Carapoia pulchra

Huber, Bernhard A., 2018, The South American spider genera Mesabolivar and Carapoia (Araneae, Pholcidae): new species and a framework for redrawing generic limits, Zootaxa 4395 (1), pp. 1-178: 143-146

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4395.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B43C234D-45C4-4A6D-9836-8A7524A5B291

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/160AC713-C6FA-FF14-2A9C-9CA537F77DC1

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Carapoia pulchra
status

sp. n.

Carapoia pulchra  sp. n.

Figs 593–595View FIGURES 590–600, 644–651View FIGURES 644–650View FIGURES651–658, 661–662View FIGURES 659–664

Diagnosis. Easily distinguished from most similar known species ( C. suassunai  ) by shape of epigynum (compare Figs 648–649View FIGURES 644–650 and Figs 655–656View FIGURES651–658; anterior epigynal plate without pair of processes at posterior margin; central depression not divided into two large round depressions); also by armature of male chelicerae (compare Figs 646– 647View FIGURES 644–650 and Figs 653–654View FIGURES651–658; pair of frontal apophyses thinner, in more lateral position, pointing more forward) and by slightly shorter procursus with longer dorso-distal apophysis (compare Figs 651, 652View FIGURES651–658).

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective, Latin pulcher, pulchra  = beautiful.

Type material. BRAZIL: Alagoas: ♂ holotype, 1♀ paratype, UFMGAbout UFMG (21552–53), and 10♂ 14♀ paratypes, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19256–57), Reserva Biológica de Pedra Talhada (9°14.5’–14.0’S, 36°26.5’–27.2’W), 650–700 m a.s.l., 20–21.v.2015 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho).

Other material examined. BRAZIL: Alagoas: 7 juvs, together with female paratypes; 2♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 15-211) same data as types  . 1♂ 1 juv., ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19258), near Murici, Estação Ecológica de Murici (9°14.8’S, 35°50.3’W), 350–400 m a.s.l., 18.v.2015 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  . 1♂ 5♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19259), Usina Serra Grande , forest above sugarcane plantations (8°58.3’S, 36°05.7’W), 450–550 m a.s.l., 22– 23.v.2015 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, same data, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 15-215).GoogleMaps 

Paraíba: 3♂ 6♀, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Ar 19260), Floresta Nacional da Restinga de Cabedelo, " Mata do Amém " (7°03.9’S, 34°51.2’W), 30 m a.s.l., 2.vi.2015 (B.A. Huber, L.S. Carvalho)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂ 4♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMKAbout ZFMK (Br 15-249), same dataGoogleMaps  .

Description. Male (holotype)

MEASUREMENTS. Total body length 3.6, carapace width 1.4. Distance PME-PME 140 µm, diameter PME 130 µm, distance PME-ALE 90 µm, distance AME-AME 20 µm, diameter AME 40 µm. Sternum width/length: 0.90/ 0.60. Leg 1: 37.2 (9.1 + 0.5 + 9.0 + 16.5 + 2.1), tibia 2: 5.5, tibia 3: 3.8, tibia 4: 4.7; tibia 1 L/d: 69. Femora 1–4 width (at half length): 0.21, 0.22, 0.22, 0.21.

COLOR (in ethanol). Prosoma and legs ochre-orange, carapace median line darker, legs without dark rings; abdomen pale greenish gray, with few dark internal marks dorsally and laterally, ventrally with ochre-orange areas in front of gonopore and in front of spinnerets.

BODY. Habitus as in Fig. 593View FIGURES 590–600; ocular area raised; carapace with distinct median furrow; clypeus unmodified; sternum unmodified.

CHELICERAE. With pair of long slender frontal apophyses and whitish area between apophyses and laminae ( Figs 646–647View FIGURES 644–650).

PALPS. As in Figs 644–645View FIGURES 644–650; coxa with retrolateral apophysis; trochanter barely modified; femur with retrolateral process proximally, distally slightly widening; tarsus simple, with flat procursus (i.e. narrow in dorsal view), distally with dorsal apophysis and ventral membranous process ( Fig. 651View FIGURES651–658); genital bulb without apophysis, with large conical process mostly membranous, with transparent worm-shaped ventral process (arrow in Fig. 645View FIGURES 644–650).

LEGS. Densely covered with short hairs, with many short spines on first legs only (femora: mostly pro- and retrolaterally, over entire length; tibiae: first half only, only laterally); with curved hairs dorsally on metatarsi 1–3 (proximally) and on tibiae 2–3 (few); with short vertical hairs in two dorsal rows on all tibiae; retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 3%; prolateral trichobothrium present on tibia 1; tarsus 1 with>30 pseudosegments, distally fairly distinct.

Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 14 other males: 7.8–9.7 (mean 8.7).

Female. General body shape and size similar to male but coloration different ( Figs 594–595View FIGURES 590–600): ochre-brown rather than orange, carapace with distinct lateral and median brown marks, clypeus and sternum dark brown, legs with distinct dark rings (femora subdistally, tibiae proximally and subdistally, metatarsi proximally), brown marks on abdomen usually more numerous and darker. Legs without spines, with curved hairs on legs 1 only, vertical hairs in usual low density. Tibia 1 in 24 females: 5.1–6.6 (mean 5.9). Epigynum as in Figs 648–649View FIGURES 644–650, 661View FIGURES 659–664; anterior plate brown, strongly sculptured, with pair of anterior processes; without posterior plate, without diverging sclerites. Internal genitalia as in Figs 650View FIGURES 644–650, 662View FIGURES 659–664, with elongated lateral pore-plates diverging posteriorly; with dark median mark between epigynum and spinnerets, and light brown plate in front of spinnerets.

Natural history. This species was partly abundant from near the ground up to approximately 1 m above ground level. The relatively large domed webs (20–30 cm diameter) usually transformed into a funnel that led to the underside of a leaf, usually a curled brown or partly brown leaf that was either still attached to the vegetation or suspended in its position by silk. The position of the spider reminded of C. lutea  , i.e. the abdomen was bent so that the dorsal side faced upwards against the leaf. In partly brown leaves, the spiders seemed to prefer to sit in the brown parts. Females with egg-sacs were particularly well hidden in strongly curled leaves. By contrast, the pale juveniles were sometimes found on regular green leaves. Males and females were sometimes found close together within a shelter. When disturbed, the spiders vibrated strongly and then jumped off the web.

Distribution. Known from several localities in Alagoas and Paraíba states ( Brazil) ( Fig. 742View FIGURE 742).

UFMG

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Carapoia