Avicularia soretama , Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009 Avicularia sooretama Bertani & Fukushima

Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009, Description of two new species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 and redescription of Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch 1842) (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) - three possibly threatened Brazi, Zootaxa 2223, pp. 25-47: 29-45

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.10094

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1B7C7527-F742-B12D-E636-94A6967576D5

treatment provided by

Jeremy

scientific name

Avicularia soretama Avicularia sooretama Bertani & Fukushima
status

sp. nov.

Avicularia soretama  sp. nov.

(Figs 5─8, 17; Appendix II, Figs B 1─ B 4)

Diagnosis: The male resembles those of A. diversipes  and A. gamba  sp. nov. by lacking a tibial apophysis on leg I. It differs from that of A. diversipes  by the embolus being two to three times longer than the tegulum, with a curvature of less than 180° (Figs 5 ─7); from those of A. gamba  sp. nov. by the presence of a small spiniform process on the cymbium and a longitudinal black stripe on the dorsocentral red abdomen (Fig. B 1). The female resembles A. gamba  sp. nov. by retaining the characteristic juvenile color pattern on the abdomen (Fig. B 2) and by the spermathecae shape (Fig. 8). It can be distinguished from those of A. gamba  sp. nov. by having spermathecae with a multilobular apex (Fig. 8) and a single red spot inside the central longitudinal black stripe on dorsal abdomen (Fig. B 2).

Etymology: The specific name refers to the type locality, the Reserva Biológica de Sooretama.

Material examined: Holotype male, Brazil, State of Espírito Santo, Reserva Biologica de Sooretama [18°59'S 40°07'W], at night, AMNRJ, 18 April 2006 ( MNRJ 18435);GoogleMaps  paratype female, Brazil, State of Espírito Santo, Pinheiros, Reserva Biologica Corrego do Veado (18 37'0.16"S 40°14'1.60"W), 71 m a.s.l., AMNRJ, 22 October 2005 ( MNRJ 12930).GoogleMaps 

Additional material examined: BRAZIL: Bahia: Itamaraju [17°03' S, 39°32' W], Fazenda Pau Brasil, CEPLAC, R 3000, 1 female, 22 December 1969 ( MNRJ 12920);GoogleMaps  Itamaraju zone [17 03' S, 39°32' W] or Fazenda Furtado, Prado, CEPLAC, R 3049, 1 immature male, 2 immatures ( MNRJ 13798);GoogleMaps  Prado, CEPLAC, R 3134, 1 male ( MNRJ 13791);  Teixeira de Freitas [17 31' S, 39°44' W], 1 male, Cooperativa Agricola de Cotia, April 1981 ( IBSP 4680);GoogleMaps  Una, Reserva Biologica do Una [15 º09’ S, 39 º02’ W], on forest floor, 1 male, A.D. Brescovit and R. Bertani, April 1998 ( IBSP 9714);GoogleMaps  1 immature female, same collectors, 13 April 1998 ( IBSP 8066);GoogleMaps  Espírito Santo: Conceicao da Barra [18 º35’ S, 39 º43’ W], Floresta Nacional de Rio Preto, 1 female, U. Caramaschi and H. D. Niemeyer col., 27-31 January 1998 ( MNRJ 12949);GoogleMaps  Linhares [19 06' S, 39°56' W], Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, 1 immature female, A.D. Brescovit et al. ( IBSP 8600);GoogleMaps  Linhares, Floresta Nacional de Goytacazes [19°26' S, 40°04' W], in afternoon, 1 immature female, 25 October 2005 ( MNRJ 12915);GoogleMaps  Pinheiros [18 20' S, 40°08' W], Reserva Biologica Corrego do Veado (18°37'0.16"S 40°14'1.60"W), 71 m a.s.l., 2 immature females ( MNRJ 12917);GoogleMaps  1 female ( MNRJ 12954);GoogleMaps  1 immature male ( MNRJ 12916), AMNRJ, 12-26 October 2005;  Sooretama, Reserva Biologica de Sooretama [19°00' S 40°07' W], estrada do Paraisopolis , during day, 1 immature, AMNRJ, 19 April 2006 ( MNRJ 18436);GoogleMaps  Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia [22°19' S, 44 º35’ W], Parque Nacional de Itatiaia, Casa do Lago Azul, 780 m a.s.l., 1 female, 30 May 1956 ( IBSP 3478).GoogleMaps 

