Cloeodes xyrognathos Salles, Massariol & Angeli
Salles, F. F., Massariol, F. C., Angeli, K. B., Lima, M. M., Gattolliat, L. & Sartori, M., 2015, Revealing the diversity of Cloeodes Traver, 1938 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in the Neotropics: description of eleven new species from Brazilian mountain ranges, Zootaxa 4020 (1), pp. 1-50 : 40-46
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|Cloeodes xyrognathos Salles, Massariol & Angeli|
Figures 3 View FIGURE 3 d, 5c, 5d, 27, 28, 29, 30.
Diagnoses. NYMPH. A) Large body size (> 7.0 mm); B) Body color pattern with distinct darker marks on abdominal terga ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 d); C) Labrum, medially, with many setae ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 a); D) Incisors blade-like ( Figs. 27 View FIGURE 27 b, 27c); E) Maxillary palp as long as length of galea-lacinia ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 d); F) Inner margin of labial palp segment III subequal to outer margin ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 e); G) Distal projection of fore femur short (not exceeding apex of femur, Figs. 28 View FIGURE 28 a, 28b); H) Gills with medial rib ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 e). MALE IMAGO. A) Intercalary veins on fore wing approximately 0.6, 0.9 × the width of corresponding space ( Fig. 29 View FIGURE 29 a); B) Hind wing present, with three longitudinal veins ( Figs. 29 View FIGURE 29 b, 29c); C) Terga yellowish washed heavily with brown ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 c).
Nymph. Lengths. Body: 8.0– 8.5 mm; cerci: 4–4.5 mm; terminal filament: 3.0 mm.
Coloration ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 d). General coloration yellowish-white washed with brown to dark brown. Head with frons with area between antennal sockets yellowish. Thorax yellowish-brown with brownish marks. Fore leg, outer margin of femur and tibia washed with brown; tarsus profusely washed with brown. Abdomen with one lighter medial longitudinal stripe; segments I, II, VI and X profusely washed with brown; sterna yellowish white. Caudal filaments yellowish-brown with apex brown. Males lighter than female.
Head. Labrum ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 a). Trapezoidal; length about 0.5 × maximum width; dorsal arc with 18 continuous long setae; ventrally with 12–14 spine-like setae near lateral margin.
Mandibles ( Figs. 27 View FIGURE 27 b, 27c). Margin between prostheca and mola with short spine-like setae. Incisors bladelike; denticles of mola constricted at base (as in fig. 6f).
Maxilla ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 d). Medially with 1 spine-like seta + 8 apically pointed setae. Maxillary palp reaching apex of galea-lacinia; palp segment II 1.1 × length of segment I.
Labium ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 e). Base of glossa expanded (reaching at least half of paraglossa); inner and outer margin respectively with around 20 and 12 spine-like setae increasing in length apically; ventral surface scattered with few short setae at base. Paraglossa dorsally with arc of 3 setae close to inner margin; ventrally with arc of 8–10 setae close to inner margin. Labial palp with segment I 1.2 × length of segments II and III combined; segment II dorsally with oblique row of 8 setae; segment III with distal margin slightly truncate; inner margin subequal to outer margin; ventrally covered with around 45 long setae ( Fig. 27 View FIGURE 27 e); setae on inner margin serrate.
Thorax. Hind wing pad. Present.
Fore leg ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 a). Ratio 1.5:1(1.0 mm): 0.9: 0.2. Femur. Length about 4.2 × maximum width; outer margin with row of 14–17 clavate setae (length of setae about 0.09 × maximum width of femur); submarginal setae absent; anterior surface and inner margin with around 30 spine-like setae; posterior surface with around 20 scattered serrated setae near inner margin; distal projection short, not exceeding apex of femur ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 b), apically with 4 clavate setae. Tibia. Outer margin with few simple setae; inner margin with two serrate setae on apex; subtending bristle clavate, serrated, extending apex of tibia ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 c). Tarsus. Inner margin with row of 27+1 spine-like setae. Tarsal claw. 0.2 × length of tarsus.
Mid and hind legs. Similar to fore leg, except for the lower number of setae on anterior surface of femur and type of setae on inner apex of tibia (simple instead of serrate).
Abdomen. Terga ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 d). With spines present on posterior margin of segments III–X; larger spines on posterior margin 2.0 × longer than wide.
Sterna . With spines present on posterior margin of segments IV–IX.
