Avicularia soretama , Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009 Avicularia sooretama Bertani & Fukushima
Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009, Description of two new species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 and redescription of Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch 1842) (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) - three possibly threatened Brazi, Zootaxa 2223, pp. 25-47: 29-45
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|Avicularia soretama Avicularia sooretama Bertani & Fukushima|
Avicularia soretama sp. nov.
(Figs 5─8, 17; Appendix II, Figs B 1─ B 4)
Diagnosis: The male resembles those of A. diversipes and A. gamba sp. nov. by lacking a tibial apophysis on leg I. It differs from that of A. diversipes by the embolus being two to three times longer than the tegulum, with a curvature of less than 180° (Figs 5 ─7); from those of A. gamba sp. nov. by the presence of a small spiniform process on the cymbium and a longitudinal black stripe on the dorsocentral red abdomen (Fig. B 1). The female resembles A. gamba sp. nov. by retaining the characteristic juvenile color pattern on the abdomen (Fig. B 2) and by the spermathecae shape (Fig. 8). It can be distinguished from those of A. gamba sp. nov. by having spermathecae with a multilobular apex (Fig. 8) and a single red spot inside the central longitudinal black stripe on dorsal abdomen (Fig. B 2).
Etymology: The specific name refers to the type locality, the Reserva Biológica de Sooretama.
Material examined: Holotype male, Brazil, State of Espírito Santo, Reserva Biologica de Sooretama [18°59'S 40°07'W], at night, AMNRJ, 18 April 2006 ( MNRJ 18435);GoogleMaps paratype female, Brazil, State of Espírito Santo, Pinheiros, Reserva Biologica Corrego do Veado (18 37'0.16"S 40°14'1.60"W), 71 m a.s.l., AMNRJ, 22 October 2005 ( MNRJ 12930).GoogleMaps
Additional material examined: BRAZIL: Bahia: Itamaraju [17°03' S, 39°32' W], Fazenda Pau Brasil, CEPLAC, R 3000, 1 female, 22 December 1969 ( MNRJ 12920);GoogleMaps Itamaraju zone [17 03' S, 39°32' W] or Fazenda Furtado, Prado, CEPLAC, R 3049, 1 immature male, 2 immatures ( MNRJ 13798);GoogleMaps Prado, CEPLAC, R 3134, 1 male ( MNRJ 13791); Teixeira de Freitas [17 31' S, 39°44' W], 1 male, Cooperativa Agricola de Cotia, April 1981 ( IBSP 4680);GoogleMaps Una, Reserva Biologica do Una [15 º09’ S, 39 º02’ W], on forest floor, 1 male, A.D. Brescovit and R. Bertani, April 1998 ( IBSP 9714);GoogleMaps 1 immature female, same collectors, 13 April 1998 ( IBSP 8066);GoogleMaps Espírito Santo: Conceicao da Barra [18 º35’ S, 39 º43’ W], Floresta Nacional de Rio Preto, 1 female, U. Caramaschi and H. D. Niemeyer col., 27-31 January 1998 ( MNRJ 12949);GoogleMaps Linhares [19 06' S, 39°56' W], Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, 1 immature female, A.D. Brescovit et al. ( IBSP 8600);GoogleMaps Linhares, Floresta Nacional de Goytacazes [19°26' S, 40°04' W], in afternoon, 1 immature female, 25 October 2005 ( MNRJ 12915);GoogleMaps Pinheiros [18 20' S, 40°08' W], Reserva Biologica Corrego do Veado (18°37'0.16"S 40°14'1.60"W), 71 m a.s.l., 2 immature females ( MNRJ 12917);GoogleMaps 1 female ( MNRJ 12954);GoogleMaps 1 immature male ( MNRJ 12916), AMNRJ, 12-26 October 2005; Sooretama, Reserva Biologica de Sooretama [19°00' S 40°07' W], estrada do Paraisopolis , during day, 1 immature, AMNRJ, 19 April 2006 ( MNRJ 18436);GoogleMaps Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia [22°19' S, 44 º35’ W], Parque Nacional de Itatiaia, Casa do Lago Azul, 780 m a.s.l., 1 female, 30 May 1956 ( IBSP 3478).GoogleMaps
Description: Holotype male. Carapace 10.8 long, 9.0 wide, chelicerae 4.7. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 11.8, 5.9, 10.6, 9.5, 5.3, 43.1. II: 10.6, 5.4, 9.2, 8.5, 4.5, 38.2. III: 9.8, 4.2, 7.7, 8.5, 4.1, 34.3. IV: 12.3, 5.2, 11.6, 11.8, 4.3, 45.2. Palp: 6.4, 3.5, 4.7, -, 1.6, 16.2. Midwidths: femora I–IV =1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 1.9, palp=1.5; patellae I–IV =1.5, 1.9, 2.0, 2.0, palp=1.7; tibiae I–IV =1.4, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, palp=1.5; metatarsi I–IV =1.2, 1.1, 1.0, 1.1; tarsi I–IV =1.1, 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, palp=1.3. Abdomen 10.3 long, 6.2 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.2 long, 0.5 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 1.1 basal, 0.8 middle, 2.0 distal; midwidths 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, respectively.
