Boreofairchildia Wagner & Stuckenberg

Wagner, Rüdiger & Stuckenberg, Brian, 2016, Cladistic analysis of Subfamily Bruchomyiinae (Diptera: Psychodidae), Zootaxa 4092 (2), pp. 151-174: 163-165

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Boreofairchildia Wagner & Stuckenberg

gen. nov.

Genus Boreofairchildia Wagner & Stuckenberg  gen. nov.

Type species: Nemopalpus sziladyi Tonnoir 1940  , 6th Congr. Internat. Ebt. Madrid, 1935: 206, by present designation

Etymology. dedicated to G.B. Fairchild, medical entomologist with important publications on taxonomy and ecology of Neotropical Phlebotominae and Bruchomyiinae  , and ‘boreos’ (Greek for north); gender is feminine.

Species included (all transferred from Nemopalpus  ): B. antillarum  comb. nov. [ Dominican Republic]; B. arroyoi  comb. nov. [ Guatemala, Panama, Mexico]; B. mopani  comb. nov. [ Guatemala, Mexico, Belize]; B. moralesi  comb. nov. [ Guatemala]; B. multisetosus  comb. nov. [ Ecuador]; B. nearcticus  comb. nov. [ USA, Bahamas]; B. parva  comb. nov. [ Brazil]; B. patriciae  comb. nov. [ Colombia]; B. sziladyi  comb. nov. [ Costa Rica, Panama]; B. torrealbai  comb. nov. [ Venezuela]; B. yucatanensis  comb. nov. [ Mexico]; and B. youngi  comb. nov. [ Dominican Republic]. Fossil: B. scheveni (Wagner, 2006)  comb. nov. [Dominican Amber].

Diagnosis. Sixteen antennomeres, anal vein distally curved towards wing margin, male vasa deferentia widening basally, aedeagus as long as or slightly shorter than ejaculatory apodeme and gonocoxites; gonocoxites without medial appendages, gonostyli basally broad, with two or more distal projections. Female spermatheca elongate, with a long slit, with internal setiform sculpturing.

Comments. Specimens have antennae 4–6 times longer than head diameter, flagellomeres with predominantly subdiscoidal ascoids. Palp segment 5 longer than combined length of segments 1 to 4; apex of palpus usually reaches flagellomere 3 or 4. Newstead scales on the third palpomere mentioned for B. antillarum  , B. arroyoi  and B. mopani  . Parameres heavily sclerotized, with vertical and horizontal projections distinct, clearly differentiated.

Wing venation ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 c) with r-m cross-vein basal to origin of M 1 + 2, and vein R 2 much shorter than R 2 + 3; in some species cross veins rudimentary or even missing. In B. yucatanensis  2 or 3 radial veins do not directly meet costa, but connection is by short perpendicular ‘cross-veins’ (this was described for both sexes so it is highly improbable that it is an anomaly).

B. antillarum  , B. mopani  , B. nearcticus  , B. sziladyi  , and B. torrealbai  possess lateral sclerites covered with setae tufts on differing numbers of abdomen segments that are supposed to play a major role in courtship behavior, and that probably act to distribute pheromones (Tonnoir 1940). In addition, abdominal tergites 1 –2, 1– 3, or 1–4 with a dorsal groove if tufts are present. Therein the elongate setae are positioned when they are not needed for courtship behavior. For B. torrealbai  , lateral tufts are present, but no dorsal grooves were mentioned (Ortiz & Scorza 1963). Inversion of genitalia is by segments 8 and 9. Gonocoxites simple, without any appendage but with tendency to fuse at base. Gonostyli basally broad, distally with 2 to 4 elongate projections of shape differing among species. Ejaculatory apodeme rod-shaped (not vertically extended as in Old World Nemopalpus  , and not trumpet shaped as in Bruchomyia  and Eutonnoiria  ), approximately as long the aedeagus, which is as long as or slightly shorter than the gonocoxite; epandrium elongate. Vasa deferentia internally setose at proximal end (though not in every species). Parameres heavily sclerotized, in lateral view, with vertical and horizontal projections ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 b). An apically bifid aedeagus as long as the gonostylus and the basal aedeagal sclerite was mentioned for B. patriciae  . B. nearcticus  with short, trifid gonostyli and B. youngi  with remarkable blade-like ventral appendages of the gonocoxites.

Females of probably all species (only few unambiguously discernable) possess an elongate, slightly sclerotized spermatheca with a long slit and differently sized internal fields of strong elongate setae protruding inward ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 d). The section towards the spermathecal duct is not narrower, and according to the descriptions of de León (1950) this pattern seems to be the same for B. nearcticus  , B. arroyoi  , B. mopani  and B. moralesi  . Spermatheca of B. patriciae  is externally setose. Probably all species with tufts of modified setae on either side of tergite 9 (lateral to the primary gonopore) that were as well mentioned for B. dampfianus (Fairchild 1952)  , and occur in several other species.