Description: Holotype male. Carapace 10.8 long, 9.0 wide, chelicerae 4.7. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 11.8, 5.9, 10.6, 9.5, 5.3, 43.1. II: 10.6, 5.4, 9.2, 8.5, 4.5, 38.2. III: 9.8, 4.2, 7.7, 8.5, 4.1, 34.3. IV: 12.3, 5.2, 11.6, 11.8, 4.3, 45.2. Palp: 6.4, 3.5, 4.7, -, 1.6, 16.2. Midwidths: femora I–IV =1.9, 2.0, 2.1, 1.9, palp=1.5; patellae I–IV =1.5, 1.9, 2.0, 2.0, palp=1.7; tibiae I–IV =1.4, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, palp=1.5; metatarsi I–IV =1.2, 1.1, 1.0, 1.1; tarsi I–IV =1.1, 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, palp=1.3. Abdomen 10.3 long, 6.2 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.2 long, 0.5 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 1.1 basal, 0.8 middle, 2.0 distal; midwidths 0.9, 0.8, 0.6, respectively.

Carapace: length to width 1.2; cephalic area not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous. Fovea: shallow, straight, 1.0 wide. Carapace covered by short, slender setae and some long scattered setae mainly in cephalic region.

Eyes: tubercle high, length 1.8, width 2.3. Clypeus absent. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior slightly recurved. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.66, ALE 0.53, PME 0.21, PLE 0.41, AME–AME 0.42, AME– ALE 0.34, AME–PME 0.11, ALE–ALE 1.48, ALE–PME 0.48, PME–PME 1.39, PME–PLE 0.02, PLE–PLE 1.78, ALE–PLE 0.33, AME–PLE 0.30. Ratio of eye group width to length, 2.10.

Maxillae: length to width: 1.65. Cuspules: 100─200 spread over ventral inner heel; lyra absent. Labium: length 1.2, width 1.5, with ca. 130 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third centrally. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with two slightly separate large sigilla.

Chelicerae: rastellum absent, basal segments with nine teeth in row and some small teeth on promargin.

Sternum: length 5.4, width 4.1. Posterior angle sharp, but not separating coxae IV. Sigilla not evident.

Legs: legs formula: IV=I II III. Clavate trichobothria on distal half of tarsus I and 2/3 of tarsi II–IV. Leg coxae with sparse soft setae; no stridulatory or modified setae. Scopula: tarsi I–III fully scopulate, IV divided by row three setae wide; metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III for distal 2/3; IV 2/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by three-wide row of setae. Scopula hairs longest at lateral areas of tarsi and metatarsi, giving spatulate aspect to articles. Spines: entirely absent. Claws: ITC absent; STC without teeth. Tibial apophysis absent, distal prolateral area of leg I tibia with concentration of stiff setae.

Urticating hairs: Type II on abdomen dorsum.

Palp. Embolus slender, long, three times longer than tegulum, with curvature of roughly 90° to retrolateral side (Fig. 5─7). Cymbium: two subequal lobes, prolateral one triangular, with very short spiniform process on apex.

Color pattern: dark brown carapace bordered with light brown hairs; all legs and pedipalps dorsally dark brown, femora darker. All appendages and carapace covered with light brown hairs with pinky sheen. Sternum, labium, maxillae, coxae and legs ventrally brown. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi pinkish. Reddish hairs and broad black stripe over central area on dorsal abdomen (Fig. B 1).

Description: Paratype female. Carapace 10.5 long, 8.8 wide, chelicerae 4.7. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 8.1, 5.0, 6.1, 5.0, 3.6, 27.8. II: 7.4, 4.7, 5.9, 4.8, 3.6, 26.4. III: 6.6, 3.9, 5.1, 4.7, 3.5, 23.8. IV: 9.0, 4.7, 7.5, 6.9, 3.9, 32.0. Palp: 5.4, 3.5, 3.4, -, 3.9, 16.2. Midwidths: femora I–IV =1.8, 1.6, 2.2, 1.8, palp=1.3; patellae I–IV =2.0, 1.9, 1.9, 2.0, palp=1.6; tibiae I–IV =1.8, 1.7, 1.8, 2.0, palp=1.7; metatarsi I– IV=1.6, 1.4, 1.4, 1.4; tarsi I–IV =1.6, 1.5, 1.4, 1.4, palp=1.7. Abdomen 11.5 long, 8.4 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.3 long, 0.6 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 2.0 basal, 1.2 middle, 2.3 distal; midwidths 1.2, 1.0, 0.8, respectively.

