Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2018, The South American spider genera Mesabolivar and Carapoia (Araneae, Pholcidae): new species and a framework for redrawing generic limits, Zootaxa 4395 (1), pp. 1-178: 148-150

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Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891 )

comb. n.

Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891)  comb. n.

Figs 599–600View FIGURES 590–600

Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891: 171  , pl. 5, figs 117, 117a (♂, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro).

Litoporus luteus: Moenkhaus 1898: 104  (text copied from Keyserling 1891). Mello-Leitão 1918: 93, fig. 2 (text and figure copied from Keyserling 1891).

Pholcus imbecillus Keyserling, 1891: 170  , pl. 5, figs 115, 115a (♀, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). Synonymized with Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891 in Huber 2000: 231  .

Litoporus imbecilis: Moenkhaus 1898: 103  (text copied from Keyserling 1891).

Litoporus imbecillus: Mello-Leitão 1918: 93  , fig. 1 (text and figure copied from Keyserling 1891).

Litoporus coccineus Simon, 1893: 480  , fig. 473 (♀, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). Huber 1997: 587, figs 10a–e, 11a–b. Synonymized with Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891 in Huber 2000: 231  .

Litoporus fulvus Moenkhaus, 1898: 105  , figs 4, 4a–c (♂, Brazil: São Paulo). Mello-Leitão 1918: 94, figs 3–4 (text and figures copied from Moenkhaus 1898). Synonymized with L. imbecillus ( Keyserling, 1891) in Roewer 1942: 336  .

Mesabolivar luteus: Huber 2000: 230  , figs 907–915. de Araujo et al. 2005: 593. Machado 2007: 95. Huber & Rheims 2011: 281. Huber 2014: 139. Castanheira et al. 2016: 13.

Type material. Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891  : BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 3♂ syntypes, BMNH (1890.7.1 8310– 3), Micarema, Fazenda Sergio Potta de Castro [21.413°S, 42.196°W], leg. E.A. Göldi, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Pholcus imbecillus Keyserling, 1891  : BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 5♀ syntypes, 3 penult  . ♂, BMNH (1890.7.1 8314.20), Micarema, Serra Vermelha, Fazenda Sergio Potta de Castro [21.413°S, 42.196°W], leg. E.A. Göldi, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Litoporus coccineus Simon, 1893  : BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro / Minas Gerais (see Notes below): ♂ lectotype, 6♂ paralectotypes, MNHNAbout MNHN [10524; E. Simon collection label: “6918 coccineus  E.S. Rio! Caraça (Goun)”], no further data, examined (Huber 2000).

Litoporus fulvus Moenkhaus, 1898  : BRAZIL: São Paulo (see Notes below): 3♂ syntypes, MZSPAbout MZSP ( DZ 3030View Materials), Iguape [24.7°S, 47.55°W], xii.1897, no further data, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Notes. Just like Carapoia cambridgei  (see above), this species was also tentatively assigned to Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1898  in a first revision of New World Pholcidae (Huber 2000)  . The male cheliceral apophyses and the female epigynal pocket suggested an affinity to that genus. On the other hand, the paired sclerites embedded in membrane behind the epigynal plate as well as the membranous dorsal protrusion of the bulb reminded of Carapoia González-Sponga, 1898  . Indeed, early molecular data consistently placed this species closer to Carapoia  than to Mesabolivar  (Astrin et al. 2007, Dimitrov et al. 2013). Our latest molecular phylogeny of Pholcidae  (Eberle et al., unpublished data) includes 39 species of Carapoia  and 33 species of Mesabolivar  , and again this species is nested in Carapoia  (Appendices 1–2). Therefore, Mesabolivar luteus  is here formally transferred to Carapoia  .

This species shows considerable variation, especially with respect to the male chelicerae (see below). After the analysis herein of more than 170 males from ~25 localities I tend to feel confident about earlier decisions ( Roewer 1942, Huber 2000) to synonymize several names proposed by Keyserling (1891), Moenkhaus (1898), and Simon (1893) (see list of synonyms above). However, molecular reanalysis of a large and dense sample of this species would be welcome and might in fact suggest the presence of more than one species.

The type locality of Litoporus fulvus  was erroneously given as “Iguape, Rio de Janeiro ” in Huber (2000). Instead, Iguape is located in southern São Paulo state (24.7°S, 47.55°W).

