Tamarixia Mercet, 1924,

Zuparko, Robert L., Queiroz, Dalva Luiz De & Salle, John La, 2011, Two new species of Ta m a r i x i a (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Chile and Australia, established as biological control agents of invasive psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae, Triozidae) in Cal, Zootaxa 2921, pp. 13-27: 14-19

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.277920

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2A8E2FF1-A44B-43AB-9C58-5D904B95AA6B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0E0287E3-BE40-FF8B-92C1-0106D1DC9AF3

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Tamarixia Mercet, 1924
status

 

Tamarixia Mercet, 1924 

Type species: Tamarixia bicolor Mercet, 1924  (original designation)

Diagnostic characters. Tamarixia  possesses two apomorphic characters that are unique within the Tetrastichinae  : males have exceptionally long genitalia, and the anterior margin of the female hypopygium is almost straight (which may be hidden under the preceding sternite and is not easily visible in undissected specimens). Specimens of Tamarixia  can also generally be distinguished by a combination of characters: fore wing with a single seta on the dorsal surface of the submarginal vein, propodeum without a Y-shaped carina as seen in Tetrastichus  (although see description of Tamarixia dahlsteni  ), midlobe of mesoscutum with 2 pairs of long, semi-erect setae that are about equal in length ( Figs 14, 15View FIGURES 13 – 16) (although some specimens of T. dahlsteni  have three pairs) ( Graham 1991; LaSalle 1994). An additional diagnostic character is that the toruli are closer to eye margin than to each other ( Figs 6View FIGURES 3 – 8, 13View FIGURES 13 – 16). Species are generally shiny black, but may have yellow markings on the gaster and/or head.

Identification. Tamarixia  contains species once treated as belonging to the pubescens  group of the genus Tetrastichus  ( Graham 1961; Domenichini 1966, 1967). The species group was subsequently treated as a subgenus within Tetrastichus  by Kostjukov (1977, 1978), but has since been treated as a genus by most authors ( Graham 1987, 1991; Bouček 1988 a; LaSalle 1994; Kostjukov, 1995, 1996, 2000; Schauff et al. 1997; Narendran 2007).

Generic keys that distinguish Tamarixia  from other tetrastichine genera are available for Australasia ( Bouček 1988 a), North America ( LaSalle 1994; Schauff et al. 1997), Europe ( Graham 1987, 1991) and India ( Narendran 2007). Keys to Tamarixia  species are available for Europe ( Graham 1991), European part of the USSR ( Kostjukov 1978: couplets 68–87 in key to Tetrastichus  ), Far eastern Russia ( Kostjukov 1995, 2000), India ( Narendran 2007) and North America ( Burks 1943, couplet 24 in the key to species of the genus Tetrastichus  , treating only the two species). A list of the 47 described Tamarixia  species, with host and distributional information, is given in Table 1.

actis (Walker 1839) 

Distribution. Europe: Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, England. Macaronesia: Azores, Canary Islands.

Hosts. Psyllidae, Strophingiinae  : Strophingia cinereae Hodkinson  , Strophingia ericae (Curtis)  .

Host plants. Ericaceae  : Calluna vulgaris (Linnaeus)  , Erica cinerea Linnaeus  , Erica scoparia Linnaeus. 

akkumica ( Kostjukov 1978) 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

arboreae (Graham 1979) 

Distribution. Macaronesia: Madeira Islands.

Hosts. Psyllidae, Strophingiinae  : Strophingia arborea Loginova  , Strophingia fallax Loginova. Host  plants. Ericaceae  : Erica arborea Linnaeus  , Erica scoparia Linnaeus. 

asiatica Kostjukov 1996 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

atamiensis ( Ashmead 1904)  . New combination from Tetrastichus 

Tetrastichus atamiensis Ashmead, 1904: 162  . Holotype Ƥ, Japan, Atami. USNM Type 7206 [examined, digital image]. Distribution: Asia: Japan.

bermius (Walker 1848)  = upis 

bicolor Mercet 1924 

Distribution. Europe: Bulgaria, Spain. Asia: Pakistan. Hosts. Triozidae  : Trioza chenopodii Reuter. Host  plants. Chenopodiaceae  : Chenopodium album Linnaeus. 

brovni Kostjukov 2000 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

caillardiae ( Kostjukov 1978) 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

Hosts. Psyllidae  , Aphalarinae  : Caillardia notata Loginova. Host  plants. Amaranthaceae  : Haloxylon  sp.

callunae (Erdös 1969)  = actis 

cometes ( Girault 1915) 

Distribution. Australia (Northern Territory).

dahlsteni Zuparko  , sp. nov.

Distribution. Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia, Victoria). Hosts. Triozidae  : Trioza eugeniae  .

Host plants. Myrtaceae  : Syzygium paniculatum  .

Biological control. Imported into USA: California for the biological control of Trioza eugeniae  .

dhetysaicus Kostjukov 1996 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

dryi (Waterston 1922) 

Distribution. Africa: Kenya, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe. Hosts. Triozidae  : Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio)  .

