Bengalia smarti ( Lehrer, 2005 ), Lehrer, 2005

Rognes, Knut, 2011, Revision of the Bengalia spinifemorata species-group (Diptera, Calliphoridae), Zootaxa 2835, pp. 1-29: 18-21

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.277348

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1B34E672-8863-FFCB-FF35-FA5D51B44292

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bengalia smarti ( Lehrer, 2005 )
status

comb. nov.

4. Bengalia smarti ( Lehrer, 2005)   , comb. nov.

Figs. 35–43 View FIGURES 35 – 42 View FIGURE 43 .

Maraviola smarti Lehrer, 2005: 168   , 169 fig. 75. Holotype male ( BMNH, examined), by original designation. Type locality: South Africa, KwaZulu-Natal, Mooi River.

Note. Rognes (2006: 468) erroneously synonymised M. smarti   with M. racovitzai   .

Bengalia (Ochromyia) spinifemorata: Malloch, 1927: 409   , incl. fig. 12. Misidentifications, not spinifemorata Villeneuve. A   specimen from Willow Grange identified by Malloch has been examined.

Note. Malloch figures the ST 5 flap excavation to be broadly U-shaped. He reports to have seen material from “Willow Grange, Natal, March and April, 1914 (R. C. Wroughton); …” which is the type locality of M. smarti   , “…; Salisbury, S. Rhodesia; …”, and “… Entebbe, Uganda, 3.v. 1909 (C. C. Gowdey).”. A specimen from Willow Grange dated “ 7.iii. 1914 ” and collected by R. C. Wroughton is present in BMNH and has been identified and labelled by Malloch as “ Bengalia spinifemorata Vill.   ”. It belongs to B. smarti (Lehrer)   , cf. list below.

Bengalia (Ochromyia) spinifemorata: Malloch, 1929: 119   . Misidentifications, not spinifemorata Villeneuve. Not   examined. Note. Malloch here records “Two males and one female, Salisbury, S. Rhodesia, 29.ii. 1912, 10.iii. 1927, and iv. 1928, the last two collected by A. Cuthbertson …”. None of the specimens in BMNH I have seen from “S. Rhodesia ” have dates that correspond to those cited by Malloch. Cuthbertson (1933: 93) explains that the specimens cited by Malloch from Salisbury and collected by Cuthbertson were collected in “dark corners of the Entomological Laboratory.”

Ochromyia spinifemorata: Cuthbertson, 1933: 93   . Misidentification, not spinifemorata Villeneuve.   Examined.

Note. I have examined two specimens in BMNH collected by Cuthbertson in “S. Rhodesia ”, both belonging to B. smarti   . One is a misidentified paratype of M. racovitzai Lehrer   from Salisbury, the other is a specimen from Umtali. I take this to signify that all Cuthbertson’s material from “ Southern Rhodesia ” belongs to this species. Cuthbertson also reports on the material from Zimbabwe (as “ Southern Rhodesia ”) mentioned by Malloch (1929), cf. previous entry.

Bengalia spinifemorata: Zumpt: 1956   : 169, fig. 97 (two upper figures of the “hypopygium”, from “ Natal ”). Note. These figures may refer either to B. smarti   or to B. racovitzai   , because of the strongly sclerotised dentate process. Since B. racovitzai   is not known from Natal in South Africa, I assume the figures represent B. smarti   , which agrees with the fact that the drawing shows a non-tapering dentate process. I am not able to say with any confidence which species the two figures of the ST 5 flap (“apical plates”) below the hypopygium figures belong to. The left figure, with shallow excavation, may be from B. seniorwhitei   , and the right one, with deeper excavation, from B. racovitzai   or B. smarti   , but no sources are given for the material used for the drawings.

Bengalia spinifemorata: Zumpt, 1959: 429   . Not examined.

Note. Zumpt lists material from South Africa ( Natal: Tugela Valley, Royal National Park) which probably belongs to this species.

Maraviola racovitzai: Lehrer, 2005: 162   –163. Paratypes from South Africa in MRAC and paratypes from South Africa and Zimbabwe in BMNH, misidentifications, not racovitzai Lehrer.  

Note. I have examined all these specimens and they are listed below.

Bengalia spinifemorata: Kurahashi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2006: 63   , 17 fig. 2. Misidentifications, not spinifemorata Villeneuve. Not   examined.

Note. Their fig. 2 shows a U-shaped excavation to the ST 5 flap which also has horns projecting well beyond hind edge of the main part of ST 5, thus most likely having been prepared from a specimen of B. smarti   . Their material is from Namibia.