In a revision of E. Simon’s Pholcidae (Huber 1997)  I misread the label accompanying the Litoporus coccineus  types as “Curuça” and the collector as “Gohns[?]”. The actual locality is [Serra do] Caraça and the collector E. Gounelle. This means that Simon joined material from two localities in the type vial: from Rio [de Janeiro], collected by himself (“Rio!”), and from Serra do Caraça (Minas Gerais, 20.1°S, 43.5°W), collected by Gounelle. It is impossible to tell from which of the two localities the lectotype originates.

New records. BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 3♂ 3♀ 2 juvs, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19268), Cachoeiras de Macacu , Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú (22°24.4’–25.3’S, 42°44.2’–44.3’W), 140–280 m a.s.l., 23.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber, A. Giupponi)  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK ( Br 09-100), same locality, 23–24.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  ; 1♂ 1♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK ( Ar 19269), same locality at 140–300 m a.s.l., 25.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  . 2♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19270), Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú (22°24.3’S, 42°44.1’W), ~ 300–400 m a.s.l., 24.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber, A. Giupponi)GoogleMaps  . 2♂, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19271), forest fragment near Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú (~ 22°24’S, 42°44’W), ~ 300 m a.s.l., 24.ix.2009 (A. Giupponi)GoogleMaps  . 5♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19272), Reserva Ecológica Rio das Pedras (22°59.5’S, 44°06.0’W), 50 m a.s.l., night, 25.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 3♂ 1♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19273), Reserva Ecológica Rio das Pedras (22°59.5’S, 44°06.0’–06.8’W), 50–200 m a.s.l., day, 26.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  . 1♂ 1♀, MNRJAbout MNRJ (14321), same data but leg. A. Giupponi  . 5♂ 4♀, MNRJAbout MNRJ (14322), same locality, night, 25.ix.2009 (A. Giupponi, A. Kury)  . 3♂ 1♀, MNRJAbout MNRJ (14323), same locality, day, 26.ix.2009 (A. Giupponi, A. Kury)  . 2♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK ( Br 09-112), same locality, 25–26.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  . 9♂ 5♀ 2 juvs, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19274–75), ~ 4 km NW Penedo (22°24.5’S, 44°33.0’–33.4’W), forest along river, 700–770 m a.s.l., 14–16.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)  ; 1♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19276), same data  ; 1♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 07/100-9], same data. 1♂, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19277), ~ 3.5 km NW Paraty (23°11.5’S, 44°43.9’W), degraded forest, ~ 50 m a.s.l., 21.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 8♂ 4♀ 3 juvs, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19278), Cachoeira da Pedra Branca near Paraty (23°11.8’S, 44°46.0’W), forest near river, ~ 230 m a.s.l., 22.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 3♂ 3♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 07/100-24), same dataGoogleMaps  . 6♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19279), Paraty, degraded forest near Morro do Forte (23°11.7’S, 44°42.8’W), ~ 10–30 m a.s.l., 23.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ 3 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 07/100-32), same dataGoogleMaps  . 6♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19280), Santa Maria Madalena , forest fragment (21°58.9’–59.1’S, 41°57.2’–57.6’W), 480–590 m a.s.l., 30.ix.–1.x.2010 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)  ; 1♂ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 10-70), same data. 

Espírito Santo: 3♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19281), Mimoso do Sul , Finca Tacutinga, forest fragment (21°01.4’S, 41°23.4’W), 240 m a.s.l., 4.x.2010 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)GoogleMaps  . 4♂ 3♀ 3 juvs, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19282), Reserva Biológica de Sooretama , ‘sites 1 & 2’ (19°00’–03’S, 40°06’–09’W), ~ 80–90 m a.s.l., 27.ix.2011 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 11-131), same locality, ‘site 2’ (19°00.7’S, 40°06.5’W), ~ 80 m a.s.l., 28.ix.2011 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)GoogleMaps  . 2♂ 7♀, ZFMK (Ar 19283), Vargem Alta, Fazenda Monte Verde (20°27.6–28.2’S, 40°59.5’–41°00.2’W), 1000–1200 m a.s.l., 2–3.x.2010 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González).