Gills ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 e). Outer margin serrated on distal 1/4; inner margin slightly serrated; medial rib present (weak); tracheae extending from main trunk to inner and outer margins. Gill I subequal in length to segment II, oval. Gill IV little longer than length of segments V and VI combined, asymmetric, broad at middle. Gill VII little longer than length of segment VIII.
Paraproct ( Fig. 28 View FIGURE 28 f). With around 18 spines.
Cercus . Without large spines.
Terminal filament. Without large spines.
Male imago. Lengths. Body: 7.6 mm; fore wing: 8.3 mm; hind wing: 1.3 mm; tibia I: 2.6 mm; tibia II: 1.4 mm; tibia III: 1.3 mm; caudal filaments: broken.
Coloration ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 c). Head yellowish washed with brown. Turbinate portion of compound eyes orange dorsally, stalk dark orange ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 c). Antenna translucent brown. Pro, meso and metanotum dark brown except for scutellum, lighter. Leg I: yellowish, femur with subapical orange band. Fore wing hyaline. Longitudinal and cross veins brown. Hind wing hyaline, veins light brown. Terga. Yellowish washed heavily with brown. Segment I dark brown. Segment II −VIII with dark brown marks medially and posterolaterally. Segments IX −X brown. Sterna . Yellowish washed brown, darker on lateral margins and with unpigmented area around sigilla. Forceps brown, lighter toward apex.
Head. Dorsal portion of turbinate eyes oblong; length 1.6 × width; stalk height 0.5 × width of dorsal portion; inner margins parallel, close to each other.
Thorax. Anteronotal protuberance rounded.
Metascutellar protuberance poorly developed, almost imperceptible.
Legs. Leg I: tibia 1.4 × length of femur; tarsi 1.4 × length of femur. Legs II and III: tibia 0.9 × length of femur; tarsi 0.5 × length of femur.
Fore wing ( Fig. 29 View FIGURE 29 a) with stigmatic area with 6 cross veins touching Sc and 2 veins not touching Sc. Marginal intercalaries paired, except between veins R1-R2 and ICu1-ICu2 and ICu2-CuP, single and between veins Sc-R1 and CuP-A absent; length of each intercalary vein 0.9 and 0.6 × distance between adjacent longitudinal veins; length of fore wing about 2.5 × width.
Hind wing ( Figs. 29 View FIGURE 29 b, 29c) present, with 3 complete longitudinal veins; costal process hooked, broad, located on basal third.
Abdomen. Genitalia ( Fig. 29 View FIGURE 29 d). Forceps segment I sub-rectangular; 0.5 × length of segment II; wider than segment II, margins parallel. Forceps segment III oval, 1.5 × as long as wide; 0.2 × length of segments I and II combined. Posterior margin of subgenital plate rounded.
Female imago. Lengths. Body: 7.0 mm; fore wing: broken; hind wing: broken; tibia II: 1.2 mm; tibia III: 1.3 mm; caudal filaments: broken.
Coloration ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 d). Similar to male imago, except for: lighter general coloration; presence of a longitudinal brownish stripe on mesoscutum; wing membrane translucent brown, cross veins darker.
Leg II: tibia 0.8 × length of femur; tarsi 0.5 × length of femur. Leg III: tibia 0.9 × length of femur; tarsi 0.5 × length of femur.
Fore wing with stigmatic area with 6 cross veins touching Sc and 2 veins not touching Sc. Marginal intercalaries paired, except between veins ICu1-ICu2 single and between veins Sc-R1 and ICu2-A absent; intercalating one long/one short, one short/one long; length of each intercalary vein 1.0 and 0.6 × distance between adjacent longitudinal veins.
Hind wing present; with 3 complete longitudinal veins; costal process hooked, located on basal third.
Etymology. From the Greek words xyro, blade-like, and gnatho, jaw. An allusion to the shape of mandibular incisors.
Distribution ( Fig. 30 View FIGURE 30 ). Southern Brazil, Santa Catarina State, Serra Geral.
Ontogenetic stage association. Rearing.
Type-material. HOLOTYPE. Male imago (with corresponding nymphal exuvia), wings and exuvia on two slides, one with dissected exuvia, one with wings, BRAZIL, Santa Catarina, Urubici, Cachoeira Véu de noiva, Perto do Morro da Aeronáutica, S 28°04’34.5” W 49°31’06.9”, 1346 m.a.s.l., 02/x/2011, Boldrini R, col. (CZNC). PARATYPES. 25 nymphs (one on slide), female imago with corresponding wings and nymphal exuvia (on slides) and male imago with corresponding nymphal exuvia, same data as holotype (10 CZNC, 10 INPA, 5 MZL).
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