Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891 )

Huber, Bernhard A., 2018, The South American spider genera Mesabolivar and Carapoia (Araneae, Pholcidae): new species and a framework for redrawing generic limits, Zootaxa 4395 (1), pp. 1-178: 148-150

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4395.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B43C234D-45C4-4A6D-9836-8A7524A5B291

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/160AC713-C6E7-FF10-2A9C-9D4B363E7ED8

treatment provided by

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scientific name

Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891 )
status

comb. n.

Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891)  comb. n.

Figs 599–600View FIGURES 590–600

Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891: 171  , pl. 5, figs 117, 117a (♂, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro).

Litoporus luteus: Moenkhaus 1898: 104  (text copied from Keyserling 1891). Mello-Leitão 1918: 93, fig. 2 (text and figure copied from Keyserling 1891).

Pholcus imbecillus Keyserling, 1891: 170  , pl. 5, figs 115, 115a (♀, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). Synonymized with Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891 in Huber 2000: 231  .

Litoporus imbecilis: Moenkhaus 1898: 103  (text copied from Keyserling 1891).

Litoporus imbecillus: Mello-Leitão 1918: 93  , fig. 1 (text and figure copied from Keyserling 1891).

Litoporus coccineus Simon, 1893: 480  , fig. 473 (♀, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro). Huber 1997: 587, figs 10a –e, 11a –b. Synonymized with Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891 in Huber 2000: 231  .

Litoporus fulvus Moenkhaus, 1898: 105  , figs 4, 4a –c (♂, Brazil: São Paulo). Mello-Leitão 1918: 94, figs 3–4 (text and figures copied from Moenkhaus 1898). Synonymized with L. imbecillus ( Keyserling, 1891) in Roewer 1942: 336  .

Mesabolivar luteus: Huber 2000: 230  , figs 907–915. de Araujo et al. 2005: 593. Machado 2007: 95. Huber & Rheims 2011: 281. Huber 2014: 139. Castanheira et al. 2016: 13.

Type material. Pholcus luteus Keyserling, 1891  : BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 3♂ syntypes, BMNH (1890.7.1 8310– 3), Micarema, Fazenda Sergio Potta de Castro [21.413°S, 42.196°W], leg. E.A. Göldi, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Pholcus imbecillus Keyserling, 1891  : BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 5♀ syntypes, 3 penult  . ♂, BMNH (1890.7.1 8314.20), Micarema, Serra Vermelha, Fazenda Sergio Potta de Castro [21.413°S, 42.196°W], leg. E.A. Göldi, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Litoporus coccineus Simon, 1893  : BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro / Minas Gerais (see Notes below): ♂ lectotype, 6♂ paralectotypes, MNHN [10524; E. Simon collection label: “6918 coccineus  E.S. Rio! Caraça (Goun)”], no further data, examined (Huber 2000).

Litoporus fulvus Moenkhaus, 1898  : BRAZIL: São Paulo (see Notes below): 3♂ syntypes, MZSP ( DZ 3030View Materials), Iguape [24.7°S, 47.55°W], xii.1897, no further data, examined (Huber 2000).GoogleMaps 

Notes. Just like Carapoia cambridgei  (see above), this species was also tentatively assigned to Mesabolivar González-Sponga, 1898  in a first revision of New World Pholcidae (Huber 2000)  . The male cheliceral apophyses and the female epigynal pocket suggested an affinity to that genus. On the other hand, the paired sclerites embedded in membrane behind the epigynal plate as well as the membranous dorsal protrusion of the bulb reminded of Carapoia González-Sponga, 1898  . Indeed, early molecular data consistently placed this species closer to Carapoia  than to Mesabolivar  (Astrin et al. 2007, Dimitrov et al. 2013). Our latest molecular phylogeny of Pholcidae  (Eberle et al., unpublished data) includes 39 species of Carapoia  and 33 species of Mesabolivar  , and again this species is nested in Carapoia  (Appendices 1–2). Therefore, Mesabolivar luteus  is here formally transferred to Carapoia  .

This species shows considerable variation, especially with respect to the male chelicerae (see below). After the analysis herein of more than 170 males from ~25 localities I tend to feel confident about earlier decisions ( Roewer 1942, Huber 2000) to synonymize several names proposed by Keyserling (1891), Moenkhaus (1898), and Simon (1893) (see list of synonyms above). However, molecular reanalysis of a large and dense sample of this species would be welcome and might in fact suggest the presence of more than one species.

The type locality of Litoporus fulvus  was erroneously given as “Iguape, Rio de Janeiro ” in Huber (2000). Instead, Iguape is located in southern São Paulo state (24.7°S, 47.55°W).

