Chondrocyclus langebergensis

Cole, Mary L., 2019, Revision of Chondrocyclus s. l. (Mollusca: Cyclophoridae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 569, pp. 1-92: 53-56

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Chondrocyclus langebergensis

sp. nov.

Chondrocyclus langebergensis  sp. nov.

Figs 5View Fig, 10 O, RView Fig, 25View Fig

Chondrocyclus convexiusculus – Connolly 1939: 537  . — Herbert & Kilburn 2004: 91.


Shell small, very depressed, discoidal; periostracum with axial costae producing spiral rows of simple, robust hairs concentrated at and on either side of periphery; operculum duplex, exterior portion very shallowly concave, with thickened ridge on multispiral lamella from which emanates a fairly long solid fringe and a very short fringe below this; radula with three large cusps on second lateral tooth.


Named after the Langeberg mountain range, part of the Cape Fold Mountains.

Type material examined


SOUTH AFRICA – Western Cape • Langeberge foothills, Pat Busch Nature Reserve, Karin Trail , riverine fynbos; 33.7551° S, 19.9947° E; 450 m a.s.l.; 7 Aug. 2014; M. Cole leg.; in leaf-litter beneath bushes; NMSA PView Materials 0642/ T 4159. ( Fig. 10 O, RView Fig)GoogleMaps 


SOUTH AFRICA – Western Cape • 21 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; ELM D17981View Materials / T 98GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for holotype; ELM W 3899View Materials / T 99GoogleMaps  14 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; 10 Oct. 2007; D. Herbert and L. Davis leg.; NMSA W 5768View Materials / T 4120GoogleMaps  117 specimens; same collection data as for holotype; 3 Mar. 2012; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16920View Materials / T 97GoogleMaps  40 specimens; Langeberg Mountains, Heidelberg area, Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res. , Bushbuck Trail , Afrotemperate forest ; 33.9819° S, 20.8321° E; 19 Apr. 2012; M. Cole leg.; in leaf litter; ELM D16999View Materials / T 90GoogleMaps  6 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W 3660View Materials / T 91GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120284View MaterialsGoogleMaps  113 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; 3 Mar. 2012; R. Daniels leg.; ELM D16918View Materials / T 100GoogleMaps  7 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; ELM W 03613View Materials / T 92GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NHMUK 20120283View MaterialsGoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; NMW. Z.2012.065.00011GoogleMaps  5 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; RMNH MOL.330500GoogleMaps  5 specimens; Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res. Melkhoutpad ; 33.9819° S, 20.8321° E; 16 Sep. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16917View Materials / T 93GoogleMaps  1 specimen; same collection data as for preceding; W 3689/ T 94GoogleMaps  6 specimens; Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res., Redwoods area , Podocarpus  forest; 33.9826° S, 20.8296° E; 224 m a.s.l.; 14 Sep. 2003; J. Londt leg.; NMSA W 1043View Materials / T 4117GoogleMaps  20 specimens; Grootvadersbosch Nat. Res. ; 33.9959° S, 20.8129° E; 22 Feb. 2005; A. Moussalli and D. Stuart-Fox leg.; NMSA W 5008View Materials / T 4119GoogleMaps  176 specimens; Marloth Nature Reserve, Swellendam, Duivelsbos Forest , 33.9934° S, 20.4587° E; 15 Sep. 2009; M. Cole leg.; ELM D16919View Materials / T 95GoogleMaps  31 specimens; same collection data as for preceding; W 03614View Materials / T 96GoogleMaps  4 specimens; Marloth Nat. Res. , afrotemperate forest; 33.9897° S, 20.4544° E; 23 Feb. 2005; A. Moussalli and D. Stuart-Fox leg.; in leaf-litter; NMSA W 5016View Materials / T 4118GoogleMaps  6 specimens; Montagu ; 33.7833° S, 20.1167° E; M. Connolly leg.; NMSA 2778View Materials / T 4116GoogleMaps  .