Bengalia racovitzai: Rognes, 2006: 466   , 468, 469. Misidentification, not racovitzai Lehrer  

Note. For that paper I examined a specimen from South Africa (Pretoria) in BMNH. It has now been re-examined and reidentified as B. smarti   .

Diagnosis. Male. Length: 9–12mm (mean 10.4mm, n= 7). Frons at vertex / head width ratio: 0.317–0.358 (mean 0.341, n= 5). Very similar in almost all characters to B. racovitzai   . The ST 5 flap has a deep excavation that is rounded, not triangular, in outline, thus broadly U-shaped ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 35 – 42 ) with a broad bottom. The medial edge of the lobes (“horns”) are concave. The lateral lobes of the flap may be even narrower than shown in Fig. 40 View FIGURES 35 – 42 , the tip being rounded in cross-section and even slightly flattened from side to side in dried specimens. In the distiphallus the dentate process is not tapering and pointed, but blunt and broadest distally, with a pale apical ventrolateral part as seen in lateral or dorsolateral view ( Figs. 38, 41 View FIGURES 35 – 42 ). The expanded and flattened part of the veil process is dentate along margin and on its main surface.

Female. Unknown.

Biology. Cuthbertson (1933: 93) reports on the behaviour of this species, common “around large nests of Plagiolepis   ants, robbing the latter of the larvae and puparia of Camponotus   ants which they were carrying … Spiders, partly crushed lepidopterous larvae … and small Pheidole   pupae were also observed to attract the attention of spinifemorata   , but only when carried by ants. It is remarkable that no notice was taken of the same food when exposed on a place free from ants in the immediate neighbourhood of many Bengalia   .”

Discussion. Undoubtedly, B. smarti   is the most common species in the B. spinifemorata   species-group besides B. seniorwhitei   .

The three paratypes of M. racovitzai   from South Africa in MRAC (cf. Lehrer 2005: 162), two from Johannesburg and one from Pretoria, all carrying Lehrer’s identification labels reading “ Maraviola racovitzai   ”, display both key features of Bengalia smarti (Lehrer)   : a rounded U-shaped excavation of the ST 5 flap (similar to the one shown in Fig. 42 View FIGURES 35 – 42 ), and a distally expanded dentate process with a pale ventral area ( Figs. 38, 41 View FIGURES 35 – 42 , which have been made from the Pretoria specimen). The same applies to the three other paratypes of M. racovitzai   which are in BMNH and which are carrying the same Lehrer identification label, i.e., a specimen from “Transvaal” (Zumpt leg) ( South Africa), a specimen from “ Natal Ingogo” ( South Africa) and a specimen from “Salisbury” ( Zimbabwe). I have reassigned them to B. smarti   , labelled them accordingly, and listed them below. Evidently Lehrer has been unsure about the identification of his own species B. racovitzai   and B. smarti   .

Kurahashi & Kirk-Spriggs (2006: 17 fig. 2) figures the ST 5 flap of a species they named “ Bengalia spinifemorata   ”. The flap projects well beyond posterior edge of the main part of ST 5 and the flap is broadly U-shaped, although with a rather shallow excavation. I take this figure to indicate that their material, from Namibia, belongs to B. smarti   .

Distribution. Democratic Republic of Congo (Katanga), Namibia, South Africa (Gauteng, Northern Province, KwaZulu-Natal), Zimbabwe.

Material examined. Type material. Holotype male, in BMNH, labelled (1) HOLOTYPE [printed on round label with red rim]; (2) HOLOTYPUS [printed on red label]; (3) NATAL / WILLOW GRANGE / MOOI RIVER / R.C. WROUGTHON / 20. IV. 1913 [printed, except date which is handwritten]; (4) Pres.by / Comm.Inst.Ent. / B.M. 1953 - 343. [printed]; (5) Bengalia   / spinifemorata   / Villen. [handwritten by Villeneuve on bluish grey label]; (6) Maraviola   3 / smarti Lehrer   sp.n. / Det. Dr. A.Z. LEHRER / HOLOTYPUS 2004 [printed] ( Fig. 43 View FIGURE 43 ). Note. Lehrer (2005: 169) miscites the locality as “Moon River” and the collector’s name as “Wronghton”.