In a revision of E. Simon’s Pholcidae (Huber 1997)  I misread the label accompanying the Litoporus coccineus  types as “Curuça” and the collector as “Gohns[?]”. The actual locality is [Serra do] Caraça and the collector E. Gounelle. This means that Simon joined material from two localities in the type vial: from Rio [de Janeiro], collected by himself (“Rio!”), and from Serra do Caraça (Minas Gerais, 20.1°S, 43.5°W), collected by Gounelle. It is impossible to tell from which of the two localities the lectotype originates.

New records. BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: 3♂ 3♀ 2 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 19268), Cachoeiras de Macacu , Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú (22°24.4’–25.3’S, 42°44.2’–44.3’W), 140–280 m a.s.l., 23.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber, A. Giupponi)  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( Br 09-100), same locality, 23–24.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  ; 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK ( Ar 19269), same locality at 140–300 m a.s.l., 25.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  . 2♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 19270), Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú (22°24.3’S, 42°44.1’W), ~ 300–400 m a.s.l., 24.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber, A. Giupponi)GoogleMaps  . 2♂, ZFMK (Ar 19271), forest fragment near Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú (~ 22°24’S, 42°44’W), ~ 300 m a.s.l., 24.ix.2009 (A. Giupponi)GoogleMaps  . 5♂ 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 19272), Reserva Ecológica Rio das Pedras (22°59.5’S, 44°06.0’W), 50 m a.s.l., night, 25.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 3♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 19273), Reserva Ecológica Rio das Pedras (22°59.5’S, 44°06.0’–06.8’W), 50–200 m a.s.l., day, 26.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  . 1♂ 1♀, MNRJ (14321), same data but leg. A. Giupponi  . 5♂ 4♀, MNRJ (14322), same locality, night, 25.ix.2009 (A. Giupponi, A. Kury)  . 3♂ 1♀, MNRJ (14323), same locality, day, 26.ix.2009 (A. Giupponi, A. Kury)  . 2♂ 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( Br 09-112), same locality, 25–26.ix.2009 (B.A. Huber)  . 9♂ 5♀ 2 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 19274–75), ~ 4 km NW Penedo (22°24.5’S, 44°33.0’–33.4’W), forest along river, 700–770 m a.s.l., 14–16.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)  ; 1♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 19276), same data  ; 1♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 07/100-9], same data. 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 19277), ~ 3.5 km NW Paraty (23°11.5’S, 44°43.9’W), degraded forest, ~ 50 m a.s.l., 21.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  . 8♂ 4♀ 3 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 19278), Cachoeira da Pedra Branca near Paraty (23°11.8’S, 44°46.0’W), forest near river, ~ 230 m a.s.l., 22.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 3♂ 3♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 07/100-24), same dataGoogleMaps  . 6♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 19279), Paraty, degraded forest near Morro do Forte (23°11.7’S, 44°42.8’W), ~ 10–30 m a.s.l., 23.viii.2007 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ 3 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 07/100-32), same dataGoogleMaps  . 6♂ 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 19280), Santa Maria Madalena , forest fragment (21°58.9’–59.1’S, 41°57.2’–57.6’W), 480–590 m a.s.l., 30.ix.–1.x.2010 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)  ; 1♂ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 10-70), same data. 

Espírito Santo: 3♂ 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 19281), Mimoso do Sul , Finca Tacutinga, forest fragment (21°01.4’S, 41°23.4’W), 240 m a.s.l., 4.x.2010 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)GoogleMaps  . 4♂ 3♀ 3 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 19282), Reserva Biológica de Sooretama , ‘sites 1 & 2’ (19°00’–03’S, 40°06’–09’W), ~ 80–90 m a.s.l., 27.ix.2011 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 11-131), same locality, ‘site 2’ (19°00.7’S, 40°06.5’W), ~ 80 m a.s.l., 28.ix.2011 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González)GoogleMaps  . 2♂ 7♀, ZFMK (Ar 19283), Vargem Alta, Fazenda Monte Verde (20°27.6–28.2’S, 40°59.5’–41°00.2’W), 1000–1200 m a.s.l., 2–3.x.2010 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez-González).

Minas Gerais: 2♂ (only one palp left of one male) 3 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK (G006), Catas Altas, Serra do Caraça [~ 20.09°S, 43.42°W], 24–30.iv.2002 (A.J. Santos) (this is the material sequenced in Astrin et al. 2006 and 2007 and used in later molecular phylogenies: Dimitrov et al. 2013; Eberle et al., unpublished data).

