Epeolus hanusiae, Onuferko, 2019

Onuferko, Thomas M., 2019, A review of the cleptoparasitic bee genus Epeolus Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the Caribbean, Central America and Mexico, European Journal of Taxonomy 563, pp. 1-69 : 28-31

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scientific name

Epeolus hanusiae

sp. nov.

Epeolus hanusiae sp. nov.


Figs 1E View Fig , 2C View Fig , 5G View Fig , 7F View Fig , 13 View Fig

Proposed common name

Anna’s epeolus.


The following morphological features in combination can be used to tell E. hanusiae sp. nov. apart from all other New World Epeolus except E. interruptus Robertson, 1900 : the metanotum has a blunt median process ( Fig. 13D View Fig ) and T1 has a wide triangular discal patch with concave anterolateral sides ( Fig. 13B View Fig ). Whereas in E. interruptus each mesopleuron has sparser punctures ventrolaterally (many i>1d) than in the upper half and the axillae and mesoscutellum are usually entirely ferruginous, in E. hanusiae sp. nov. each mesopleuron is densely punctate throughout (most i≤1d) ( Fig. 5G View Fig ) and the axillae and mesoscutellum are entirely black. Epeolus hanusiae sp. nov. is also similar to E. tessieris in that in both species the mesoscutum has short paramedian bands, the axillae do not attain the midlength of the mesoscutellum and T1–T4 have medially interrupted apical fasciae. However, in E. tessieris the axillae and mesoscutellum are entirely ferruginous, the metanotum is flat, each mesopleuron has sparser punctures ventrolaterally (many i>1d) than in the upper half and T1 has a trapezoidal to nearly semicircular discal patch.


The specific epithet honors the author’s sister, Hanusia (Anna) Onuferko, in gratitude for her support throughout this project. The noun is feminine and declined in the genitive case.

Material examined

Primary type material

MEXICO • ♀, holotype; Jalisco, El Tigre; 18 Jul. 1954; J.W. MacSwain leg.; EMEC 1135889 View Materials .

Secondary type material

MEXICO • 1 ♀, paratype; Chihuahua, Cuiteco ; 25 Jul. 1969; T.A. Sears, R.C. Gardner and C.S. Glaser leg.; UCBME 1 ♂, paratype; Chihuahua, Matachic ; 7 Jul. 1947; D. Rockefeller Exp., Michener leg.; AMNH 1 ♀, paratype; Durango, Navíos (26 mi E of El Salto); Aug. 1964; L.A. Kelton leg.; CNC 754077 View Materials 1 ♂, paratype; same collection data as for preceding; 2 Aug. 1964; L.A. Kelton leg.; CNC 754086 View Materials 1 ♂, allotype; same collection data as for holotype; EMEC 1135885 View Materials .

DNA barcoded material with BIN-compliant sequences




MEASUREMENTS. Length 8.4 mm; head length 2.1 mm; head width 3.0 mm; fore wing length 7.0 mm.

INTEGUMENT COLORATION. Mostly black; notable exceptions as follows: partially to entirely ferruginous on mandible, labrum, antenna, pronotal lobe, tegula, legs and pygidial plate. Mandible with apex darker than all but extreme base; preapical tooth lighter than mandibular apex. Antenna brown except scape and F1 extensively orange. Pronotal lobe and tegula pale ferruginous to amber. Wing membrane subhyaline, apically dusky. Legs more extensively reddish orange than brown or black.

PUBESCENCE. Face with tomentum densest around antennal socket. Tomentum slightly sparser on clypeus; upper paraocular and frontal areas and vertexal area mostly exposed. Dorsum of mesosoma and metasoma with bands of off-white and yellow short, appressed setae. Pronotal collar with tomentum uniformly yellow. Mesoscutum with paramedian band. Mesopleuron densely hairy, except for three sparsely hairy, circular patches (one below pronotal lobe, one behind pronotal lobe and a larger one occupying much of ventrolateral half of mesopleuron). Metanotum with tomentum uninterrupted, black laterally and pale yellow medially (uniformly pale yellow in allotype and multiple paratypes). T1 with discal patch very wide, basal and apical fasciae only narrowly joined laterally and in shape of rounded triangle with anterolateral sides concave. T1 with basal fascia interrupted medially, T1–T3 with apical fasciae interrupted medially and narrowed before becoming somewhat broader laterally, T2 fascia with anterolateral extensions of sparser tomentum. T4 with fascia narrowed medially. T5 with two large patches of pale tomentum lateral to and separate from pseudopygidial area, laterally with long, erect simple setae. T5 with pseudopygidial area lunate, its apex more than twice as wide as medial length, indicated by silvery setae on impressed disc of apicomedial region elevated from rest of tergum. S5 with apical fimbria of coppery to silvery hairs not extending beyond apex of sternum by much more than ¼ MOD.

SURFACE SCULPTURE. Punctures dense. Labrum with larger punctures than clypeus, but punctures of both equally dense (i≤1d). Small impunctate matte spot lateral to lateral ocellus. Mesoscutum, mesoscutellum and axilla coarsely and densely rugose-punctate. Tegula densely punctate mesally (i≤1d), less so laterally (i=1–2d). Mesopleuron with ventrolateral half densely punctate (i≤1d), interspaces shining; mesopleuron with punctures similar in size and more or less equally dense throughout. Metasomal terga with punctures very fine, dense (i≈1d), evenly distributed on disc.

STRUCTURE. Preapical tooth forming right-angled triangle. Labrum with pair of small subapical denticles, each preceded by small discrete longitudinal ridge. Frontal keel not strongly raised. Head dorsally with pair of weak protrusions, each located where upper genal area meets vertexal area. Vertexal area weakly convex in frontal view. Scape with greatest length 1.8 × greatest width. F2 noticeably longer than wide (L/W ratio = 1.4). Preoccipital ridge separated from hypostomal carina by about 1.5–2 MOD (difficult to see in holotype; described from paratype). Pronotal collar short (medial length ~½ MOD) and convex along anterior margin. Mesoscutellum moderately bigibbous. Axilla small to intermediate in size, its lateral margin less than half as long as mesoscutellar width (AL/MSCW ratio = 0.4) and tip not extending beyond midlength of mesoscutellum; axilla with tip distinctly pointed, but unattached to mesoscutellum for less than 2 ∕ 5 medial length of axilla; axilla with lateral margin relatively straight and without carina. Metanotum with blunt median process obscured by tomentum. Fore wing with three submarginal cells. Pygidial plate apically truncate.


Description as for female except for usual secondary sexual characters and as follows: F2 shorter, as long as wide (L/W ratio = 1.0); pygidial plate apically rounded, with larger and deeper punctures, closely punctate throughout; S4 and S5 with much longer (>1 MOD), curved, coppery to silvery subapical hairs.


Presently only known from western Mexico ( Fig. 7F View Fig ).


Host records


Floral records



Epeolus hanusiae sp. nov. and the very similar E. interruptus exhibit marked differences in mesosomal puncture density (see diagnosis). DNA barcode sequences are presently not available for E. hanusiae sp. nov., but the morphological difference is consistent, and the two forms are herein recognized as heterospecific. The ranges of the two species may overlap to some extent, but that of E. interruptus is much more extensive and includes most of the United States as well as southern Canada ( Onuferko 2018a: fig. 62), whereas E. hanusiae sp. nov. is currently only known from a few sites in western Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental ( Fig. 7F View Fig ). In males of both species, the penis has a pair of short, fleshy lateral lobes, which are absent altogether in species within the ‘ Trophocleptria group’ but more elongate in other New World Epeolus spp.


Essig Museum of Entomology


American Museum of Natural History


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes