Carasobarbus fritschii ( Guenther , 1874),

Borkenhagen, Kai & Krupp, Friedhelm, 2013, Taxonomic revision of the genus Carasobarbus Karaman, 1971 (Actinopterygii, Cyprinidae), ZooKeys 339, pp. 1-53: 19-24

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.339.4903

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/149A115C-7F61-FF48-EA56-3F9A6F1108C2

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scientific name

Carasobarbus fritschii ( Guenther , 1874)
status

comb. n.

Carasobarbus fritschii ( Guenther, 1874)  comb. n.

Barbus fritschii  Günther 1874: 231.

Barbus rothschildi  Günther 1901: 368.

Barbus riggenbachi  Günther 1902: 447.

Capoeta atlantica  Boulenger 1902: 124.

Capoeta waldoi  Boulenger 1902: 124.

Barbus paytonii  Boulenger 1911: 82.

Material.

Type material. Syntypes of Barbus fritschii  : BMNH 1874.1.30:27-31, 5, Morocco, Oued Ksob in Oued Igrounzar drainage [31°28'59"N, 9°46'3"W], K. v. Fritsch and J. Rein, 1872.

Syntypes of Barbus paytonii  : BMNH 1903.10.29:17-20, 7, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia [33°19'40"N, 8°20'2"W], F. W. Riggenbach.

Syntypes Barbus riggenbachi  : BMNH 1902.7.28:20-21, 2, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia [33°19'40"N, 8°20'2"W], F. W. Riggenbach. - BMNH 1902.7.28:19, 1, Morocco, Oued Talmest [31°52'15"N, 9°18'31"W], F. W. Riggenbach.

Syntypes Barbus rothschildi  : BMNH 1901.7.26:6-7, 2, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia [33°19'40"N, 8°20'2"W], E. Hartert.

Syntypes of Capoeta atlantica  : BMNH 1902.1.4:18-19, 2, Morocco, Oued Nfis at Trigadir-el-hor (Tagadirt n’Bour?) [31°9'21"N, 8°6'2"W], E. G. B. Meade-Waldo.

Syntypes of Capoeta waldoi  : BMNH 1902.1.4:16-17, 2, Morocco, Oued Nfis at Trigadir-el-hor (Tagadirt n’Bour?) [31°9'21"N, 8°6'2"W], E. G. B. Meade-Waldo.

Non-type material. Oued al Maleh drainage. SMF 33412, 5; SMF 33510, 1; SMF 33511, 1; SMF 33512, 1, Morocco, Oued al Maleh above the dam (33°33'53"N, 7°22'3"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 19 Apr 2011. - MNHN 1919-0365, 1; MNHN 1919-0366, 1, Morocco, Oued Bou Asseïla near Chaouia [33°19'34"N, 7°16'46"W], H. Millet, 1919.

Oued Bou Regreg drainage. MNHN 1939-0124, 1, Morocco, Oued Akrech [33°56'7"N, 6°47'41"W], J. M. Pérès, 1939. - SMF 33411, 10; SMF 33503, 1; SMF 33504, 1; SMF 33505, 1, Morocco, Oued Korifla above the dam lake (33°44'0"N, 6°43'43"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 18 Apr 2011.

Oued Igrounzar drainage. BMNH 1889.7.19:9, 1, Morocco, near Essaouira [31°30'45"N, 9°46'12"W], C. Payton. - SMF 636, 4; SMF 952, 6, Morocco, Oued Ksob [31°28'59"N, 9°46'3"W], K. v. Fritsch and J. Rein, 1872. - SMF 33405, 19; SMF 33446, 1; SMF 33450, 1; SMF 33451, 1, Morocco, Oued Ksob near Essaouira (31°28'0"N, 9°45'32"W), A. Azeroual et al., 11 Apr 2011. - SMF 33388, 1; SMF 33389, 1; SMF 33390, 1; SMF 33404, 20, Oued Igrounzar between Ounara and El Ghazouane (31°27'21"N, 9°41'4"W), A. Azeroual et al., 10 Apr 2011. - SMF 33406, 2, Oued Igrounzar near El Khemis des Meskala (31°21'31"N, 9°24'20"W), A. Azeroual et al., 11 Apr 2011.

Oued Iqem drainage. SMF 33509, 1, Morocco, Oued Iqem near Skhirat (33°53'22"N, 6°59'56"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 19 Apr 2011.

Oued Kiss drainge. MNHN 1924-0174, 1, Algeria, Oued Kiss at Marsa Ben Mehid (35°4'59"N, 2°10'1"W), C. A. Alluaud, 1924.