Bahia: 7♂ in pure ethanol, UFPI ( ARA 0280), Maracás, near Sede da Ferbasa (13°28.3’S, 40°26.3’W), 954 m a.s.l., 11–13.iii.2012 (E. Araújo, A. Madeiros).GoogleMaps 

São Paulo: 1♂ 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 19284), Ubatuba, Fazenda Angelim (23°23.6’S, 45°03.7’W), 16–18.xii.2003 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 03/100-9), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Paraná: 1♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 19285), Saint-Hilaire / Lange National Park , forest above Hotel Mata Atlântica (25.670°S, 48.600°W), ~ 200–300 m a.s.l., night collecting, 12.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 1♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 14-139), Saint-Hilaire / Lange National Park , forest along river above Fazenda Niteroi (25.657°S, 48.601°W), ~ 100 m a.s.l., night collecting, 11.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 2♂ 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 19286), Foz do Iguaçu National Park (25.63°– 25.69°S, 54.43°– 54.44°W), 200–230 m a.s.l., 31.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 3♂ 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 19287), Foz do Iguaçu National Park, near Céu Azul (25.130°S, 53.823°W to 25.149°S, 53.807°W), 620–690 m a.s.l., 2.xi.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 14-209), same data.GoogleMaps 

Santa Catarina: 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 14-151), Serra do Itajaí National Park (27.058°S, 49.084°W), Chuva Trail, 300 m a.s.l., 15.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 5♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 19288), Itapoá, Reserva Volta Velha (26°05.8’S, 48°39.1’W), 20 m a.s.l., 27–28.ix.2010 (B.A. Huber, J. Ricetti)GoogleMaps  ; 2♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br 10-65), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Rio Grande do Sul: 12♂ 10♀ 4 juvs, ZFMK (Ar 19289), Turvo National Park, near Salto do Yucumã (27.136°S, 53.882°W), 175 m a.s.l., 28.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 3♂ 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br14- 195), same data. 3♂ 4♀, ZFMK (Ar 19290), Turvo National Park, near western entrance (27.244°S, 53.963°W), 400 m a.s.l., 29.x.2014 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho); 2♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br14-203), same data.

ARGENTINA: Misiones: 2♂ 2♀, MACN (Ar 19974 part), “Cataratas” [Parque Nacional Iguazú, waterfall area; 25.678°S, 54.448°W], 4.ix.1963 (collector not given). 6♂ 1♀ 4 juvs, MACN (Ar 19973), same locality, 5.ix.1963 (Galiano). 2♂, MACN (Ar 20016 part), same locality, 13.i.1966 (Galiano). 22♂ 11♀ several juvs, MACN (Ar 4350–1, 19946), same locality, xi.1954 (Schiapelli, de Carlo). 3♀, MACN (Ar 4349), same locality, no date, leg. Schiapelli, de Carlo. 2♂, MACN (Ar 19945, 20027), same locality, 24–30.vii.1992 (M.J. Ramirez). 1♂ 3♀, MACN (Ar 20085 part), same locality, 8–15.ii.1995 (M.J. Ramirez). 2♂ 2♀, MACN (Ar 19948), Iguazú, 3.ix.1963 (collector not given). 1♀, MACN (Ar 20082), Parque Nacional Iguazú, waterfall area, Macuco trail, 27.ii.1993 (M. di Vitteti); 1♂, MACN (Ar 20093 part), same data but viii.1993; 1♂ 1♀, MACN (Ar 20089), same data but 6.x.1993. 1♂ 3♀ in pure ethanol, ZIMG (28336–37), “PM 0059”, same locality, 24.ii.2012 (P. Michalik). 2♂ 2♀, MACN (Ar 22116–17, 22119), Parque Nacional Iguazú, waterfall area, “sendero Macuco y picadas aledañas” (25.679°S, 54.449°W), 18–21.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.). 1♀, MACN (Ar 20097 part), Parque Nacional Iguazú, 23–26.x.1995 (M.J. Ramirez); 2♂, MACN (Ar 20063, 20079 part), same data but vii.1985. 2♂ in pure ethanol, ZIMG (28338–39), “PM 0084–85”, Parque Nacional Iguazú, Apepu, 29.ii.2012 (P. Michalik). 1♂ 5♀ 2 juvs, MACN (Ar 22112, 22120), Parque Nacional Iguazú, near Garganta del Diablo (25.7°S, 54.45°W), 19– 20.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.). 3♀, MACN (Ar 22125–26), Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero (26°28’S, 53°58’W), 13–16.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.); 3♂ 1♀ 1 juv., MACN (Ar 19971 part), Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero, NE San Pedro, 27–29.x.1995 (M. Ramirez). 1♂, MACN (Ar 19944), [Parque Nacional Iguazú], Yacuí [25°40.8’S, 54°10.1’W], 3–9.xii.1972 (Maury). 1♀, MACN (Ar 20096 part), Parque Nacional Iguazú, Palmital, 5 km W Yacuí [25°40’S, 54°12’W], 8–15.ii.1995 (M.J. Ramirez). 5♂ 9♀, MACN (Ar 20049 part), Parque Nacional Iguazú, “Ruta 101 y Arroyo Yacuí” [25°40.8’S, 54°10.1’W], i.1966 (Galiano). 2♀, MACN (Ar 20045), [Departamento] Manuel Belgrano, i.1966 (Galiano). 1♂, MACN (Ar 4352), “Pto 17 de Octubre” [Puerto Libertad, 25°55’S, 54°36’W, 220 m], xi.1954 (Schiapelli, de Carlo). 1♀, MACN (Ar 4348), “Pto 17 de Octubre, km 30”, 1.xi.1950 (W. Partridge). 4♂ 6♀, MACN (Ar 4353), San Antonio [26°03’S, 53°44’W], xi.1954 (Schiapelli, de Carlo). 1♂, MACN (Ar 19947), Montecarlo [26°34.5’S, 54°46.1’W], i.1966 (Galiano). 1♀ 2 juvs, MACN (Ar 22122), Parque Provincial Salto Encantado (27°07’S, 54°48’W), trail to Salto Escondido, 11–12.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.). 4♀ 5 juvs, MACN (Ar 22123–4), Parque Provincial Salto Encantado, Arroyo Cuña-Pirú, 12.i.2005 (C. Grismado et al.).