Minas Gerais: 2♂ (only one palp left of one male) 3 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (G006), Catas Altas, Serra do Caraça [~ 20.09°S, 43.42°W], 24–30.iv.2002 (A.J. Santos) (this is the material sequenced in Astrin et al. 2006 and 2007 and used in later molecular phylogenies: Dimitrov et al. 2013; Eberle et al., unpublished data).

Bahia: 7♂ in pure ethanol, UFPI ( ARA 0280), Maracás, near Sede da Ferbasa (13°28.3’S, 40°26.3’W), 954 m a.s.l., 11–13.iii.2012 (E. Araújo, A. Madeiros).GoogleMaps 

São Paulo: 1♂ 2♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19284), Ubatuba, Fazenda Angelim (23°23.6’S, 45°03.7’W), 16–18.xii.2003 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 03/100-9), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Paraná: 1♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19285), Saint-Hilaire / Lange National Park , forest above Hotel Mata Atlântica (25.670°S, 48.600°W), ~ 200–300 m a.s.l., night collecting, 12.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 1♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 14-139), Saint-Hilaire / Lange National Park , forest along river above Fazenda Niteroi (25.657°S, 48.601°W), ~ 100 m a.s.l., night collecting, 11.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 2♂ 2♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19286), Foz do Iguaçu National Park (25.63°– 25.69°S, 54.43°– 54.44°W), 200–230 m a.s.l., 31.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 3♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19287), Foz do Iguaçu National Park, near Céu Azul (25.130°S, 53.823°W to 25.149°S, 53.807°W), 620–690 m a.s.l., 2.xi.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 14-209), same data.GoogleMaps 

Santa Catarina: 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 14-151), Serra do Itajaí National Park (27.058°S, 49.084°W), Chuva Trail, 300 m a.s.l., 15.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 5♂ 3♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19288), Itapoá, Reserva Volta Velha (26°05.8’S, 48°39.1’W), 20 m a.s.l., 27–28.ix.2010 (B.A. Huber, J. Ricetti)GoogleMaps  ; 2♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 10-65), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Rio Grande do Sul: 12♂ 10♀ 4 juvs, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19289), Turvo National Park, near Salto do Yucumã (27.136°S, 53.882°W), 175 m a.s.l., 28.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 3♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br14- 195), same data. 3♂ 4♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19290), Turvo National Park, near western entrance (27.244°S, 53.963°W), 400 m a.s.l., 29.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br14-203), same data.

ARGENTINA: Misiones: 2♂ 2♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19974 part), “Cataratas” [Parque Nacional Iguazú, waterfall area; 25.678°S, 54.448°W], 4.ix.1963 (collector not given). 6♂ 1♀ 4 juvs, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19973), same locality, 5.ix.1963 (Galiano). 2♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20016 part), same locality, 13.i.1966 (Galiano). 22♂ 11♀ several juvs, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 4350–1, 19946), same locality, xi.1954 (Schiapelli, de Carlo). 3♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 4349), same locality, no date, leg. Schiapelli, de Carlo. 2♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19945, 20027), same locality, 24–30.vii.1992 (M.J. Ramirez). 1♂ 3♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20085 part), same locality, 8–15.ii.1995 (M.J. Ramirez). 2♂ 2♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19948), Iguazú, 3.ix.1963 (collector not given). 1♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20082), Parque Nacional Iguazú, waterfall area, Macuco trail, 27.ii.1993 (M. di Vitteti); 1♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20093 part), same data but viii.1993; 1♂ 1♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20089), same data but 6.x.1993. 1♂ 3♀ in pure ethanol, ZIMGAbout ZIMG (28336–37), “PM 0059”, same locality, 24.ii.2012 (P. Michalik). 2♂ 2♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 22116–17, 22119), Parque Nacional Iguazú, waterfall area, “sendero Macuco y picadas aledañas” (25.679°S, 54.449°W), 18–21.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.). 1♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20097 part), Parque Nacional Iguazú, 23–26.x.1995 (M.J. Ramirez); 2♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20063, 20079 part), same data but vii.1985. 2♂ in pure ethanol, ZIMGAbout ZIMG (28338–39), “PM 0084–85”, Parque Nacional Iguazú, Apepu, 29.ii.2012 (P. Michalik). 1♂ 5♀ 2 juvs, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 22112, 22120), Parque Nacional Iguazú, near Garganta del Diablo (25.7°S, 54.45°W), 19– 20.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.). 3♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 22125–26), Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero (26°28’S, 53°58’W), 13–16.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.); 3♂ 1♀ 1 juv., MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19971 part), Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero, NE San Pedro, 27–29.x.1995 (M. Ramirez). 1♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19944), [Parque Nacional Iguazú], Yacuí [25°40.8’S, 54°10.1’W], 3–9.xii.1972 (Maury). 1♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20096 part), Parque Nacional Iguazú, Palmital, 5 km W Yacuí [25°40’S, 54°12’W], 8–15.ii.1995 (M.J. Ramirez). 5♂ 9♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20049 part), Parque Nacional Iguazú, “Ruta 101 y Arroyo Yacuí” [25°40.8’S, 54°10.1’W], i.1966 (Galiano). 2♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 20045), [Departamento] Manuel Belgrano, i.1966 (Galiano). 1♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 4352), “Pto 17 de Octubre” [Puerto Libertad, 25°55’S, 54°36’W, 220 m], xi.1954 (Schiapelli, de Carlo). 1♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 4348), “Pto 17 de Octubre, km 30”, 1.xi.1950 (W. Partridge). 4♂ 6♀, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 4353), San Antonio [26°03’S, 53°44’W], xi.1954 (Schiapelli, de Carlo). 1♂, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 19947), Montecarlo [26°34.5’S, 54°46.1’W], i.1966 (Galiano). 1♀ 2 juvs, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 22122), Parque Provincial Salto Encantado (27°07’S, 54°48’W), trail to Salto Escondido, 11–12.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.). 4♀ 5 juvs, MACNAbout MACN (Ar 22123–4), Parque Provincial Salto Encantado, Arroyo Cuña-Pirú, 12.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.).