Carapace: length to width 1.2; cephalic area not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous. Fovea: shallow, straight, 1.0 wide. Carapace covered by short, slender setae and some long scattered setae mainly in cephalic region.
Eyes: tubercle high, length 1.8, width 2.3. Clypeus absent. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior slightly recurved. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.66, ALE 0.53, PME 0.21, PLE 0.41, AME–AME 0.42, AME– ALE 0.34, AME–PME 0.11, ALE–ALE 1.48, ALE–PME 0.48, PME–PME 1.39, PME–PLE 0.02, PLE–PLE 1.78, ALE–PLE 0.33, AME–PLE 0.30. Ratio of eye group width to length, 2.10.
Maxillae: length to width: 1.65. Cuspules: 100─200 spread over ventral inner heel; lyra absent. Labium: length 1.2, width 1.5, with ca. 130 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third centrally. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with two slightly separate large sigilla.
Chelicerae: rastellum absent, basal segments with nine teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin.
Sternum: length 5.4, width 4.1. Posterior angle sharp, but not separating coxae IV. Sigilla not evident.
Legs: legs formula: IV=I II III. Clavate trichobothria on distal half of tarsus I and 2/3 of tarsi II–IV. Leg coxae with sparse soft setae; no stridulatory or modified setae. Scopula: tarsi I–III fully scopulate, IV divided by row three setae wide; metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III for distal 2/3; IV 2/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by three-wide row of setae. Scopula hairs longest at lateral areas of tarsi and metatarsi, giving spatulate aspect to articles. Spines: entirely absent. Claws: ITC absent; STC without teeth. Tibial apophysis absent, distal prolateral area of leg I tibia with concentration of stiff setae.
Urticating hairs: Type II on abdomen dorsum.
Palp. Embolus slender, long, three times longer than tegulum, with curvature of roughly 90° to retrolateral side (Fig. 5─7). Cymbium: two subequal lobes, prolateral one triangular, with very short spiniform process on apex.
Color pattern: dark brown carapace bordered with light brown hairs; all legs and pedipalps dorsally dark brown, femora darker. All appendages and carapace covered with light brown hairs with pinky sheen. Sternum, labium, maxillae, coxae and legs ventrally brown. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi pinkish. Reddish hairs and broad black stripe over central area on dorsal abdomen (Fig. B 1).
Description: Paratype female. Carapace 10.5 long, 8.8 wide, chelicerae 4.7. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 8.1, 5.0, 6.1, 5.0, 3.6, 27.8. II: 7.4, 4.7, 5.9, 4.8, 3.6, 26.4. III: 6.6, 3.9, 5.1, 4.7, 3.5, 23.8. IV: 9.0, 4.7, 7.5, 6.9, 3.9, 32.0. Palp: 5.4, 3.5, 3.4, -, 3.9, 16.2. Midwidths: femora I–IV =1.8, 1.6, 2.2, 1.8, palp=1.3; patellae I–IV =2.0, 1.9, 1.9, 2.0, palp=1.6; tibiae I–IV =1.8, 1.7, 1.8, 2.0, palp=1.7; metatarsi I– IV=1.6, 1.4, 1.4, 1.4; tarsi I–IV =1.6, 1.5, 1.4, 1.4, palp=1.7. Abdomen 11.5 long, 8.4 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.3 long, 0.6 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 2.0 basal, 1.2 middle, 2.3 distal; midwidths 1.2, 1.0, 0.8, respectively.