Host plants. Rutaceae  : Citrus  spp.

Biological control. Imported into Réunion, Mauritius for the biological control of Trioza erytreae  .

dwivarnus Narendran 2007

Distribution. Asia: Sri Lanka.

dyra ( Burks 1943) 

Distribution. North America: USA (Colorado, Montana, Wyoming). Hosts. Psyllidae  , Aphalarinae  : Aphalara curta (Caldwell)  ; Triozidae  : Trioza  sp. Host plants. Rutaceae  : Citrus  spp.; Apiaceae  : Angelica  sp.; Salicaceae  : Salix  sp.; Ranunculaceae  : Thalictrum  sp.

flavicoxae Kostjukov 2000 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

flavigaster (Brothers & Moran 1969) 

Distribution. Africa: South Africa.

Hosts. Psyllidae  , Rhinocolinae  : Moraniella calodendri (Moran)  . Host plants. Rutaceae  : Calodendrum capense  (Linnaeus filius).

flaviventris ( Kostjukov 1978) 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan, Tajikistan.

girishi Narendran 2007

Distribution. Asia: India (Kerala).

hanca Kostjukov 2000 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

klarisae Kostjukov 1996 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

leptothrix Graham 1991 

Distribution. Europe: Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, England, Yugoslavia. Host plants. Salicaceae  : Salix alba Linnaeus  , Salix cinerea Linnaeus  , Salix fragilis Linnaeus. 

leucaenae Bou  ĕ ek 1988

Distribution. North America: USA (Florida). Central America and Caribbean: Mexico, Trinidad & Tobago. Hosts. Psyllidae, Ciriacreminae  : Heteropsylla cubana  .

Host plants. Rutaceae  : Citrus  spp.; Fabaceae  : Leucaena  sp., Leucaena leucocephala (Lamarck)  . Biological control. Imported into Africa and Asia for the biological control of Heteropsylla cubana  .

meteroa ( Girault 1915)

Distribution. Australia (Queensland).

monesus (Walker 1839) 

Distribution. Europe: Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Yugoslavia. Asia: Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia (Astrakhanskaya Oblast).

newelskoyi (Kostjukov 1990) 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Yevreyskaya Oblast).

nocturna Kostjukov 2000 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

obscuratus (André 1878)  = pronomus 

orientalis Khan, Agnihotri & Sushil 2005 

Distribution. Asia: India (Uttaranchal).

Hosts. Agromyzidae  : Unspecified species. NOTE: This is the only record of a species of Tamarixia  from an agromyzid, and indeed from a non-Hemipteran. It should be treated as doubtful without subsequent confirmation.

Host plants. Asteraceae  : Helianthus  sp.

orsillus (Walker 1839)  = upis 

pallicornis (Walker 1872) 

Distribution. Macaronesia: Madeira Islands.

pallicornis (Thomson 1878)  = monesus 

pallidicornis (Dalla Torre 1898)  = monesus 

pamyles (Walker 1839)  = pronomus 

poddubnyi ( Kostjukov 1978) 

Distribution. Asia: Moldova, Uzbekistan, China (new record - NingXia, Yinchuan, Gaojiazha, 22 June 2010, coll. C.D. Zhu, on Eleagnus angustifolia Linnaeus  ).

Hosts. Triozidae  : Trioza magnisetosa Loginova  ; Aphididae  : Capitophorus hippophaes (Walker)  .

Host plants. Elaeagnaceae  : Elaeagnus  sp., Elaeagnus orientalis Linnaeus  , Eleagnus angustifolia  (new record).

pojarkovi (Kostjukov 1990) 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

pookodica Narendran 2007

Distribution. Asia: India (Kerala).

pronomus (Walker 1839) 

Distribution. Europe: Czech Republic, England, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Norway, Portugal, Sweden. Macaronesia: Canary Islands, Madeira Islands.

Hosts. Triozidae  : Bactericera kratochvili Vondracek  , Trioza apicalis Förster  , Trioza centranthi (Vallot)  , Trioza urticae (Linnaeus)  .

Host plants. Valerianaceae  : Centranthus angustifolius (Miller)  .

przewalskii (Kostjukov 1990) 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Yevreyskaya Oblast).

pubescens (Nees 1834) 

Distribution. Europe: Czech Republic, England, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Slovakia, Yugoslavia. Hosts: Triozidae  . Trioza remota Förster. 

pygmaea (Erdös 1954)  = pygmaeola

pygmaeola (Erdös 1958)

Distribution. Europe: France, Hungary, Yugoslavia. Hosts. Triozidae  : Trioza rumicis Löw. 

Host plants. Polygonaceae  : Rumex scutatus Linnaeus. 

radiata (Waterston 1922) 

Distribution. Asia: India, Pakistan.

Hosts. Psyllidae, Diaphorininae  : Diaphorina citri  ; Psyllidae, Aphalaroidinae  : Pallipsylla hyalina (Mathur)  ; Triozidae  : Trioza erytreae  , Trioza  sp.