Other material. BMNH: South Africa [13 specimens] 1 male labelled (1) Johannesburg / Transvaal / 26.IV. 74 [handwritten by Zumpt in blue ink]; (2) Bengalia   3 / spinifemorata   / Villen. [handwritten by Zumpt in blue ink]; (3) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n. sp. / Det. Dr. A.Z.LEHRER / 2004 [printed; pinhole in middle]; (4) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n. sp. / Det. Dr. A.Z.LEHRER / 2004 [printed; pinhole towards the right side]. This is a paratype of M. racovitzai   misidentified by Lehrer. The dry genitalia in the big plastic vial have been treated with KOH and transferred to glycerol in a glass microvial. 1 male labelled (1) S. AFRICA / Natal / Ingogo / iii 1932 [printed]; (2) Pres.by / Com.Inst.Ent. / B.M. 1950 - 323. [printed]; (3) J. Ogilvie [printed]; (4) Bengalia   / spinifemorata Vill.   / van Emden det. 1940 [handwritten, except last line which is printed]; (5) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n. sp. / Det. Dr. A.Z.LEHRER / 2004 [printed; pinhole towards near middle]. This is a paratype of M. racovitzai   misidentified by Lehrer. The ST 5 flap and genitalia are in situ and exerted and easily examined. 1 male labelled (1) NATAL / Weenen. / xi.–xii. 1923. / H.P.Thomasset. [printed]; (2) Pres. By / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1925 — 230. [printed]; (3) Bengalia   / depressa / Walk / De. E.Brunetti 1924 [handwritten except for last line where everything is printed but the number 4]. Note. Dissected by KR. Genitalia in glycerol in glass microvial, dried T 1– 5 glued to stage plate. 1 male labelled (1) Pres. By / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1925 — 230. [printed]; (2) NATAL / Weenen. 2840 ft. i. 1924. / H.P.Thomasset. [printed]. Note. Not dissected. The ST 5 flap is clearly visible and identical with the ST 5 flap of the previous dissected specimen from Weenen. 1 male labelled (1) Pres. By / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1935 - 78. [printed]; (2) NATAL / Weenen. 2840 ft. / vi.-vii. 1923 / H.P.Thomasset. [printed]. Note. Not dissected. The ST 5 flap is clearly visible and identical with the one of the dissected specimen from Weenen. 1 male labelled (1) PRETORIA / E.K.H. / 25.IV. 1944 / A.R.I. Pretoria; (2) Bengalia   / spinifemorata Vill.   / det. Zumpt. Note. This specimen was dissected by KR in 2006. Abdomen glued to card on pin below specimen, genitalia in glass microvial below labels (cf. Rognes 2006: 469, misidentified as B. racovitzai   ). 1 male labelled (1) Natal. / Howick. / J.P.Cregoe. / 1904 — 46 [printed]. Note. Dissected by KR. Genitalia in glycerol in microvial below label, dried T 1–5 glued to card above label. 1 male labelled (1) Bengalia   / spinifemorata   / Vill. / det. JRMALLOCH [handwritten except last line which is printed]; (2) Pres.by / Imp.Inst.Ent. / B.M. 1935 - 78.; (3) NATAL. / Willow Grange / 7.iii. 1914 / R.C.Wroughton. [printed except third line which is handwritten]. Note. I have not dissected this specimen. The ST 5 flap is clearly visible and conforms to the one of B. smarti   . 1 male labelled (1) NATAL / WILLOW GRANGE / MOOI RIVER / R.C. WROUGHTON / 24.ii. 1913 [printed except last line which is handwritten]; (2) Pres. By / Comm.Inst.Ent. / B.M. 1953 - 343. [printed]. Note. I have not dissected this specimen as the ST 5 flap is clearly visible and typical B. smarti   . 1 male labelled (1) NATAL / WILLOW GRANGE / MOOI RIVER / R.C. WROUGHTON / 20.iv. 1913 [printed except last line which is handwritten]; (2) Pres. By / Comm.Inst.Ent. / B.M. 1953 - 343. [printed]. Note. I have not dissected this specimen as the ST 5 flap is clearly visible and typical B. smarti   . 1 male labelled (1) 313 [handwritten]; (2) Pretoria / 26.5. 15 [handwritten]; (3) W.W.Froggatt. / 1917 - 35 [printed]. Note. I have not dissected this specimen as the ST 5 flap is visible through some whitish exudate and typical B. smarti   . 