Phalloceros ocellatus, Lucinda, 2008

Lucinda, Paulo Henrique Franco, 2008, Systematics and biogeography of the genus Phalloceros Eigenmann, 1907 (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae: Poeciliinae), with the description of twenty-one new species, Neotropical Ichthyology 6 (2), pp. 113-158 : 138-139

publication ID 10.1590/S1679-62252008000200001


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Phalloceros ocellatus

sp. nov.

Phalloceros ocellatus View in CoL , new species

Figs. 30 View Fig , 31 View Fig

Phalloceros sp. n. B Lucinda & Reis (2005).

Holotype. MCP 30549, fourth stream flowing east at 26 km from Prado on road from Prado to Cumuruxatiba, approximately 17 o 10’S 39 o 14’W, Prado, Bahia, Brazil, 19 Mar 1985, Expedition MZUSP / USNM. GoogleMaps

Paratypes. BRAZIL. Bahia. MCP 30548, 14/4*, MZUSP 39121, 25, and USNM 331088, 39, collected with the holotype. USNM 331086, 4, NE of Curumuxatiba, streamlet near Fazenda Embaúba, probably tributary to Ibarube on SE 24, 20 Mar 1985, N.A. Menezes et al. Espírito Santo. MCP 17838, 3, São Gabriel da Palha, creek at km 118 on road BR 101, near the Reserva Florestal de Sooretama, 20 Jan 1995, W.G. Saul, A.S. Santos & J.C. Garavello.

Diagnosis. Phalloceros ocellatus can be distinguished from its congeners but P. leticiae and P. mikrommatos by the roundish to rounded and well-defined ocellated lateral spot ( Fig. 30 View Fig ). Phalloceros ocellatus can be distinguished from P. leticiae by the postorbital length in females (24.8–39.3 % SL vs. 39.2–42.2 % SL, respectively) and in males (29.3–38.2 % SL vs. 36.7–42.3 % SL, respectively). Phalloceros ocellatus can be distinguished from P. mikrommatos by the number of anal-fin rays in females (10 vs. 11, respectively).

Description. Morphometric data in Tables 11 View Table 11 and 12 View Table 12 . Range of SL: 17.7 to 25.2 mm (females), 15.4 to 18.5 mm (males). Dorsal-fin rays: 7 [3], 8* [29]. Branched pectoral-fin rays: 5 [1], 6* [16], 7 [2]. Pelvic-fin rays: 5* [10] (males), 5 [22] (females). Anal-fin rays of females: 9 [1], 10 [22]. Anal-fin rays of males: 9 [11]. Branched caudal-fin rays: 9* [13], 10 [14], 11 [5]. Predorsal scales: 13 [3], 14* [21], 15 [2]. Longitudinal series of scales: 27 [7], 28 [19], 29* [7]. Series of scales around caudal peduncle: 16* [34]. Transverse series of scales: 7* [34]. Serrae on R4p: 10* [2], 11 [5], 12 [3], 13 [1]. Epipleural ribs: 12 [4]. Pleural ribs: 14 [2]. Vertebrae: 31 [1], 32 [3]. Female urogenital papilla straight along midline, located along midventral line and between anus and base of first anal-fin ray. Hooks of gonopodial appendix absent ( Fig. 31 View Fig ).

Color in alcohol. Eye dark iridescent grey with greenish brown pupil. Ground color pale yellow. Upper two thirds of body and head densely covered with brown chromatophores. In some individuals these chromatophores more concentrated on longitudinal line region forming faint brown discontinuous band along flanks. Lower third of flanks pale yellow contrasting with upper, darker region. Border of scales and subjacent skin replete with brown chromatophores, more concentrated at short distance from scale border conferring reticulate pattern to body sides, mainly on upper half. Brown chromatophores scattered through whole body, more concentrated on dorsal portion, mainly on head, snout, opercle, and ventral surface of mandible. Ocellated lateral spot rounded or roundish encircled by light ring. Vertical bars along flanks inconspicuous or absent. Dorsal-fin membrane bearing faint band of brown chromatophores on distal border of dorsal fin. Faint band of chromatophores near dorsal-fin base. Pectoral, pelvic, and caudal fins hyaline. Dark brown line along R3. Anal fin of females hyaline; few chromatophores scattered through first three rays but not forming defined patch of pigmentation.

Etymology. The noun ocellatus (-a, -um) is a Latin adj. (m. nom. sg.), meaning with little eyes, from ocellus, diminutive of oculus, eye, alluding to the lateral spot, which is rounded and has an external light ring. An adjective.

Distribution. Phalloceros ocellatus is distributed in coastal drainages of Bahia and Espírito Santo States between Prado and Sooretama ( Fig. 12 View Fig ).






USA, Washington D.C., National Museum of Natural History, [formerly, United States National Museum]

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