Host plants. Fabaceae  : Albizia lebbeck (Linnaeus)  ; Rutaceae  : Citrus  spp., Murraya paniculata (Linnaeus)  .

Biological control. Imported into Réunion, India, Saudi Arabia, Mauritius, Nepal, Taiwan, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, USA (Florida, Texas), Mexico, Brazil, Argentina  , Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico for the biological control of Diaphorina citri  .

rudolfae ( Kostjukov 1978) 

Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

schina Zuparko  , sp. nov.

Distribution. South America: Chile.

Hosts. Calophyidae  : Calophya schini  .

Host plants. Anacardiaceae  : Schinus molle  .

Biological control. Imported into USA (California) for the biological control of Calophya schini  . Also present in Mexico, presumably as spread of the California introduction.

sheebae Narendran 2005 

Distribution. Asia: India (Kerala).

Host plants. Combretaceae  : Terminalia arjuna Roxburgh. 

stelleri (Kostjukov 1990) 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

tamaricis ( Domenichini 1967)  = bicolor 

tremblayi (Domenichini 1965) 

Distribution. Europe: Czechoslovakia, Italy, United Kingdom. Hosts. Triozidae  : Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner)  . Host plants. Alliaceae  : Allium cepa Linnaeus. 

triozae ( Burks 1943) 

Distribution. USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Texas, Washington). NOTE: Herting (1972) recorded this species from Italy, and Chazeau (1987) reported it from New Caledonia on Heteropsylla cubana  on Leucaena leucocephala  . Because T. triozae  is otherwise known only from the Nearctic region, we suspect these records are misidentifications.

Hosts. Calophyidae  : Calophya californica Schwarz  , Calophya nigrella Jensen  , Calophya nigripennis Riley  , Calophya triozomima Schwarz  ; Psyllidae  : Ceanothia ceanothi (Crawford)  , Euglyptoneura minuta (Crawford)  , Euphalerus vermiculosus Crawford  , Pexopsylla cercocarpi Jensen  ; Triozidae  : Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc)  , Bactericera minuta (Crawford)  , Bactericera nigricornis (Förster)  , Trioza albifrons Crawford  , Trioza beameri Tuthill. 

Host plants. Rosaceae  : Amelanchier  sp.; Solanaceae  : Solanum tuberosum Linnaeus. 

tschirikovi (Kostjukov 1990) 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Yevreyskaya Oblast).

turundaevskayae ( Kostjukov 1978)  Distribution. Asia: Kazakhstan.

upis (Walker 1839) 

Distribution. Europe: Czech Republic, England, France, Italy, Slovakia, Sweden, Moldova, Russia (Moscow Oblast, St. Petersberg). Macaronesia: Madeira Islands.

Hosts. Triozidae  : Bactericera femoralis (Förster)  , Trioza urticae  .

Host plants. Rosaceae  : Alchemilla vulgaris Linnaeus  ; Urticaceae  : Urtica  sp.

vinokurovi Kostjukov 1995 

Distribution. Asia: Russia (Primor'ye Kray).

yoorica Narendran 2007

Distribution. Asia: India (Kerala).

Distribution. Tamarixia  is a cosmopolitan genus, with most of its 47 described species from the Palearctic and Oriental regions ( Table 1). Because the greatest diversity of Psylloidea occurs in the southern tropics ( Hodkinson 1984), the number of known Tamarixia  species will undoubtedly increase as the fauna from Africa, Australia and South America becomes better characterized. During the course of this study, specimens have been examined that represent quite a few new species from North America (California, Florida), South America ( Brazil, Chile), and Australia. It is clear that further collecting and rearing of psyllids will greatly expand the known fauna of this genus.

Biology. Species of Tamarixia  are primary parasitoids of psyllids ( Graham 1987, 1991; Bouček 1988 a, 1988 b; LaSalle 1994; Noyes 2003). However, aphids can also serve as hosts for Tamarixia  species. In his description of T. poddubnyi, Kostjukov (1978)  recorded it from the aphid Capitophorus hippophaes (Walker)  , and an undescribed Tamarixia  species in EMEC has the label data: California: Los Angeles County, Highway 138, 6 miles east of Gorman, 1 June 1961, J.C. Hall, reared from Aphis gossypii  [Glover] on Solanum elaeagnifolium  [Cavanilles]. Further collecting will be required to understand just how frequent the use is of non-psyllid hosts. A record of T. orientalis Khan, Agnihotri & Sushil  from an agromyzid ( Table 1) should be treated as doubtful without subsequent confirmation.

Most records list Tamarixia  species as ectoparasitoids, however T. upis (Walker)  has been recorded as an endoparasitoid ( Noyes 2003).

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

EMEC

Essig Museum of Entomology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Eulophidae

Loc

Tamarixia Mercet, 1924

Zuparko, Robert L., Queiroz, Dalva Luiz De & Salle, John La 2011
2011
Loc

Tetrastichus atamiensis

Ashmead 1904: 162