1 male labelled (1) Jhng. T. / Aug 0 1 [= Johannesburg Transvaal] [handwritten]; (2) Johnby / (Jory) [?] [handwritten, difficult to interpret]; (3) S. Africa / Distant Coll. / 1911 — 383. [printed]. Note. I have not dissected this specimen as the ST 5 flap is clearly visible and typical B. smarti   . 1 male labelled (1) Jhng. T. / June 1910 [= Johannesburg Transvaal] [handwritten]; (2) Johnbg / (Jry) [?] [handwritten, difficult to interpret]; (3) S. Africa / Distant Coll. / 1911 — 383. [printed]. Note. I have not dissected this specimen as the ST 5 flap is clearly visible and typical B. smarti   . Democratic Republic of Congo [1 specimen] 1 male labelled: (1) Ruwe, / Lualaba R. / Congo Free State. / (Circa 11 °S., 26 °E.) / Feb. 1906 / Dr. A.Yale Massey. / 1906.98. [handwritten]. Note. Ruwe is in Katanga Province, about 10–15 km NNE of Kolwezi at 10 ° 35 'S, 25 ° 30 'E according to The Times Atlas of the World, Comprehensive Edition, Sixth Edition (1980). I have not dissected this specimen as the ST 5 flap is clearly visible and typical B. smarti   . Zimbabwe [7 specimens] 1 male labelled (1) Salisbury [now = Harare] / S. Rhodesia. / Dept. Agric. / IV. 1932 [printed, except parts of last line which are handwritten]; (2) Pres.by / Imp.Inst.Ent. / B.M. 1933 - 414. [printed]; (3) A. Cuthbertson / Collector. [printed]; (4) Ochromyia   3 / spinifemorata, Vill.   / Det. G A. K. Marshall. [handwritten, except last line which is printed]; (5) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n. sp. / Det. Dr. A.Z.LEHRER / 2004 [printed; pinhole towards near middle]. This is a paratype of M. racovitzai Lehrer   misidentified by Lehrer. I have dissected it. Genitalia in glycerol in glass microvial below labels, dried T 1–5 glued to card on pin. 1 male labelled (1) Umtali [now = Mutare], / S. Rhodesia / A. Cuthbertson / ix. 27 [printed except last line which is handwritten along right edge of label]; (2) 2012 / S. Rhodesia / Dept. Agric. [printed, except first line which is handwritten in pencil]; (3) Bengalia   / spinifemorata   / Vill. / det. James 69 [handwritten in ink]. Note. Not dissected but the shape of the ST 5 flap agrees with B. smarti   . 1 male labelled (1) Pres.by / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1927 – 398. [printed]; (2) SALISBURY DIST: / S. RHODESIA. / H. S. L. 1927. Note. Dissected by KR. T 4 –T 5, ST 4 –ST 5, ST 5 flap and genitalia in glycerol in glass microvial on pin below labels. 1 male labelled (1) Pres.by / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1927 – 398. [printed]; (2) SALISBURY DIST: / S. RHODESIA. / H. S. L. 1927. Note. Not dissected. ST 5 flap visible. 1 male labelled (1) Pres.by / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1927 – 398. [printed]; (2) SALISBURY DIST: / S. RHODESIA. / H. S. L. 1927. Note. Not dissected. ST 5 flap visible. 1 male labelled (1) Pres.by / Imp.Bur.Ent. / Brit. Mus. / 1927 – 398. [printed]; (2) SALISBURY DIST: / S. RHODESIA. / H. S. L. 1927.; (3) Bengalia   / det. spinifemorata Vill.   / J.P. Dear 1973 [handwritten except det. in line 2, and 3 in line 3 which are printed]. Note. Not dissected. ST 5 flap visible. 1 male labelled (1) 19.9. 25 / S’bury lab. [= Salisbury lab.] [handwritten on semicircular label]; (2) DEPRESSA / DET. G.A.K. MARSHALL / 1927. [printed except first line which is handwritten]; (3) Bengalia   / spinifemorata   [handwritten]; (4) London School of / Hygiene & Tropical / Medicine Coll. / BMNH (E) 1995 - 263. Note. Not dissected. ST 5 flap visible. BMSA: South Africa [8 specimens] 1 male labelled: (1) E. R. L. / Mei 1971 / Pretoria; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) / 18179. 1 male labelled: (1) E. R. L. / Mei 1971 / Pretoria; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) / 18181. Note. The specimen has been dissected by KR. Dried abdomen glued to card on pin; genitalia in glycerol in glass microvial below labels. 