SHELL ( Fig. 25View Fig A–C). Small, very depressed, discoidal, adult diameter 3.63–5.76 mm, height 1.42– 2.76 mm, diameter:height 1.79–2.85 (n = 67, measured in four different populations; Table 3). Spire almost flat ( Fig. 25 AView Fig), sometimes concave, usually with only the mammillate, tilted protoconch projecting. Embryonic shell ( Fig. 25DView Fig) approx. 2–2.25 whorls, microscopically malleate, junction between embryonic shell and teleoconch evident with development of widely spaced axial costae on teleoconch.Teleoconch comprising2.25 whorls, very rapidly increasing, convex, suture deeply impressed. Aperture circular, last whorl descending steeply nearing aperture, peristome simple, continuous and free. Umbilicus very wide, exposing all the whorls ( Fig. 25 CView Fig). Periostracum glossy and lacquer-like with lamellate axial costae at regular intervals, 47–63 (n = 14) on last whorl in Grootvadersbosch population but varies between populations ( Table 3), which produce six spiral rows of simple, very long and robust hairs around the periphery; intervals between costae with six–eight microscopic axial threads. Shell translucent reddish brown, honey brown or yellowish-white when fresh. Living animal. Variable in colour between populations from creamy white with light brown pigmentation on tentacles to almost black, underside of foot creamy white.

OPERCULUM ( Fig. 25 F, IView Fig). Duplex and shallowly concave; multispiral lamella of outer portion with five low whorls, thickened horizontal ridge near base of lamellar blade runs parallel to disc surface, a long fringe of fused bristles and a second very short fringe below it emanate from this ridge; main fringe grows upwards (i.e., parallel to lamellar blade) and then downwards, leaving a deep, wide groove between fringe and blade of lamella; lamellar blade projects above level of fringe and is very thin; fringe of each whorl fused to lamellar blade of next whorl; fringe of outermost whorl overlaps disc slightly and is reflexed over peristome in life although operculum is retractile.

RADULA ( Fig. 25 EView Fig). Rachidian with five cusps, middle one longer than 2 cusps on either side of it; first and second lateral teeth with five cusps (5 th sometimes vestigial), the third cusp from centre the largest.

PENIS ( Fig. 25View Fig G–H). Shaft more or less cylindrical and slightly flattened dorsoventrally, distal half slightly expanded on left side, numerous annular rugae, distal end smooth but not bulbous, intromittent organ short.

Distribution and habitat

Western Cape, evidently endemic to Langeberg mountain range in Cape Fold Mountain belt, southfacing slopes and on northern side of range in Montagu area ( Fig. 5View Fig).

Diverse vegetation types: patches of Western Cape Afrotemperate Forest ( von Maltitz et al. 2003) and riverine fynbos, in leaf litter.


In terms of its hairy periostracum Chondrocyclus langebergensis  sp. nov. resembles Afrocyclus isipingoensis  gen. et comb. nov., but the molecular analyses placed C. langebergensis  sp. nov. and C. kevincolei  sp. nov. in a well-supported monophyletic clade, termed the Overberg clade, within the Chondrocyclus  s.s. radiation ( Cole et al. 2019; Fig. 1View Fig). The major morphological feature distinguishing this clade from A. isipingoensis  gen. et comb. nov. is that the second lateral tooth of the radula has three large cusps ( Fig. 25 EView Fig) as opposed to two in A. isipinoensis  comb. nov. ( Fig. 27 EView Fig). Differences between C. langebergensis  sp. nov. and C. kevincolei  sp. nov. are discussed under the latter species.

The Overberg clade and the other taxon in the southwestern Cape, C. convexiusculus  , have not been recorded sympatrically although they occur in close proximity inland in the upper Breede River valley and near the coast ( Fig. 5View Fig). Other taxa also contain distinct clades in either the Hottentots-Holland Mountains or the Overberg which do not occur in the other region (e.g., Gouws et al. 2010; Herbert & Moussalli 2010; McDonald et al. 2012; Daniels et al. 2013) and the Breede River valley is considered an important barrier to gene flow ( Weimarck 1941; Linder 2003; McDonald & Daniels 2012).


University of Copenhagen


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Botanische Staatssammlung M�nchen


KwaZulu-Natal Museum


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


East London Museum


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien


Universit�t Z�rich


National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis


University of the Witwatersrand


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University














Chondrocyclus langebergensis

Cole, Mary L. 2019

Chondrocyclus convexiusculus – Connolly 1939: 537

Herbert D. & Kilburn D. 2004: 91
Connolly M. 1939: 537