Penaincisalia caeruleonota Hall & Willmott, 2005

Prieto, Carlos, Bálint, Zsolt, Boyer, Pierre & Micó, Estefanía, 2008, A review of the “ browni group ” of Penaincisalia with notes on their distribution and variability (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini), Zootaxa 1941 (1), pp. 1-24 : 9-10

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1941.1.1


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Penaincisalia caeruleonota Hall & Willmott, 2005


Penaincisalia caeruleonota Hall & Willmott, 2005

( Figs. 10–13, 28 View FIGURES 26–33 , 36–37 View FIGURES 34–43 , 52 View FIGURE 52 )

Penaincisalia caeruleonota Hall & Willmott, 2005: 3 , figs 1A, 1B.

Type material: Holotype male: ECUADOR, Loja, km 7, Loja-Zamora road, (3 o 59.25´S, 79 o 9.20´W, 2500m, Leg. I. Aldas & R. Busby, deposited in USNM. GoogleMaps

Taxonomic history: This species was described very recently, and since then has been sampled repeatedly (see material examined).

Diagnosis: The male of Penaincisalia caeruleonota is distinguished from other “ browni group” species by having a patch of light blue scales in the outer half of the hindwing tornus ( Fig. 10). A conspicuous feature in the ventral wing surfaces is the remarkable bulbous medial band, plus a large discal spot restricted to the forewing. The male individuals appear to be variable as some males have contrasting dorsal wing surfaces: light green in hindwing and purple blue in forewing ( Figs. 11, 12), instead of the homogeneous purple coloration. Moreover, some males lack the blue scaling in the dorsal hindwing tornal area ( Figs. 11, 12).

Identification. Male. Dorsal surface: Both wings dark purple except for a black border (approximately 4 mm on forewing and 7 mm on hindwing) at submarginal and marginal areas, outer half of hindwing tornal lobe with an oval patch of brilliant blue scales. Costal margin black in both wings. Forewing scent pad large (approximately 1/3–1/4 discal cell length), oval in shape and dark gray. Ventral surface: Ground color of both wings light brown to reddish brown. Severely bulbous dark brown forewing medial band conspicuously angled at vein M3. Forewing submarginal elements appear as six small, well differentiated black spots. Distance between medial and submarginal bands two times length between submarginal band and wing margin (at CuA2 cell level). Discal spot brown and conspicuous, hindwing discal margin dark brown and hardly bulbous, hindwing submarginal elements appear as six irregular well defined spots.

Body: Thorax and abdomen dark brown dorsally and orange ventrally.

Genitalia: Eighth abdominal tergite simple and in shape rectangle; caudal extension of valvae in lateral view with approximately 1/3 valval length. Valval prominent ventral keel blunt.

Female. Wing shape: hindwing apex rounded, anal tail occurring as a lateral lobe accompanied by a long tail extending from vein CuA2 terminus. Dorsal surface: Both wings light blue with a broad and ill-defined black (approximately 6 mm in width) border in submarginal and marginal wing area. Ventral surface: Ground color of both wings reddish brown. Basal disc, medial and submarginal bands as in male.

Body: As in male.

Genitalia: Not examined.

Distribution. Spatial: The species is known from several localities in Ecuador ( Fig. 52 View FIGURE 52 ), inhabiting cloud forest from 2300m and 3200m. Temporal: Known from April, September, October and November.

Biology: According to the remarks supplementing the original description, males were usually encountered perching or flying as solitary individuals or in groups on hilltops. They rested on small trees or bushes 2–4 meters above the ground from mid morning to mid afternoon. Nothing is known about life cycles or host plants of this species.

Remarks: We illustrate a curious specimen from “Volcan Cabogana” ( Fig. 12). Because of its size and dorsal wing surface with distinctive features, we assumed that this phenotype represents a hitherto undiagnosed species. However, Mr. Robert Busby called our attention to an individual deposited in his collection ( Fig. 11) which appears to be a perfect intermediate between typical P. caeruleonota ( Fig. 10) and the unique specimen ( Fig. 12). This intermediate specimen was collected just between Loja (type locality of P. caeruleonota ) and “Volcán Cabogana” indicating most probably interbreeding of both phenotypes where the populations get together ( Fig. 52 View FIGURE 52 ). Although, at first glance this specimen lacks the blue patch in the tornal lobe, it has three scales on the left lobe (visible under a microscope). Due to that and the fact that the male genital structures and ventral surface are almost identical, we believe those phenotypes constitute the same biological species.

Material examined (27 ♂):

ECUADOR: Loja: 1 ♂ JFLC : Loja, XI.98, Leg. I. Aldas. / 14 ♂ JFLC : Loja, 2500m, X.2000, Leg. I. Aldas. / 3 ♂ * PB: Loja-Cuenca Km 27, 2800m, 26.XI.1998, Leg . P. Boyer. / 1 ♂ PB : Loja, 2500m, II.2001, Leg. E. Aldas ./ Azuay: 2 ♂ PB: Gualaceo vers Limón road km 7 (Azuay), 3200m, 07.XII.2002, Leg. P. Boyer. 1 ♂ PB: Gualaceo-Plan de milagro km 16 (Azuay) 3300/ 3400m, 22.XI.1998, Leg. P. Boyer. 1 ♂ * PB : Azuay, Cuenca, Volcán Cabogana , 3000m, 09.II.2004, Leg. P. Boyer. / 1 ♂ * RCB : Azuay, 20km Gualaceo-Limón road, 2º 57.4’ S, 78º 42.2’ W, November 2002, 3200m, I. Aldas, R GoogleMaps . C Busby Leg. / 1 ♂ * RCB : Morona Santiago, Km 18, Limón-Gualaceo road, 2º 59.9’ S 78º 30.6’ W, 3 October 2002, (2400m), Robert C. Busby, leg./ 1 ♂ GoogleMaps Loja, 7km Loja-Zamora road, December 1999, 2500m Leg. I. Aldas, R . C. Busby./ 1 ♂ Loja, 7km Loja-Zamora road, 3º 57.0’ S, 79º 10.0’ W, May 2006, 2500m Leg. I. Aldas, R GoogleMaps . C. Busby


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


RIKEN Cell Bank














Penaincisalia caeruleonota Hall & Willmott, 2005

Prieto, Carlos, Bálint, Zsolt, Boyer, Pierre & Micó, Estefanía 2008

Penaincisalia caeruleonota

Hall, J. P. W. & Willmott, K. R. & Busby, R. C. 2005: 3