1 male labelled: (1) Pretoria // 4 / 67 // H.P.; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) / 18172. 1 male labelled: (1) Pretoria / 26 28 Ce / V. 80 / A. Groenewald / Dept. of Entomology / University of Pretoria [handwritten except last two lines which are printed]; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) 18160. Note. The specimen has been dissected by KR. Dried abdomen glued to card on pin; genitalia in glycerol in glass microvial below labels. 1 male labelled: (1) J. J. O. / J. H. B. Tvl / 19.2. 1954 [handwritten except for Tvl and the rightmost number 19 which are printed]; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) / 18166. 1 male labelled: (1) South Africa Waverley / 25 ° 40 'S 28 ° 15 'E / 28 IV 1989 / P Snyman / Department of Entomology / University of Pretoria [handwritten label except country name on first line and two last lines which are printed]; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) 18152. 1 male labelled: (1) WARMBATHS / 2428 CO / IV. 80 P. du Plessis / Dept. of Entomology / University of Pretoria [handwritten label except for two last lines which are printed]; (2) Ex Dept. Of Entomology / University of Pretoria Coll. / Donated 2009 [yellow printed label]; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) 18155. Note. The specimen has been dissected by KR. Dried abdomen glued to card on pin; genitalia in glycerol in glass microvial below labels. 1 male labelled: (1) Malaise traps / Leucosedea - / dominated scrub; (2) RSA: KZN, Royal Natal N.P. / Thendele, 1600m / 28 o 42.378 'S, 28 o 56.083 'E / 15–17.ii. 2010 / A.H.Kirk-Spriggs; (3) Entomology Dept. / National Museum / P.O.Box 266 / Bloemfontein 9300 / South Africa [blue printed label]; (4) BMSA (D) 18147. MRAC: South Africa [the following three specimens are (misidentified) paratypes of Maraviola racovitzai Lehrer   ] 1 male labelled: (1) Johannesburg / Transvaal / 7.IX. 62 [handwritten]; (2) Bengalia   3 / spinifemorata Vill.   / det. Zumpt 64 [handwritten by Zumpt]; (3) MUS. ROY. AFR. CENTR. / don Dr. F. Zumpt [last line handwritten]; (4) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n.sp. / Det. Dr.A.Z.LEHRER / 2004. Note. This specimen has the genitalia exerted and the distiphallus is clearly visible. 1 male labelled (1) MUSÉE DU CONGO / Pretoria / (Van Saxeghem) [last two lines handwritten]; (2) Bengalia   / spinifemorata   / Villen. [folded blue handwritten label in Villeneuve’s hand]; (3) R. DÉT / G / 1285 [G is handwritten]; (4) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n.sp. / Det. Dr.A.Z.LEHRER / 2004. Note. This specimen has lost the head. The genitalia were exerted and the distiphallus clearly visible before I dissected it. The dried abdomen is glued to card on pin, the genitalia kept in glycerol in glass microvial below labels. Figs. 38, 39, 41 View FIGURES 35 – 42 have been made from this specimen. 1 male labelled: (1) In Library Cupboard / S.A.I.M.R. Johannesburg / Miss. D. Dix. / 11.2. 1928. [handwritten]; (2) Ochromyia   / spinifemorata Vil   / Det. G.A.K. Marshall [handwritten]; (3) MUS. ROY. AFR. CENTR. / don Dr. F. Zumpt [handwritten]; (4) Maraviola   3 / racovitzai Lehrer   n.sp. / Det. Dr.A.Z.LEHRER / 2004. Note. This specimen lacks the head. The genitalia are exerted and clearly visible.

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Calliphoridae

Genus

Bengalia

Loc

Bengalia smarti ( Lehrer, 2005 )

Rognes, Knut 2011
2011
Loc

Bengalia spinifemorata:

Kurahashi 2006: 63
2006
Loc

Bengalia racovitzai:

Rognes 2006: 466
2006
Loc

Maraviola smarti

Lehrer 2005: 168
2005
Loc

Maraviola racovitzai:

Lehrer 2005: 162
2005
Loc

Bengalia spinifemorata:

Zumpt 1959: 429
1959
Loc

Bengalia spinifemorata:

Zumpt 1956: 1956
1956
Loc

Ochromyia spinifemorata:

Cuthbertson 1933: 93
1933
Loc

Bengalia (Ochromyia) spinifemorata:

Cuthbertson 1933: 93
Malloch 1929: 119
1929
Loc

Bengalia (Ochromyia) spinifemorata:

Malloch 1927: 409
1927