Tamarixia schina Zuparko,

Zuparko, Robert L., Queiroz, Dalva Luiz De & Salle, John La, 2011, Two new species of Ta m a r i x i a (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Chile and Australia, established as biological control agents of invasive psyllids (Hemiptera: Calophyidae, Triozidae) in Cal, Zootaxa 2921, pp. 13-27: 19-21

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http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.277920

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scientific name

Tamarixia schina Zuparko

sp. nov.

Tamarixia schina Zuparko  , sp. nov.

( Figs 3–8View FIGURES 3 – 8)

Diagnosis. Individuals of T. schina  are distinguished from other Tamarixia  species in North America by a distinct shape of the mesosoma and coloration. In profile, the mesosoma is as high as long, and the plane marked by the dorsellum and propodeum is steeply inclined, appearing almost perpendicular to the longitudinal body axis ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 3 – 8), whereas in other species this plane is less inclined ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 13 – 16), at an angle much less than 45 º to the dorsal plane of the mesosoma. Tamarixia schina  is an extremely dark species ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 3 – 8). Females have the antennal scape and all legs black, with only a faint lightening at the apices of the femora and tibiae, whereas females of other species have much more extensive white or yellow markings. Males closely resemble those of T. triozae ( Burks 1943)  in coloration, but the former have darker fore femora and less elongated funicle segments.

Description. FEMALE. Body length: 0.75–1.04 mm; wingspan: 2.07–2.94 mm. Shiny black, some specimens with brown areas; eye dark red; scape black except yellow-brown apically; pedicel dark basally, yellow-brown apically extending basally on ventral surface; flagellar segments light brown, slightly darker dorsally; club light brown; legs dark, basal and distal apices of fore femur and tibia narrowly lightened, less distinctly so on mid- and hind femora and tibiae; tarsus yellow basally, darkening apically. Wings hyaline, veins brown. Relative measurements: head (collapsed in all examined specimens) width: 24, length: 8, height: 19; eye length: 7, height: 12; malar space: 5; antennal segments (length:width) scape, including radicle: (10: 2), pedicel: (4.5: 2.5), F 1: (3: 2), F 2: (3: 2), F 3: (3: 3), club: (6: 4); mesosoma length: 26, width at tegulae: 23, height: 22; width of scutellar median area: 5, sublateral areas: 4; fore wing length: 65, maximum width: 32, costal cell length: 21, marginal vein length: 12, stigmal vein length: 6; hind wing length: 51, width at hamuli: 10; gaster length: 27, width: 20. Antenna inserted level with lower edge of eye, scape not quite reaching anterior ocellus. Eye apparently bare. Mesoscutum with median line visible over posterior 80 %; 2 pairs of adnotaular setae. Head and most of mesosoma reticulate, but dorsellum smooth with only faint markings. Propodeum with distinct median carina, callus with 2 setae, spiracle round, almost touching anterior edge of propodeum. Ratio of median lengths of dorsellum:propodeum = 3: 5. In profile, dorsellum flat, posterior border of scutellum, dorsellum, and propodeum almost in same plane, inclined 60–90 o from the longitudinal axis of the body. Fore wing apically rounded, almost truncate; stigmal vein wider apically than basally, not appearing as constricted as in T. dahlsteni  , with distinct uncus; postmarginal vein absent; speculum extending from point posterior to parastigma to point about midway along marginal vein. Hind wing apically acute, vein extending to hamuli, about 0.5 x wing length; longest length of fringe about 0.5 x wing width.

MALE. Body length: 0.73–0.89 mm; wing span: 2.00– 2.57 mm. As female, except antenna darker, proximal and distal apical yellow bands on femora and tibiae slightly broader and brighter, tarsi lighter, occasionally tibiae and tarsi (except ultimate segment) all yellow, and plane delimited by posterior section of scutellum, dorsellum and propodeum inclined less than 60 o from longitudinal axis of the body. Relative measurements of antennal segments (length:width): scape, including radicle: (11: 3), pedicel: (4: 3), F 1: (4: 3.5), F 2: (5: 3.5), F 3: (5: 3), F 4: (5: 3), C 1: (4: 2.5), C 2: (4: 2.5), C 3: (3: 2). Segments F 2 to C 3 basally with long setae, about 2– 4 x widest width of segment. Apex of forewing almost truncate. Speculum reduced, about 0.5 x that of the female. Gaster oblong, length about 2 x width. Genitalia with digitus long and narrow, length about 8–10 x width, tipped with a hook curving laterad; paramere with apical stylus and slightly shorter than digitus; aedeagus length 9–10 x basal width, about 2.3 x length of

