Mnesarete pudica

Guillermo-Ferreira, Rhainer & Bispo, Pitágoras C., 2012, Description of the larva of Mnesarete pudica (Hagen in Selys, 1853) (Odonata: Calopterygidae) and notes on known genera of South American Calopterygidae larvae, Zootaxa 3482, pp. 77-81: 78-80

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.213028

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Mnesarete pudica


Mnesarete pudica  (Hagen in Selys, 1853)

( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1)

Material examined. Assis, São Paulo, Brazil (22 º 38 ’S, 50 º 27 ’W; altitude 522 m); 13 and 4 Ƥ (reared), 13 /III/ 2011; 23 and 1 Ƥ exuviae.

Measurements (mm, N= 5).

Total length (without caudal lamella; measurements taken dorsally): 14.02 ± 1.1. Head: head length: 2.17 ± 0.2 from labrum to occiput, head width: 3.2 ± 0.11; prementum length: 3.19 ± 0.25 along midline, prementum maximum width: 2.07 ± 0.012, outer premental seta: 0.2. Thorax and legs: inner wing pads length: 4.16 ± 0.13, outer wing pads length: 3.67 ± 0.48; femur I 1: 2.76 ± 0.21; femur II 2: 3.29 ± 0.26; femur III 3: 4.01 ± 0.36; tibia 1: 3.01 ± 0.19; tibia 2: 3.6 ± 0.19; tibia 3: 4.08 ± 0.26. Abdomen: total length: 8.24 ± 1.29; S 9 length: 0.65 ± 0.08; S 10 length: 0.66 ± 0.09; cerci length: 0.24; female gonapophyses length: 1.05 ± 0.13; lateral caudal lamella length: 6.23 ± 0.5, width: 1.33 ± 0.07.

Description of final instar larva. Head: w ith rounded posterolateral margin and postocular tubercle; occiput concave ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 a), 2.25 times wide as long at its widest point; antenna seven segmented ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 b), first the longest, 1.83 longer than head; relative size of antennomeres: 1, 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 0.06, 0.06, 0.06; labium with three premental setae on each side of cleft ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 c), one longer than the other two; exterior margin of ligula serrated; anterior margin of labial palp with three well developed and strongly incurved hooks ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 d), the inner one smallest; movable hook as long as external margin of palp; two large and three minute palpal setae; prementum when appressed extending to middle of second thoracic segment between mesothoracic coxae. Laccinia with six teeth ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 e). Mandibular formula: L 12345View Materials x a(m 1234)b/ R 12345View Materials y ab ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 f,g). Thorax: pronotum with one prominent midlateral projection on each side ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 h); wing pads extending to middle of S 4 ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 i). Legs: with two dark bands on femur and tibia; no setae on femur, two mid-dorsal spines and several small setae on posterior edge of tibia ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 j). Abdomen: tan with posterior transversal darker stripes; no posterodorsal hooks on abdominal segments ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 i), a middorsal spined projection on S 10 forming a ridge ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 a,b), lateral spines on S 9-10 ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 c); female gonapophyses not reaching distal margin of S 10 ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 b); male cercus cultriform and slightly curved downward ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 i, 2 a); female cercus conical and not curved ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 b); lateral lamella lanceolate, triquetral, with spines along margins ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 d); central lamella foliaceous with rounded apex, not triquetral, with setae-like spines along margins ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 e).

Biological notes. Larvae were collected in rapid flow streams, clinging to submerged grassy vegetation. Adults were also found at the stream. Both males and females aggregated on surrounding vegetation. Although adults can be found throughout the year, greater numbers of adults and last-instar larvae were found in March and April, possibly indicating a reproductive season immediately following the rainy season. Males of this species present broad wings covered by a red pigment, used in a remarkable courtship display when males show their colorful wings to females ( Guillermo-Ferreira & Bispo 2012).

Taxonomic notes. Mnesarete pudica  larva differs from other South American calopterygids (with the exception of Hetaerina cruentata  ) in lacking lateral spines on S 8. The combination of five palpal and three premental setae serves to differentiate this species from other calopterygids. Heckman (2008) diagnosed larvae of the genus Mnesarete  by the presence of lateral spines on S 8-10, which do not occur in M. pudica  and thus cannot be used as a generic trait. We suggest that this genus may be diagnosed by the combination of the following characters: first segment of antenna not armed with setae and shorter than head and prothorax combined; and no posterodorsal hooks on S 4–9. Since there are no remarkable characters that separate South American calopterygid genera, we present some comments that may help on the identification of the most common species.

Comments on final instar larvae of South American Calopterygidae  genera. Morphological data for this note were extracted from the following descriptions: Hetaerina  ( H. caja, Geijskes 1943  ; H. medinai, De Marmels 2007  ; H. rosea, Pessaq & Muzón 2004  ); Iridictyon  ( I. trebbaui, De Marmels 1992  ); Ormenophlebia  ( O. imperatrix, Garrison 2006  ); Mnesarete  ( M. grisea, Garrison 2006  ; M. pudica  , this paper).

When comparing the larvae of M. pudica  and M. grisea  with Hetaerina  larvae, we notice that these genera can be distinguished by the presence of setae on the first segment of the antenna in Hetaerina  .

Iridictyon  larvae present the following characters that are not present in Mnesarete  : meso- and metathoracic legs extending beyond apex of abdomen (CAUTION: check to see that abdominal segments are not collapsed or telescoped into each preceding segment); first antennal segment approximately as long as head and prothorax. Ormenophlebia imperatrix  larva presents posterodorsal hooks on S 4 -S 9, which cannot be found on Mnesarete  larvae.

These notes may be useful to identify the most common species in South America until a revision and a definitive key can be provided with sufficient data.