Ctenolepisma iranicum Molero, Kahrarian & Gaju

Kahrarian, Morteza, Molero, Rafael & Gaju, Miquel, 2016, The genus Ctenolepisma (Zygentoma: Lepismatidae) in Western Iran, with description of three new species, Zootaxa 4093 (2), pp. 217-230: 218-219

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Ctenolepisma iranicum Molero, Kahrarian & Gaju

new species

Ctenolepisma iranicum Molero, Kahrarian & Gaju  , new species

Figs. 1‒9View FIGURES 1 ‒ 5View FIGURES 6 ‒ 9

Type material. Holotype: female, Shabankareh village, (N 34 ° 52 ’ E 46 ° 30 ’, elev. 1632 m), Paveh County, Kermanshah, Iran. November, 2013. Paratypes: 3 males and 1 female from the same sample, collected in the litter around oak trees ( Quercus infectoria  ) and under rocks (Ref. UCO Z 2497), and 4 males and 3 females from Bistoon Mountain, under rocks, (N 34 ° 23 ’ E 47 ° 26 ’, elev. 1116 m), Harsin County, Kermanshah, Iran. November 2013 (Ref. UCO Z 2498). The holotype and two paratypes (one from each locality) are each mounted on a slide. All specimens have been deposited in UCO, except the holotype, which has been deposited in MNCN (Cat. Types No. 2605).

Description. Body length: 9 mm in the holotype (remaining specimens are somewhat smaller; all adults at least 7 mm long). Body fusiform, with the thorax slightly wider than the abdomen, maximum thorax width 1.95 mm. Epidermic pigment brownish in microscopic slides, more intense on appendages. Macrosetae hyaline to brown-yellowish. Scales with dark pigment. Some scales of the lateral parts of the nota larger than the rest; some scales dispersed over the dorsal surface with an indentation corresponding with bare spots.

Setation of the head as in other species of the genus, very abundant. Eyes black, composed of about 12 ommatidia. Antennae broken (maximum length preserved: 5 mm). Maxillary palp with long articles ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 ‒ 5), the distal article about 6.5‒8 times longer than wide and slightly longer or shorter than the penultimate. Length and width of apical article of the labial palp equal, with five sensory papillae arranged in a single row.

Pronotum with a brush of macrosetae in the central part of the anterior margin, with 2‒4 rows of macrosetae. Extending from this brush to the anterolateral corner of the notum, a row of 11‒15 short smooth setae. Ten lateral combs with 2–7 associated macrosetae each and 2 posterolateral combs with 7 or 8 macrosetae. Mesonotum and metanotum with 10–12 lateral combs, each comb with 2–7 associated macrosetae; the posterolateral combs with 7‒9 macrosetae.

Anterior trichobothrial areas of the pronotum situated on lateral comb N- 3; those of the mesonotum associated with the antepenultimate (N- 2) lateral comb: those of the metanotum associated with the penultimate (N- 1) lateral comb. All posterior trichobothria associated with the last lateral comb (N) on the three nota. Prosternum heartshaped, with its maximum width 1.1 times greater than its length in the midline ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 ‒ 5), with a broadly rounded posterior margin and slightly truncated apex; 3‒4 lateral combs with 3‒10 macrosetae; antedistal combs bearing few setae (3‒5) and arranged in a single row, but more anterior combs bearing a higher number of macrosetae arranged in two irregular rows ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 ‒ 5).

Mesosternum as long as wide at its base or slightly longer; metasternum clearly wider than long (ratio length/ width about 0.75); hind margins of these sternites more truncated than hind margin of prosternum ( Figs. 4, 5View FIGURES 1 ‒ 5). Both sterna with only one pair of oblique antedistal combs of 17‒21 macrosetae arranged in two irregular rows. Distance between the combs 1.5‒2 times the width of a comb.

Protibiae 2.8‒3 times longer than wide; mesotibiae 3‒3.3 times longer than wide and about 1.2 times longer than the protibiae; metatibiae 3.6‒4 times longer than wide and 1.5‒1.75 times longer than the protibiae. Apart from the usual setae on the tibiae, plumose macrosetae as follows: on tibia I, 2 dorsal and 4 ventral; on tibia II, 2 dorsal and 6 ventral; on tibia III 2‒4 dorsal and 7‒8 ventral (see Fig. 6View FIGURES 6 ‒ 9); all macrosetae shorter than diameter of the article. Tibia without scales. Scales of femora rounded.