As in male, except:
Carapace: length to width 1.2; Fovea: 1.6 wide.
Eyes: tubercle 1.7 long, 2.3 wide. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.66, ALE 0.53, PME 0.21, PLE 0.41, AME–AME 0.42, AME–ALE 0.34, AME–PME 0.11, ALE–ALE 1.48, ALE–PME 0.48, PME–PME 1.39, PME–PLE 0.02, PLE–PLE 1.78, ALE–PLE 0.33, AME–PLE 0.30. Ratio of eye group width to length, 2.0.
Maxillae: length to width: 1.6. Labium: length 1.2, width 2.0, with 35 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third centrally. Labio-sternal groove without discernible sigilla.
Chelicerae: basal segments with 12 teeth in row and three small teeth on promargin.
Sternum: length 5.0, width 4.1.
Legs. Clavate trichobothria on distal 2/3 of tarsus I–IV. Metatarsi III–IV 2/3 distally scopulate.
Genitalia: Two spermathecae, at basal third curving to external side in 90° angle, having folds in two thirds of distal part and ending in multilobular apex (Fig. 8).
Color pattern: carapace brown bordered with light brown hairs; all legs and pedipalps dorsally brown and light brown hairs with pinky sheen. Sternum, labium, maxillae, coxae and legs ventrally brown. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi pinkish. Abdomen dorsally light brown with large longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies a red spot on posterior half and three ill-defined black stripes connected to the central one on each side (Fig. B 2).
Color pattern ontogeny: Even though we examined only a few specimens in different stadia, the color pattern ontogeny of A. sooretama sp. nov. seems to be similar to that of A. diversipes (cf. Figs A 4─ A 5) and A. gamba sp. nov. (cf. Figs C 3─ C 5). The main difference in the color of the spiderlings is the shorter central long spot on the dorsal abdomen does not reach its most anterior portion (Fig. B 3) as in A. diversipes and A. gamba sp. nov. Other differences from A. diversipes are the lack of orange markings on the tarsi and metatarsi both in large juveniles and adults (Figs B 1─ B 3). Adult males of A. sooretama sp. nov. have a pinky sheen all over the body and present a longitudinal central black stripe over the red abdomen (Fig. B 1). Adult females of A. sooretama sp. nov. seem to retain the juvenile color pattern (Fig. B 2).
Distribution: Extreme south of State of Bahia to southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fig. 17).
Order Araneae . Family Theraphosidae .
Common names: unknown.
Scientific synonyms: none.
Size (adult): ca. 10 cm / 3.9 in, with out stretched legs.
Coloration (adult): Carapace dark brown bordered with light brown hairs. Male: All appendages and carapace covered with light brown hairs with pinky sheen; reddish hairs and a broad black central longitudinal stripe over a red abdomen (Fig. B 1, white arrow). Female: All appendages dorsally brown and light brown hairs with pinky sheen; light brown abdomen with a large longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies a red spot on the posterior half and three ill-defined black stripes connected to the central one on each side (Fig. B 2, pink arrow).
Coloration (juvenile): Spiderlings have overall metallic green color. Juveniles have a similar pattern as the female, but the legs have more conspicuous metallic sheen (Fig. B 3).
Distribution: In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, extreme South of State of Bahia to Southern State of Rio de Janeiro (Fig. B 4, blue area).
Wild population: Few populations known in a very restricted area in Southern States of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil.
Captive population: No data available.
Trade: No data available. However, as other tarantulas species, can be possibly traded in all stages alive (adults, juveniles, spiderlings and inside eggsacs) for the pet market.
Similar species: Regardless of its very distinctive appearance, it may be misidentified as another Avicularia species, including A. gamba . The abdomen has a large longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies, on the posterior half, a red spot (females and juveniles) and a broad black longitudinal stripe on a red abdomen (males) are noted differences. It can also be misidentified as Iridopelma or Pachistopelma species.
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Cristovao, Universidade do Rio Janeiro, Museu Nacional
Brazil,Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Instituto Butantan
USA, Florida, Gainesville, University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Allyn Museum
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