Oued Moulouya drainage. SMF 33407, 8; SMF 33408, 4; SMF 33479, 1; SMF 33481, 1; SMF 33484, 1, Morocco, Oued Za near Guefaït (34°13'36"N, 2°23'34"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 15 Apr 2011. - MNHN 1926-0070, 1, Morocco, Oued Melloulou near Guercif [34°13'32"N, 3°21'13"W], P. M. Pallary, 1926. - NMW 19533, 1, Morocco, Ras el Aïn near Aïn Beni Mathar (=Berguent) [34°0'41"N, 2°1'47"W], F. Werner. - NMW 19532, 1, Morocco, Oued Za [32°57'0"N, 5°12'0"W], F. Werner.

Oued Oum er Rbia drainage. BMNH 1902.7.28:22-26, 5, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia [33°19'40"N, 8°20'2"W], F. Riggenbach. - BMNH 1903.7.1:8, 2, Morocco, El Jadida [33°15'18"N, 8°30'22"W], F. Riggenbach. - MNHN 1927-0099, 1; MNHN 1927-0100, 1; MNHN 1989-0535, 1, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia near Khenifra [32°56'21"N, 5°40'7"W], A. Gruvel and R. Dollfus, 1927. - MNHN 1928-0054, 1; MNHN 1928-0055, 1, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia near Khenifra [32°56'21"N, 5°40'7"W], P. Pallary, 1928. - SMF 33513, 1; SMF 33514, 1; SMF 33515, 1, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia near Boulaouane (32°51'33"N, 8°2'41"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 20 Apr 2011. - SMF 33344, 1; SMF 33345, 1; SMF 33346, 1; SMF 33394, 12, Morocco, Oued Srou at bridge between Tighassaline and Khenifra (32°49'51"N, 5°36'36"W), A. Azeroual et al., 7 Apr 2011. - SMF 33360, 1; SMF 33361, 1; SMF 33362, 1; SMF 33395, 17, Morocco, Oued Derra near Oulad Yaïch (32°26'23"N, 6°19'24"W), A. Azeroual et al., 9 Apr 2011. - SMF 33363, 1; SMF 33364, 1; SMF 33365, 1; SMF 33397, 22, Morocco, Oued Oum er Rbia (32°18'53"N, 6°54'33"W), A. Azeroual et al., 9 Apr 2011.

Oued Sebou drainage. SMF 33410, 9; SMF 33494, 1; SMF 33495, 1; SMF 33496, 1, Morocco, Oued Ouergha between Sidi Qacem and Ouazzane (34°27'52"N, 5°30'39"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 17 Apr 2011. - MNHN 1939-0125, 1; MNHN 1939-0126, 1; MNHN 1939-0127, 1, Morocco, El Gharb [34°25'N, 6°20'W], J. M. Pérès, 1939. - MNHN 1939-0122, 2; MNHN 1939-0123, 2; MNHN 1939-0145, 1, Morocco, Oued Sebou [34°15'53"N, 6°41'5"W], J. M. Pérès, 1939. - SMF 33409, 15; SMF 33489, 1; SMF 33491, 1; SMF 33493, 1, Morocco, Oued Lahdar near Taza (34°14'35"N, 4°3'55"W), K. Borkenhagen and J. Freyhof, 16 Apr 2011. - MNHN 1924-0191, 3, Morocco, Oued Beth near Dar Bel Hamri [34°11'14"N, 5°57'54"W], C. A. Alluaud, 1924. - MNHN 1920-0061, 1; MNHN 1920-0062, 1, Morocco, Oued Bou Hellou [34°9'19"N, 4°25'33"W], P. M. Pallary, 1920. - MNHN 1922-0065, 1, Morocco, Moulay Yacoub [34°5'17"N, 5°10'54"W], C. A. Alluaud, 1922. - MNHN 1920-0202, 1, Morocco, Faraoun near Volubilis [34°4'25"N, 5°33'25"W], C. A. Alluaud, 1920. - MNHN 1939-0128, 1; MNHN 1939-0129, 1, El Mabbabat [?], J. M. Pérès, 1939.