Distribution. Chile (Coquimbo [Elqui], Valparaiso [Valparaiso, San Felipe de Acancagua], Santiago Metropolitan Region [Santiago], O’Higgins [Cardenal Caro, Cachapoal]), USA (coastal area of California), Mexico (Estado Mexico).

Hosts. Known only from Calophya schini  , a primary ectoparasitoid of late-instar nymphs.

Type material. Holotype, Ƥ: CHILE. COQUIMBO: Elqui: 10 km W of Vicuna on road to La Serena, 500 m, 8 Apr 1987, L. E. Caltagirone, Calophya schini  on Schinus molle, Quarantine  # 87 - 7.3; deposited: EMEC. Paratypes (73 total): CHILE. Same data as holotype, 1 Ƥ, 1 3 ( EMEC); COQUIMBO: Elqui: Vicuna, 600 m, 8 Apr 1987, L. E. Caltagirone, C. schini  on S. molle, Quarantine  # 87 - 7.1, 1 3 ( MNHN). VALPARAISO: San Felipe de Acancagua and Valpariso: Panquehue –Puchuncavi, 9 Mar 1987, L. E. Caltagirone, C. schini  on S. molle, Quarantine  # 87 -5, 1 Ƥ, 1 3 ( MNHN, USNM). Lab culture, ex psyllid on leaves of S. molle  , 5 May 1987 (originating from Quarantine # 87 - 7), 1 Ƥ ( EMEC). Lab culture F 3 adults, ex. C. rubra  on leaves of S. molle  , emerged 22 Jun 1988 (originating from O’HIGGINS: Cardenal Caro: Marchihue, L.E. Caltagirone, Quarantine # 87 - 3: 20–22), 1 3 ( USNM). MEXICO. MEXICO: Texcoco & Chapingo: Apr and May 1998, R. Alvarez-Zagoya, reared from 3 rd – 5 th instar C. schini  , 20 Ƥ ( EMEC, CIIDIR-IPN, UNAM). USA. CALIFORNIA. Alameda Co.: Berkeley, 6 Aug 1994, R.L. Zuparko, on Schinus  sp., 1 Ƥ ( EMEC); Berkeley, corner of Peralta & Vincente Ave., 26 Oct 2010, R.L. Zuparko, swept from Schinus molle  , N 37 ° 53.610 W 122 °17.140, 4 Ƥ ( ANIC); Santa Clara Co.: Sunnyvale, Hwy 237 /Lawrence Expressway Interchange, R.L. Tassan, ex. Callophya schini  on Schinus molle  , coll. 27 May 1988, emerged 15-30 Jun 1988, 19 Ƥ, 1 3 ( ANIC, BMNH, CAS, EMEC, MNHN, USNM, UCD, UCR); lab culture of C. schini  on Schinus  sp., Sept 1989, 21 Ƥ ( BMNH, CAS, EMEC, MNHN, USNM, UCD, UCR).

Etymology. T he species name is derived from its only known host species, Calophya schini  .

Discussion. There is a contradiction in the label data of the paratypes from Santa Clara County ( USA: California), which specifies the city of Milpitas. However, the intersection of Highway 237 with the Lawrence Expressway is actually within the city limits of Sunnyvale, about four miles west of Milpitas.

La Salle (1994) mentioned several undescribed Tamarixia  species from South America; however, this is the first species to be described from that continent. It is found in Mexico, probably as an adventitious importation, through plantings of Schinus  species infested with C. schina  . In California, T. schina  appears to be deuterotokousmales are rare, but sexually functional (K.S. Hagen, personal communication).


Essig Museum of Entomology


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico


Australian National Insect Collection


California Academy of Sciences


University of California, Davis