Bactrocera (Parazeugodacus) clarifemur Leblanc & Doorenweerd

Leblanc, Luc, Doorenweerd, Camiel, Jose, Michael San, Pham, Hong Thai & Rubinoff, Daniel, 2018, Descriptions of four new species of Bactrocera and new country records highlight the high biodiversity of fruit flies in Vietnam (Diptera, Tephritidae, Dacinae), ZooKeys 797, pp. 87-115: 99-103

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Bactrocera (Parazeugodacus) clarifemur Leblanc & Doorenweerd

sp. n.

Bactrocera (Parazeugodacus) clarifemur Leblanc & Doorenweerd  sp. n.


Male. Labelled: "Vietnam: Thừa Thiên–Hu ế Province, Cát Tiên NP, 11.4480N, 107.3826E, 14-18-x-2015, M. San Jose and D. Rubinoff, FF540, zingerone lure, molecular voucher ms6176". Deposited in UHIM. Paratypes: 48 males. Vietnam, Thừa Thiên-Hu ế Province, Bạch Mã National Park, 6-8-x-2015, at the following sites, identified by their geographical coordinates: 16.2279N, 107.8557E, (1 in ethanol, molecular voucher ms6191), 16.1943N, 107.8490E, (2 in ethanol, including molecular voucher ms6194), 16.2006N, 107.8481E, (1 pinned). Vietnam, Lâm Đ ồng Province, Cát Tiên National Park, 14-18-x-2015, at the following sites, identified by their geographical coordinates: 11.4920N, 107.3855E, (7 pinned), 11.4867N, 107.3834E, (1 in ethanol, molecular voucher ms6175), 11.4764N, 107.3817E, (2 in ethanol, including molecular voucher ms6249), 11.4715N, 107.3809E, (2 in ethanol), 11.4480N, 107.3826E, (1 in ethanol, molecular voucher ms6176), 11.4436N, 107.3925E, (8 in ethanol), 11.4412N, 107.4026E, (3 pinned), 11.4419N, 107.4080E, (1 in ethanol, molecular voucher ms6177), 11.4394N, 107.4241E, (5 pinned and 2 in ethanol, including molecular vouchers ms6094 and ms6095, in ethanol), 11.4531N, 107.3557E, (1 in ethanol), 11.4486N, 107.3584E, (1 in ethanol), 11.4564N, 107.3686E, (1 in ethanol), 11.4381N, 107.4267E, (1 in ethanol), 11.4398N, 107.4290E, (1 in ethanol), 11.4539N, 107.4430E, (4 pinned), 11.4485N, 107.4416E, (3 pinned); 11.4472N, 107.4392E, (1 pinned). All specimens collected by Michael San Jose and Daniel Rubinoff in zingerone baited traps. All paratypes are deposited at UHIM, except five at WFBM and three at VNMN.

Differential diagnosis.

Bactrocera clarifemur  (Figure 9 A–G) is genetically and morphologically closely related to B. pendleburyi  (Perkins) (Figure 10 A–E). Both share the defining characters of subgenus Parazeugodacus  (two pairs of scutellar setae; male with lateral pecten on tergum III (though present or absent in different species of Parazeugodacus  according to Hancock and Drew 2015), a slight concavity on posterior margin of abdominal sternum V, and posterior lobe of male surstylus short), as well as the absence of medial postsutural vitta and the entirely yellow scutellum. Bactrocera clarifemur  differs from B. pendleburyi  in that all femora are entirely fulvous (Figure 9G), whereas apices of all femora in B. pendleburyi  are apically broadly dark (Figure 10E).

Molecular diagnostics.

This species was referred to as Bactrocera  sp 70 and is a close relative yet distinctly monophyletic sister to B. (Parazeugodacus) pendleburyi  , in the San Jose et al. (2018) seven-gene phylogeny. Based on COI sequence data the two species are in two monophyletic clusters, with one exception. We found an aberrant COI haplotype from specimen (ms6095) that groups with B. pendleburyi  in ML analysis, though at a minimum of 2.66 % pairwise genetic distance from any of the other specimens (Figure 8). Morphologically, specimen ms6095 fits with B. clarifemur  (Figure 9 A–G). We sequenced an additional nuclear gene to confirm the genetic distinction. Based on EF1a sequences, both species, with specimens from the same localities, were separated in monophyletic groups with a minimum pairwise distance of 1.35 %. A haplotype network of COI sequences further shows that specimen ms6095 is relatively distantly related to both and may eventually be found to represent a cryptic species. The nearest neighbor to both B. pendleburyi  and B. clarifemur  is B. abbreviata  at 6.91 % minimum intraspecific pairwise distance in COI.