Description (amendments; see Huber 2000). Tibia 1 in 92 males: 8.1–11.3 (mean 9.8); in 70 females: 5.7–7.7 (mean 6.9). Male chelicerae variable in several respects: (1) distal apophyses sometimes clearly visible in lateral view, sometimes barely visible; (2) proximal processes sometimes distinct, either close to median line or halfway between median line and lateral margin, sometimes barely visible (invisible in frontal view, poorly visible in lateral view); (3) low humps between proximal processes and distal apophyses either present or absent. No clear geographic pattern is apparent in this variation. Cheliceral armature mostly consistent within localities. Male leg femora all of approximately same width (~0.18). Most males with spines on femora 3 (Huber 2000: fig. 910), often also on femora 4, rarely also on femora 2, apparently never on femora 1. Some males with curved hairs dorsally on tibiae 1 only, often in high density. Dark mark on female clypeus paired or unpaired. Paired sclerites embedded in membrane behind epigynal plate (Huber 2000: fig. 915) sometimes distinct, sometimes barely visible (poorly sclerotized or hidden by genital plug). Epigynal scape sometimes distinct (expandable or indication of different species?). Female legs never with spines or curved hairs.

Natural history. Together with C. viridis Huber, 2016  , this is the only truly leaf-dwelling Carapoia  species known. The two species also share the unusual position on the leaf, i.e. inverted, with the dorsal side of the abdomen facing the underside of the leaf ( Figs 599–600View FIGURES 590–600). However, molecular data strongly suggest that the two species are not closely related (Appendices 1–2).

In the southern Atlantic Forest, C. lutea  often appears to be among the most abundant spiders. In a quantitative survey at Pedra Branca State Park, Rio de Janeiro, it was by far the most abundant spider species (Castanheira et al. 2016).

Distribution. Widely distributed in southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina ( Fig. 742View FIGURE 742). The MACN has a vial with 2♀ of this species from “ Tucuman, Tupiquen” (Ar 3935). Since this is ~ 1000 km from the closest record, and since the label also says “bajo piedras” [under rocks], this is very probably a mislabeled vial.

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

ZIMG

Zoologisches Institut und Museum Greifswald

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Carapoia

Loc

Carapoia lutea ( Keyserling, 1891 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2018
2018
Loc

Pholcus luteus

Keyserling, 1891 : 171
Loc

Litoporus luteus:

Moenkhaus 1898 : 104
Loc

Pholcus imbecillus

Keyserling, 1891 : 170
Loc

Litoporus imbecilis:

Moenkhaus 1898 : 103
Loc

Litoporus coccineus

Simon, 1893 : 480
Loc

Litoporus fulvus

Moenkhaus, 1898 : 105
Roewer 1942 : 336
Loc

Mesabolivar luteus

Huber & Rheims 2011 : 281