Oued Tennsift drainage. BMNH 1904.11.28:60, 1; BMNH 1905.11.28:60-63 and BMNH 1904.11.28:57-58, 6, Morocco, Oued Chichaoua [31°43'48"N, 8°49'48"W], F. Riggenbach. - MNHN 1919-0379, 1; MNHN 1919-0380, 1; MNHN 1919-0381, 1; MNHN 1919-0382, 1, Morocco, Oued Nfis near Dar Goundafi [31°43'41"N, 8°21'1"W], P. M. Pallary, 1919. - MNHN 1988-1146, 4, Morocco, Oued Nfis [31°43'41"N, 8°21'1"W], Goubier, VI.1988. - MNHN 1922-0066, 1; MNHN 1922-0067, 1; MNHN 1922-0068, 1, Morocco, Oued Chichaoua near Chichaoua [31°32'37"N, 8°45'46"W], C. A. Alluaud, 1922. - SMF 33371, 1; SMF 33372, 1; SMF 33373, 1; SMF 33374, 1; SMF 33398, 3, Morocco, Oued Nfis near Tameslouht (31°27'2"N, 8°8'22"W), A. Azeroual et al., 10 Apr 2011. - SMF 33378, 1; SMF 33379, 1; SMF 33380, 1; SMF 33399, 14; SMF 33403, 22, Morocco, Oued Nfis near Ouirgane (31°13'24"N, 8°6'50"W), A. Azeroual et al., 10 Apr 2011. - MNHN 1925-0371, 1, Morocco, Oued Nfis near Ouirgane [31°10'40"N, 8°4'24"W], J. Pellegrin, 1925.

Diagnosis.

Two pairs of barbels, 30 to 39 scales in the lateral line and 14 to 20 scales around the least circumference of the caudal peduncle; dorsal fin usually shorter than anal fin and more than 15 % of its last unbranched ray flexible, dorsal profile of the head convex.

Description.

The body is of moderate height and sometimes has a small nuchal hump in larger specimens. The head is round with a convex dorsal profile and convex or straight ventral profile (Figs 16, 17). The head length is shorter than the body depth (Fig. 12), the mouth is inferior with two pairs of barbels (Table 2). The lower lip is crescent shaped and sometimes weakly keratinised. The eyes are in the anterior half of the head. The morphometric characters are summarised in Table 1.

The dorsal fin is short and weakly ossified and more than 15 % of the length of its last unbranched ray is flexible. Its last unbranched ray is about as long as the head (Fig. 4). It usually has four unbranched and seven to 10 branched rays (Table 3). The anal fin usually has three unbranched and five or six branched rays (Table 4). Its length is rather variable in adult specimens. It reaches the base of the caudal fin in some specimens.

Carasobarbus fritschii  has 30 to 39 scales in the lateral line (Table 5), usually 5.5 scales above the lateral line (Table 6), usually 4.5 or 5.5 scales below the lateral line (Table 7), and 14 to 20 scales around the least circumference of the caudal peduncle (Table 8). The scales are shown in Fig. 5.

The pharyngeal teeth count is 2.3.4-4.3.2 in two specimens, 2.3.4- in one specimen and -4.3.2 in eight specimens. Pharyngeal teeth are hooked at their tips (Fig. 6).

Live specimens are silvery and usually have a dark longitudinal band above the lateral line. Fins are hyaline to slightly orange (Fig. 17). Ethanol-preserved specimens are yellow-brown, the back is usually distinctly darker than the belly and flanks.

The maximum length observed in the material available is 180 mm SL.

Carasobarbus fritschii  differs from all congeners except Carasobarbus exulatus  and Carasobarbus harterti  in having nine instead of 10 branched dorsal-fin rays. It differs from Carasobarbus exulatus  in having 30 to 39 scales in the lateral line vs. 26 to 32 and modally 16 scales around the least circumference of the caudal peduncle vs. 12. It differs from Carasobarbus harterti  in having a convex dorsal head profile and a last unbranched dorsal-fin ray that is weakly ossified and flexible for more than 15 % of its length vs. a straight dorsal head profile and a strongly ossified last unbranched dorsal-fin ray that is flexible in less than 15 % of its length.

Distribution.

Carasobarbus fritschii  is widespread and abundant in Northern and Central Morocco (Fig. 18). It occurs in the Oued al Maleh, Oued Bou Regreg, Oued Igrounzar, Oued Moulouya, Oued Oum er Rbia, Oued Sebou and Oued Tennsift drainage systems, and in numerous small coastal rivers. Most records are from Morocco, but one specimen is from the Oued Kiss in Algeria.

Habitats and biology.

Carasobarbus fritschii  occurs in a wide range of running water courses and dam lakes.

Conservation status.