Description of adult.

Head (Figure 9A). Vertical length 1.40 ± 0.13 (SE) (1.20-1.55) mm. Frons, of even width, length 1.32 ± 0.06 (1.22-1.43) times as long as broad; fulvous with usually fuscous spot around orbital setae and on anteromedial hump; latter covered by short red–brown hairs; orbital setae dark fuscous: one pair of superior and two pairs of inferior fronto-orbital setae present; lunule yellow. Ocellar triangle black. Vertex fuscous. Face fulvous with medium sized oval black spots in each antennal furrow; length 0.47 ± 0.04 (0.40-0.53) mm. Genae fulvous, with fuscous sub-ocular spot; red–brown seta present. Occiput dark fuscous and yellow along eye margins; occipital row with 5-7 dark setae. Antennae with segments 1 (scape) and 2 (pedicel) fulvous and segment 3 (first flagellomere) fulvous with pale fuscous on outer surface; a strong red–brown dorsal seta on segment 2; arista black (fulvous basally); length of segments: 0.21 ± 0.02 (0.18-0.23) mm; 0.24 ± 0.01 (0.23-0.25) mm; 0.62 ± 0.05 (0.53-0.68) mm.

Thorax (Figure 9B, G). Scutum black and frequently red–brown below lateral postsutural vittae. Pleural areas black and usually narrowly red–brown on anterior corner and frequently posterior corner of proepisternum anterior to postpronotal lobes. Yellow markings as follows: postpronotal lobes; notopleura (notopleural callus); medium sized mesopleural (anepisternal) stripe, reaching anterior margin of notopleura dorsally, continuing to katepisternum as a transverse spot, anterior margin slightly convex; anatergite (posterior apex black); anterior 60 % of katatergite (remainder black); two moderately broad and short postsutural vittae, tapering posteriorly and ending a short distance behind anterior intra-alar setae. Postnotum black. Scutellum yellow except for narrow black basal band. Setae (number of pairs): 2 scutellar; 1 prescutellar; 1 intra-alar; 1 posterior supra-alar; 1 anterior supra-alar; 1 mesopleural; 1 notopleural; 4 scapular; all setae well developed and black.

Legs (Figure 9G). Femora entirely fulvous; fore and hind tibiae dark fuscous, mid tibia basally dark fuscous and apically becoming fulvous; mid-tibiae each with an apical black spur; tarsi fulvous.

Wings (Figure 9F). Length 4.68 ± 0.35 (4.22-5.00) mm; basal costal (bc) and costal (c) cells colorless; microtrichia in outer corner of cell c only; remainder of wings colorless except fuscous subcostal cell, very narrow light fuscous costal band confluent with R2+3, not widened apically and ending just slightly past the extremity of R4+5; anal streak absent; dense aggregation of microtrichia around A1 + CuA2; supernumerary lobe of medium development.

Abdomen (Figure 9 C–E). Oval; terga free; pecten present on tergum III; posterior lobe of surstylus short; abdominal sternum V with a slight concavity on posterior margin. Tergum I and sterna I and II wider than long. Tergum I dark fuscous with a narrow transverse fulvous band across posterior margin but not reaching lateral margins; tergum II dark fuscous with a transverse posterior fulvous band which just reaches the narrow black posterolateral corners; tergum III dark fuscous; terga IV–V orange–brown with broad medial dark fuscous band reaching the apex of abdomen and broad lateral dark fuscous bands narrowed in apical half of tergum V. Orange–brown markings and medial band frequently extended to apical portion of tergum III. Ceromata (shining spots) on tergum V orange–brown and indistinct. Abdominal sterna dark, except for fuscous sternite II.


The name is an adjective that refers to the absence of dark markings on the femora.


The characters distinguishing B. clarifemur  and B. pendleburyi  were noted as variation of B. pendleburyi  by Drew and Romig (2013), genetic evidence hereby confirms that they indicate distinct species.