Praocis (Orthogonoderes) Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840

Flores, Gustavo E. & Pizarro-Araya, Jaime, 2014, Towards a revision of the South American genus Praocis Eschscholtz (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), with estimation of the diversity of each subgenus, ZooKeys 415, pp. 53-80: 66-68

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Praocis (Orthogonoderes) Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840


(8) Subgenus Praocis (Orthogonoderes) Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840  Figs 13, 29-30

Aulacus  Gray, 1832: 783. Type species: Aulacus chilensis  Gray, 1832, monotypy. Synonymy by Kulzer (1958).

Eurygona  Laporte, 1840: 187. Type species: Aulacus chilensis  Gray, 1832, monotypy. Synonymy by Kulzer (1958).

Type species.

Praocis subreticulata  Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840, present designation.


Clypeus with anterior margin extending beyond to lateral expansion of frons, width of anterior margin not exceeding half the interocular width, clypeal suture as a horizontal groove covered by frons, clypeus lower than frons; antennomere 9 longer than antennomere 10, antennomere 11 shorter than antennomere 10; apical tomentose sensory patches on antennomere 10 in two areas subequal in size, on antennomere 11 on distal third; prosternum without a narrow edge on anterior margin; lateral margin of elytron well defined; ventral surface of profemora without a row of setae on anterior edge, protibiae explanate.


Species of Praocis (Orthogonoderes)  inhabit central and northern Chile, western and northern Argentina, western Bolivia and southern Peru. They occur from 12°South (Cuzco, Peru) to 38°South in Chile (Nahuelbuta) and 39°South in Argentina ( Neuquén) in the biogeographic provinces of Puna, Atacama, Coquimbo, Santiago, Maule, Prepuna, Monte, and Central Patagonia ( Morrone 2006). One species ( Praocis (Orthogonoderes) insularis  Kulzer) has been recorded in the Guacolda island in the Pacific Ocean (28°S) ( Kulzer 1958; Peña 1966) (Fig. 29).

New records.

We present a new record of Praocis argentina  Kulzer for the Atlantic coast in Argentina, the isthmus of Peninsula Valdés, 42°30'S.


This subgenus contains 23 species ( Kulzer 1958; Flores 2007, 2009) plus 10 species to be described, 33 species in total, with a 43 percent increase in the number of species (Fig. 33).


Species of Praocis (Orthogonoderes)  have diurnal and crepuscular habits, hiding during the night under shrubs or stones. In central Chile they can be observed in coastal dunes stabilized with vegetation or paleodunes, gullies, coastal plains, transverse valleys and Coastal and Andean mountain ranges from sea level to an altitude of 2700 m. In Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and northern Chile, they occur from 1600 m high altitudinal valleys associated with the Andes mountain range to an altitude of 4200 m in the high Puna plateau, in sandy soils or in clayey, poorly permeable soils ( Cortés-Contreras et al. 2013; collection data FMNH, IADIZA, LEULS, and pers. obs). The only species inhabiting Patagonian steppes, Praocis (Orthogonoderes) argentina  , is recorded from 1700 m in southern Mendoza to sea level on the Atlantic coast in Argentina (collection data IADIZA, LEULS, and pers. obs.). Orthogonoderes  is the only subgenus inhabiting both the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of South America (Fig. 30).

Species included.

Praocis cribrata  Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840; Praocis adspersa  Germain, 1855; Praocis depressicollis  Germain, 1855; Praocis ecostata  Kulzer, 1958; Praocis subreticulata  Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840; Praocis dentipes  Germain, 1855; Praocis pleuroptera  Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840 (= Praocis convexa  Germain, 1855, synonymy by Flores 2007); Praocis plicicollis  Germain, 1855; Praocis laevicollis  Philippi & Philippi, 1864 (= Praocis nitidicollis  Philippi & Philippi, 1864, synonymy by Kulzer 1958); Praocis ebenina  Germain, 1855; Praocis picipes  Germain, 1855 (= Praocis consobrina  Philippi & Philippi, 1864, synonymy by Kulzer 1958) (= Praocis rotundicollis  Philippi & Philippi, 1864, synonymy by Kulzer 1958); Praocis costipennis  Solier, 1851; Praocis rugata  Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840; Praocis punctata  Gay & Solier in Solier, 1840; Praocis rotundata  Lacordaire, 1830 (= Praocis soror  Kulzer, 1958, synonymy by Flores and Pizarro-Araya 2010); Praocis variolosa  Erichson, 1834; Praocis variolosa laxepunctata  Kulzer, 1958; Praocis penai  Kulzer, 1958 (incorrect original spelling: peñai, Article 32.5 ICZN 1999); Praocis chilensis  (Gray, 1832); Praocis insularis  Kulzer, 1958; Praocis tibiella  Kulzer, 1958; Praocis argentina  Kulzer, 1962; Praocis magnoi  Molinari, 1969.