Bittacus diversinervis Souza Lopes & Mangabeira, 1942,

Machado, Renato Jose Pires, Mendes, Diego Matheus De Mello & Rafael, José Albertino, 2018, The genus Bittacus Latreille (Insecta: Mecoptera) in Brazil: key to species, distribution maps, new synonym, and three new species, Zootaxa 4526 (3), pp. 303-330: 308

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4526.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:68ADEE66-00B7-4370-BF57-07C118ACDEB0

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/200587D4-FFBC-2856-FF4D-FDBE2F31A2BD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Bittacus diversinervis Souza Lopes & Mangabeira, 1942
status

 

Bittacus diversinervis Souza Lopes & Mangabeira, 1942 

( Figs. 3aView FIGURE 3, 6aView FIGURE 6, 8gView FIGURE 8, 12bView FIGURE 12)

Bittacus diversinervis: Souza Lopes & Mangabeira, 1942:340  ; Penny & Byers, 1979b:367; Penny & Arias, 1982:269; Machado et al., 2009:36, 2010:605; Machado, 2018.

Thyridates diversinervis: Willmann, 1983:51  ; Collucci & Amorim, 2000:7.

Thyridates willmanni: Collucci & Amorim, 2001:2  . New synonym.

Bittacus willmanni: Machado et al., 2009:37  .

Holotype male of B. diversinervis  : MNRJ (examined). Probably destroyed in the fire of 2.ix.2018. Holotype male of B. willmanni  : LMED (high resolution images examined).

Species also known from: Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia (new record), Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso (new record), Mato Grosso do Sul (new record), Minas Gerais, Pernambuco, Rondônia, Roraima, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Tocantins (new record) ( Fig. 12bView FIGURE 12).

Bittacus diversinervis  is the most common and widespread hanging fly in Brazil, with records for all regions of the country, except the southern states. The species has been collected in different habitats, including the Amazon and Atlantic rain forest, some dry areas in the Cerrado, and open grassy areas in Roraima state.

Thyridates willmanni  was described based on a male specimen, which until today remains as the only known specimen ( Colluci & Amorim, 2001). On its original description the authors mentioned that T. willmanni  was very similar to B. diversinervis  , but justified the description of a new species based on the different number of costal crossveins (three for T. willmanni  and two for B. diversinervis  ), a character known to be very plastic for a long time as discussed by different authors (e.g. Esben-Petersen 1921; Navás 1929; Machado et al. 2009). Another diagnostic trait suggested by the authors is that the internal margins of the male epandrium are almost straight in T. willmanni ( Collucci & Amorim 2001)  ; however, the study of the holotype herein clearly indicates that this character was misinterpreted by the authors. The internal margins of the epandirum are divergent, as in all other specimens of B. diversinervis  . The image of the epandrium presented in the original description is inaccurate and suggests that the internal margins are almost straight, but it does not correspond with the actual shape in the specimen. Additionally, the holotype of T. willmanni  presents the vein Rs 1 forked in the forewing, one of the major characteristics of B. diversinervis  .

For the reasons mentioned above, we are here synonymizing T. willmanni  under B. diversinervis  . The two main characters used to distinguish T. willmanni  are not robust; the first is based on a historically known plastic character and the second is the result of a misinterpretation.

Examined specimens. Brazil: Acre: Rio Branco , 24.ii.1979  , Maurício Mendonça (1♀ INPA)  ; Amazonas: Humaitá , 22.ii.1980, Penny  & Brasil (3♂, 5♀, 2? INPA)  ; Bahia: Aracatu, Fazenda Lagoa do Tamburi, Rodovia BA 262, km 400 sentido Vit. da Conquita / Brumado , coletado na lâmpada da residência, 16.xii.2010, Ferreira, A.S. col.; (4 MZUEFS)  ; Vitória da Conquista , UFBA/IMS/CAT, LABZOO, 14.i.2012, Ferreira, A.S. col (1 MZUEFS)  ; Espírito Santo: Anchieta, Praia de Ubu , i.2006, luz, SA Vanim (1♀ MZSP)  ; Colatina , 20.i.1960, JH Guimarães (1♀ MZSP)  ; Guarapari , 9.i.1981, Eloy Castellón (1♀ INPA)  ; Minas Gerais: Governador Valadares , 28.xii.1990, Marcio M (1? MZSP)  ; Lagoa Santa , 12.i.1965, J.S. Morgante (1♀ MZSP)  ; Muriaé , 31.xii.1977, Mirian A.S. Serrano (1♂ INPA)  ; Mato Grosso: Nova Mutum, Fazenda Buriti , 15.xii.1996, HF Mendes (1♂, 2♀ MZSP)  ; idem— 14.i.1998 (1♂ MZSP)  ; Mato Grosso do Sul: Porto Murtinho , 21–30.i.2008, S. Sigeo et al (1♂ MZSP)  ; Pernambuco: Arco Verde , vii.1974, N. Papavero (2♂ MZSP)  ; Rio de Janeiro: Guaratiba , iv.1960, JH Guimaraes (1♂ MZSP)  ; Rondônia: Vilhena , 7.xi.1979, Norman D. Penny (1♀ INPA)  ; Roraima: Boa Vista , 10.viii.1977, ND Penny (8♂, 7♀ INPA)  ; Boa Vista, Passarão , 031202 N—603508W, 8.vii.1996, F.F. Xavier, varredura (2♂, 1♀ INPA)  ; São Paulo: Barra Bonita , iii.1957, A. Correia (1♂ MZSP)  ; Barueri , 26.ii.1959, K. Lenko (1♂ MZSP)  ; Campinas , 2.iii.1974, Buhrnheim col. (2♂ 1♀ INPA)  ; Campos do Jordão, Parque Estadual , 2.xi.1985, CG Froehlich (1♀ MZSP)  ; Salesópolis, Boracéia , 5–9.vi.1948, (1♀ MZSP)  ; Santo Amaro , ii.1950, D. Lane (1♀ MZSP)  ; São Paulo, Sumaré. ii.1948, M. Carrera (1♀ MZSP)  idem—ii.1947 (1? MZSP); Tocantins: Barrolândia , 24–25.xii.2013, TK Krolow (2♀ CEUFT)  .

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Mecoptera

Family

Bittacidae

Genus

Bittacus

Loc

Bittacus diversinervis Souza Lopes & Mangabeira, 1942

Machado, Renato Jose Pires, Mendes, Diego Matheus De Mello & Rafael, José Albertino 2018
2018
Loc

Thyridates diversinervis: Willmann, 1983 :51

Collucci, E. & Amorim, D. S. 2000: 7
Willmann, R. 1983: 51
2000
Loc

Bittacus diversinervis: Souza Lopes & Mangabeira, 1942 :340

Machado, R. J. P. & Godoi, F. S. P. & Rafael, J. A. 2009: 36
Penny, N. D. & Arias, J. R. 1982: 269
Penny, N. D. & Byers, G. W. 1979: 367
Souza Lopes, H. de & Mangabeira, O. 1942: 340
1979
Loc

Thyridates willmanni: Collucci & Amorim, 2001 :2

Collucci, E. & Amorim, D. S. 2001: 2
Loc

Bittacus willmanni:

Machado, R. J. P. & Godoi, F. S. P. & Rafael, J. A. 2009: 37