Description (amendments; see Huber 2000). Tibia 1 in 92 males: 8.1–11.3 (mean 9.8); in 70 females: 5.7–7.7 (mean 6.9). Male chelicerae variable in several respects: (1) distal apophyses sometimes clearly visible in lateral view, sometimes barely visible; (2) proximal processes sometimes distinct, either close to median line or halfway between median line and lateral margin, sometimes barely visible (invisible in frontal view, poorly visible in lateral view); (3) low humps between proximal processes and distal apophyses either present or absent. No clear geographic pattern is apparent in this variation. Cheliceral armature mostly consistent within localities. Male leg femora all of approximately same width (~0.18). Most males with spines on femora 3 (Huber 2000: fig. 910), often also on femora 4, rarely also on femora 2, apparently never on femora 1. Some males with curved hairs dorsally on tibiae 1 only, often in high density. Dark mark on female clypeus paired or unpaired. Paired sclerites embedded in membrane behind epigynal plate (Huber 2000: fig. 915) sometimes distinct, sometimes barely visible (poorly sclerotized or hidden by genital plug). Epigynal scape sometimes distinct (expandable or indication of different species?). Female legs never with spines or curved hairs.

Natural history. Together with C. viridis Huber, 2016  , this is the only truly leaf-dwelling Carapoia  species known. The two species also share the unusual position on the leaf, i.e. inverted, with the dorsal side of the abdomen facing the underside of the leaf ( Figs 599–600View FIGURES 590–600). However, molecular data strongly suggest that the two species are not closely related (Appendices 1–2).

In the southern Atlantic Forest, C. lutea  often appears to be among the most abundant spiders. In a quantitative survey at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, it was by far the most abundant spider species (Castanheira et al. 2016).

Distribution. Widely distributed in southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina ( Fig. 742View FIGURE 742). The MACNAbout MACN has a vial with 2♀ of this species from “ Tucuman, Tupiquen” (Ar 3935). Since this is ~ 1000 km from the closest record, and since the label also says “bajo piedras” [under rocks], this is very probably a mislabeled vial.


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia


Zoologisches Institut und Museum Greifswald














Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2018


Pholcus luteus

Keyserling, 1891 : 171


Litoporus luteus:

Moenkhaus 1898 : 104


Pholcus imbecillus

Keyserling, 1891 : 170


Litoporus imbecilis:

Moenkhaus 1898 : 103


Litoporus coccineus

Simon, 1893 : 480


Litoporus fulvus

Moenkhaus, 1898 : 105 Roewer 1942 : 336


Mesabolivar luteus

Huber & Rheims 2011 : 281