Carasobarbus fritschii  is a hardy species and occurs in near-natural as well as heavily modified habitats. It is tolerant against pollution, damming and the presence of several exotic species (KB pers. obs.). The IUCN rates Carasobarbus fritschii  as "Least Concern" and Barbus paytonii  (which is treated as a junior synonym in this study) as "Vulnerable B2ab(iii)" ( Crivelli 2006c, Crivelli 2006e). According to the latter assessment the population in the lower Oued Oum er Rbia is adversely affected by agricultural pollution ( Crivelli 2006e).

Discussion.

Carasobarbus fritschii  was described from the Oued Ksob as a member of the genus Barbus  ( Günther 1874). The same author described Barbus rothschildi  from the Oued Oum er Rbia ( Günther 1901). It is a junior synonym of Carasobarbus fritschii  . One year later Günther (1902) described Barbus riggenbachii  from Oued Oum er Rbia and Oued Talmest. It is a junior synonym of Carasobarbus fritschii  . In the same year Capoeta atlantica  and Capoeta waldoi  were described from Oued Nfis ( Boulenger 1902). These two species were placed into Capoeta  , based on the keratinised lower lip that occurs in some specimens of Carasobarbus fritschii  . Both are junior synonyms of Carasobarbus fritschii  . Barbus paytonii  was described from Oued Oum er Rbia ( Boulenger 1911). It is a junior synonym of Carasobarbus fritschii  . In the same publication Boulenger transferred Capoeta waldoi  to the genus Barbus  . The junior synonyms listed above were described, based on slight differences in mouth and lower lip shape or the degree of ossification of dorsal-fin rays. Sample sizes were usually very small. The examination of a large number of specimens revealed high variability and a continuous distribution of these characters. Boulenger (1919) transferred all species to the genus Barbus  subgenus Labeobarbus  , based on the possession of scales with parallel radii and an unserrated last unbranched dorsal-fin ray. Pellegrin (1919) listed the species in the genus Barbus  but later ( Pellegrin 1921, 1939) accepted the subgenus Labeobarbus  . Pellegrin (1939) synonymised Barbus riggenbachi  with Barbus rothschildi  and did not list Capoeta atlantica  . Karaman (1971) created the genus Pseudotor  and synonymised Capoeta atlantica  and Capoeta waldoi  with Pseudotor fritschii fritschii  . Fowler (1976) accepted all previously described species and transferred Capoeta atlantica  and Capoeta waldoi  to the genus Varicorhinus  . Berrebi (1981) used the genus Barbus  subgenus Labeobarbus  and found no relevant differences between Barbus fritschii  and Barbus paytonii  in his morphometric and biochemical analysis. El Gharbi et al. (1993) highlighted the African distribution of the subgenus Labeobarbus  . Doadrio (1994) and Tsigenopoulos et al. (2010) used Labeobarbus  . Subsequent authors used the genus Barbus  ( Azeroual et al. 2000, Machordom and Doadrio 2001, Leggatt and Iwama 2003, Colli et al. 2009) or the provisional genus ' Barbus  ' ( Borkenhagen et al. 2011). We transfer this species to the genus Carasobarbus  , based on the possession of a smooth last unbranched dorsal-fin ray, modally nine branched dorsal-fin rays, six branched rays in the anal fin and shield-shaped scales with numerous parallel radii. Analysis of molecular genetic characters ( Durand et al. 2002, Tsigenopoulos et al. 2010, KB unpublished data) support this decision.

The name of this species is frequently misspelled " Barbus fritschi  ".

The 'Catalog of Fishes’ lists SMF 636 and SMF 952 as types for Carasobarbus fritschii  ( Eschmeyer 2011). Both lots where collected by K. v. Fritsch and J. Rein in Oued Ksob in 1872, together with the types of ' Barbus  ' reinii Günther, 1874, Luciobarbus nasus  ( Günther, 1874) and the syntypes of Carasobarbus fritschii  . SMF 636 contains seven specimens: one Luciobarbus nasus  , one Luciobarbus ksibi  (Boulenger, 1905), one ' Barbus  ' reinii and four Carasobarbus fritschii  . SMF 952 contains eight specimens: two ' Barbus  ' reinii and six Carasobarbus fritschii  . In the original description Günther (1874) did not state the number of type specimens on which he based the description of Carasobarbus fritschii  , but in the same paper he described Luciobarbus nasus  (as Barbus nasus  ), based on two specimens and ' Barbus  ' reinii, based on three specimens. It is likely that Günther never saw the lots SMF 636 and SMF 952, because all syntypes of Luciobarbus nasus  and ' Barbus  ' reinii are in the BMNH. The collectors, K. v. Fritsch and J. Rein probably deposited these samples immediately in the SMF and we conclude that SMF 636 and SMF 952 are not part of the type series of Carasobarbus fritschii  .