Urotergite I with 1 + 1 bristle-combs; urotergites II–VI with 3 + 3 combs; urotergites VII and VIII with 2 + 2 combs. Submedian bristle-combs with 7‒11 macrosetae, lateral combs with 7–12, and sublateral combs with 8‒13. Urotergite X trapezoidal, with concave posterior margin and 1 + 1 combs of 12‒13 macrosetae ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 6 ‒ 9). Urosternites I and II without setae, III–VIII with 1 + 1 lateral bristle-combs and 15‒21 macrosetae. Distance between lateral combs of a urosternite 3.1‒4.4 times wider than the width of a comb.

Two pairs of abdominal styli. In male, inner process of coxite IX about 0.9 times longer than wide at its base and 2 times longer than the outer process. Styli IX 3.2 times longer than the inner process ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 6 ‒ 9). In the female, process of coxite IX about 1.75 times longer than wide at its base and 2.7 times longer than the outer process. Ovipositor with 41‒48 divisions, its apex surpassing the tip of the inner process of coxite IX by 3‒5 times its length ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 6 ‒ 9). Styli long, those of segment IX 2.6 times longer than the outer process of the coxite, tip of the ovipositor surpassing the coxite apex by 0.5‒0.6 times its length. Apices of gonapophyses unsclerotized. Caudal filaments broken; maximum length preserved 4.5 mm (both in the cerci and the paracercus).

Etymology. The specific name of this new taxon refers to the country where it has been found, Iran.

Discussion. The new species is related to C. ciliatum  , C. longicaudatum Escherich, 1905  and C. armeniacum Molero, Gaju, Bach & Mendes, 2010  , sharing with them the following characteristics: abdominal setation (absence of median combs on urosternites, 3 + 3 combs of macrosetae on urotergites II‒VI), the trapezoidal shape of the tenth urotergite, the distribution of scales on the legs (rounded on the femora and absent on tibiae and tarsi), the distribution of trichobothria on the nota and the smooth setae of the anterolateral row of the pronotum. However, in C. iranicum  n. sp., the hind borders of the thoracic sterna are straight, giving a truncate appearance (more noticeable in the mesosternum and metasternum), whereas in the other species the posterior angles of these sternites are acute or rounded. Moreover, the combs of macrosetae are arranged in two irregular rows, as in C. armeniacum  , which distinguishes the new species from C. ciliatum  and C. longicaudatum  . But the number of setae of these combs is fewer in C. iranicum  n. sp. and there is only one pair of combs in the mesosternum, while there are 2 or 3 pairs in C. armeniacum  (compare Figs. 9‒14View FIGURES 6 ‒ 9View FIGURE 10View FIGURES 11 ‒ 16 and 28View FIGURES 27 ‒ 30 ‒33 in Molero et al. 2010 with Figs. 2‒5View FIGURES 1 ‒ 5 of the new species in this work). The number of macrosetae in the abdominal combs of C. armeniacum  is also clearly greater. The pigmentation, the larger size and the wider thorax of C. longicaudatum  easily distinguishes this species from C. iranicum  n. sp. The key characteristics for distinguishing this new species from C. ciliatum  and C. longicaudatum  are the shape of the apex of the thoracic sternites, and the setation of the meso- and metasternum (the macrosetae of the combs are arranged in one row in the two previously known species but are arranged in two irregular rows in the new species). Other characteristics are quite variable in the more widely distributed species, particularly in C. ciliatum  , which is also present in Iran, and the description of these characteristics in C. iranicum  n. sp. enters within this margin of variability. As the thoracic sternites (and other features, such as the cover of scales) have not always been examined meticulously, it is possible that some taxa different from C. ciliatum  have been overlooked. As happened with C. armeniacum  , we have found that some specimens identified and published previously as C. ciliatum  (from Asia and even from other continents where this species has been reported) actually correspond with other undescribed species of Ctenolepisma  .