Sinophorus turionum (Ratzeburg, 1844)

Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi, Giovanni, Filippo Di, Loni, Augusto, Ricciardi, Renato & Lucchi, Andrea, 2018, Updated list of the insect parasitoids (Insecta, Hymenoptera) associated with Lobesiabotrana (Denis & Schiffermueller, 1775) (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) in Italy. 2. Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae,, ZooKeys 772, pp. 47-95: 47

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Sinophorus turionum (Ratzeburg, 1844)


Sinophorus turionum (Ratzeburg, 1844)  Figure 7

Eulimneria alkae  : Thompson 1946: 484.

Italian distribution of reared parasitoids.

The indication of this species on EGVM is due to Thompson (1946) that found it in a compendium of Hymenoptera  parasitoids of European corn borer of Chu and Hsia (1937) that, unfortunately, we were not able to examine. Thompson and Parker (1928), on the basis of a record by Paillot (1924), report this species under the name of Eulimneria crassifemur  Thomson, both on L. botrana  and on E. ambiguella  .


The species is widely distributed throughout the Palearctic region, except North Africa ( Yu et al. 2012). It has been introduced several times in the United States and Canada for the biological control of the European corn borer O. nubilalis  ( Bartlett et al. 1978, Carlson 1979) and the pine shoot borer, R. buoliana  ( Syme 1971, 1984, Carlson 1979) without being established ( Sanborne 1984). Its presence in the Oriental region (India and Sri Lanka) ( Townes et al. 1965, Yu and Horstmann 1997) has to be confirmed.

Host range.

Yu et al. (2012) list 26 host species, belonging to nine families of Lepidoptera  and one family of Hymenoptera  . Tortricidae  and Pyraloidea  are the most represented. Five other lepidopteran host species need to be added: Anania hortulata  (Linnaeus, 1758), Nascia cilialis  ( Hübner, 1796), Pyrausta aurata  (Scopoli, 1763) ( Crambidae  ), Gymnoscelis rufifasciata  (Haworth, 1809) ( Geometridae  ) and Acrobasis advenella  (Zincken, 1818) ( Pyralidae  ) ( Shaw et al. 2016).

Ecological role.

It is reported as one of the main parasitoids of the European corn borer in Europe ( Thompson and Parker 1928) under the name Eulimneria crassifemur  , and in the Northern part of Far East (Manchuria and North Korea) ( Clark 1934) as Eulimneria alkae  . In the case of L. botrana  , it is certainly an occasional parasitoid of minor importance, perhaps a secondary adaptation to a host different from the usual ones. In the literature we found, besides those mentioned for Italy, scattered reports of his presence on EGVM, mostly under the name crassifemur in its various generic combinations: in Austria ( Thompson and Parker 1930), France ( Paillot 1924, Thompson and Parker 1928), Bulgaria ( Athanassov 1981, Zapryanov 1985), Germany ( Thompson 1946) and Spain ( Thompson 1946, Coscollá 1997). Another species, S. costalis  (Thomson, 1887), has been recorded on EGVM in Moldavian vineyards, Romania ( Pisicá and Páişescu-Bărbuceanu 2002, Bărbuceanu and Jenser 2009).

Taxonomic notes.

Many authors dealt with this species, especially in relation to its main hosts, O. nubilalis  and R. buoliana  . The species has been often confused with Limnerium crassifemur  (recte Sinophorus crassifemur  ) ( Paillot 1924, Thompson and Parker 1928, Goidanich 1931, Carlson 1979), which, instead, is mainly related to species of the family Pamphiliidae  ( Hymenoptera  ) ( Sanborne 1984; see notes on previous species). The name crassifemur was later corrected in alkae by Ellinger and Sachtleben (1928), which then turned out to be a synonym of Sinophorus turionum  ( Sanborne 1984). It is likely that the report of Thompson (1946) for Italy on EGVM, quoted by Schwangart (1918) and Stellwaag (1928), concerns the previous species (see above).














Sinophorus turionum (Ratzeburg, 1844)

Scaramozzino, Pier Luigi, Giovanni, Filippo Di, Loni, Augusto, Ricciardi, Renato & Lucchi, Andrea 2018


Eulimneria alkae

Schmiedeknecht 1907