNH Coel 40558, Snellius–II Expedition station 4.030, west coast of Binongko, Tukang Besi Islands, Banda Sea (05°55'S, 123°59'E), depth = approx. 3 to 4 m, collected September 10, 1984 by M. Slierings; RMNH Coel 40566, west side of Pulau Samalona, 7.5 km west of Makassar, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi (05°07'S, 119°20'E), depth = NA, collected February 18, 1994 by B.W. Hoeksema; RMNH Coel 40569, Fauna Malesiana Marine Sulawesi Expedition station SUL.06, Pantai Parigi, Pulau Lembeh, Selat Lembeh, North Sulawesi (01°28'N, 125°14'E), depth = 0 to 6 m, collected October 15, 1994 by M. Slierings.

Photographic records

(n=6). West side of Pulau Lae–Lae (05°08'05"S, 119°23'15"E), South Sulawesi, May 24, 1997; station MAL.19 (03°43'S, 128°03'E), Tanjune Batu Dua, east of Hatu, north coast of Ambon Bay, Moluccas, November 19, 1996; station MAL.22 (03°48'S, 128°06'E), southwest coast, east of Tunjung Nusanive, Ambon Bay, Moluccas, November 21, 1996; Nusa Penida, Lombok Strait, east Bali, May 26, 1998 (08°40'56"S, 115°28'56"E); northwest Pulau Samalona, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi (05°07'25"S, 119°20'10"E), January 12, 1997; western slope of Bone Lola shoal, Spermonde Archipelago, South Sulawesi (05°03'15"S, 119°21'15"E), April 22, 1998.

Description.

Non-incrusted zooxanthellate zoantharian that inhabits the outside of eunicid worm tubes ( Haddon 1895), with a unique asexual form of “budding” ( Ryland 1997). Easily recognizable as it is an epibiont on outside surface of eunicid worm tube, and has a reduced stoloniferous coenenchyme, long pale yellow-green or pale purple tentacles (n=approx. 40-50) with occasional fluorescent green markings and black tips, and light brown/purple to white ectoderm with similarly colored oral disks (Figure 2A). Preserved specimens in this study had polyps of average 6.0 mm in height (range 2.5-14 mm), 3.2 mm in width (range 2-5 mm) (n=8 specimens examined [RMNH Coel 40361, 40549, 40550, 40554, 40556, 40558, 40566, 40569], 10 polyps/specimen), and oral disks approximately 6 mm in diameter when expanded in situ (partially adapted from Reimer et al. 2011b). Specimen RMNH Coel 40566 had much larger polyps than other specimens (average height 10.6 mm, average width 4.3 mm), but this may be due to preservation in formalin as opposed to ethanol than to any phenotypic difference.

Distribution.

Regions recorded in this study (Figure 3). East coast of Bali (5), Spermonde Archipelago (9), Tukang Besi Islands (12), Maisel Islands (13), Moluccas (14), Lembeh Strait (17).

Previous records. Originally described from Australia, where it has been reported from both the coast of northern Queensland, and the region around Darwin in the Northern Territory. Subsequent records reported from North Sulawesi, Indonesia ( Sinniger et al. 2005, Reimer et al. 2011b), and photographic records from Mactan Island, Philippines ( Reimer et al. 2011b). Also reported from southern Taiwan ( Reimer et al. 2011b) and at Ningaloo, Western Australia (Y. Irei and J.D. Reimer, unpubl. data).

Remarks.

This genus is positioned within the genus Zoanthus   based on phylogenetic analyses ( Reimer et al. 2011b).