As in male, except:

Carapace: length to width 1.2; Fovea: 1.6 wide.

Eyes: tubercle 1.7 long, 2.3 wide. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.66, ALE 0.53, PME 0.21, PLE 0.41, AME–AME 0.42, AME–ALE 0.34, AME–PME 0.11, ALE–ALE 1.48, ALE–PME 0.48, PME–PME 1.39, PME–PLE 0.02, PLE–PLE 1.78, ALE–PLE 0.33, AME–PLE 0.30. Ratio of eye group width to length, 2.0.

Maxillae: length to width: 1.6. Labium: length 1.2, width 2.0, with 35 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third centrally. Labio-sternal groove without discernible sigilla.

Chelicerae: basal segments with 12 teeth in row and three small teeth on promargin.

Sternum: length 5.0, width 4.1.

Legs. Clavate trichobothria on distal 2/3 of tarsus I–IV. Metatarsi III–IV 2/3 distally scopulate.

Genitalia: Two spermathecae, at basal third curving to external side in 90° angle, having folds in two thirds of distal part and ending in multilobular apex (Fig. 8).

Color pattern: carapace brown bordered with light brown hairs; all legs and pedipalps dorsally brown and light brown hairs with pinky sheen. Sternum, labium, maxillae, coxae and legs ventrally brown. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi pinkish. Abdomen dorsally light brown with large longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies a red spot on posterior half and three ill-defined black stripes connected to the central one on each side (Fig. B 2).

Color pattern ontogeny: Even though we examined only a few specimens in different stadia, the color pattern ontogeny of A. sooretama  sp. nov. seems to be similar to that of A. diversipes  (cf. Figs A 4─ A 5) and A. gamba  sp. nov. (cf. Figs C 3─ C 5). The main difference in the color of the spiderlings is the shorter central long spot on the dorsal abdomen does not reach its most anterior portion (Fig. B 3) as in A. diversipes  and A. gamba  sp. nov. Other differences from A. diversipes  are the lack of orange markings on the tarsi and metatarsi both in large juveniles and adults (Figs B 1─ B 3). Adult males of A. sooretama  sp. nov. have a pinky sheen all over the body and present a longitudinal central black stripe over the red abdomen (Fig. B 1). Adult females of A. sooretama  sp. nov. seem to retain the juvenile color pattern (Fig. B 2).

Distribution: Extreme south of State of Bahia to southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Fig. 17).

Appendix II

Avicularia sooretama Bertani & Fukushima  2009

Order Araneae  . Family Theraphosidae  .

Common names: unknown.

Scientific synonyms: none.

Characteristics:

Size (adult): ca. 10 cm / 3.9 in, with out stretched legs.

Coloration (adult): Carapace dark brown bordered with light brown hairs. Male: All appendages and carapace covered with light brown hairs with pinky sheen; reddish hairs and a broad black central longitudinal stripe over a red abdomen (Fig. B 1, white arrow). Female: All appendages dorsally brown and light brown hairs with pinky sheen; light brown abdomen with a large longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies a red spot on the posterior half and three ill-defined black stripes connected to the central one on each side (Fig. B 2, pink arrow).

Coloration (juvenile): Spiderlings have overall metallic green color. Juveniles have a similar pattern as the female, but the legs have more conspicuous metallic sheen (Fig. B 3).

Distribution: In the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, extreme South of State of Bahia to Southern State of Rio de Janeiro (Fig. B 4, blue area).

Population:

Wild population: Few populations known in a very restricted area in Southern States of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Captive population: No data available.

Trade: No data available. However, as other tarantulas species, can be possibly traded in all stages alive (adults, juveniles, spiderlings and inside eggsacs) for the pet market.

Similar species: Regardless of its very distinctive appearance, it may be misidentified as another Avicularia  species, including A. gamba  . The abdomen has a large longitudinal central black stripe with zigzag edges in which lies, on the posterior half, a red spot (females and juveniles) and a broad black longitudinal stripe on a red abdomen (males) are noted differences. It can also be misidentified as Iridopelma  or Pachistopelma  species.

MNRJ

Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Cristovao, Universidade do Rio Janeiro, Museu Nacional

IBSP

Brazil,Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Instituto Butantan

AME

USA, Florida, Gainesville, University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Allyn Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Avicularia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Avicularia