Amanita tullossiana Mehmood, Iqbal Hosen, K. Das & R.P. Bhatt, sp. nov.
Hosen, Md. Iqbal, Mehmood, Tahir, Das, Kanad, Kudzma, Linas V. & Bhatt, R. P., 2018, Amanitatullossiana, a new species, and two new records of AmanitasectionLepidella from north-western Himalaya, India, MycoKeys 37, pp. 73-92: 73
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|Amanita tullossiana Mehmood, Iqbal Hosen, K. Das & R.P. Bhatt, sp. nov.|
INDIA, Uttarakhand, Rudhraparyag district, Baniyakund, at 2655 m a.s.l., 30° 28.998N, 79° 10.658E, 26 August 2014, T. Mehmood, TM 14-475 (RET 717-4, holotype; CAL 1611, isotype).
Distinct from all the known species of Amanita stirps Cinereoconia by the combination of the following characters: medium-sized to large basidiomata (pileus 90-170 mm wide, stipe 150-185 × 20-25 mm); brownish-grey to dark grey pileus covered with floccose to subfelted, pulverulent patches of universal veil remnants; broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores measuring (8.5 –)9–13(– 13.5) × (5.8 –)6–8(– 8.5) µm.
Basidiomata medium-sized to large. Pileus 90-170 mm wide, initially hemispherical then convex to plano-convex and finally planar, shiny, slightly viscid when moist, ash grey (1B2), pastel grey (1C1), grey (4B1-4C1), brownish-grey, brownish-beige (6F2-3) to dark grey (1F1), slightly darker at centre; context 11-14 mm thick above stipe, white (1A1), thinning evenly toward margin, unchanging when cut or bruised. Universal veil on pileus as floccose to subfelted pulverulent patches, dark grey (1F1) to brownish-grey (6F2), greyish-black to dark grey (1F1), soft, up to 4 mm thick, 7-12 mm wide, irregularly distributed. Lamellae 6-10 mm broad, free to narrowly adnate, crowded, white (1A1), unchanging when injured; lamellulae, plentiful of several lengths, attenuate, truncate, with 8-9 lamellae per cm at margin. Stipe 150-185 × 20-25 mm (excluding bulb), attenuate upwards, upper part covered by dark grey (1F1) fibrils, lower part covered with recurved scales, with fibrils turn blackish when handled; context solid, white, unchanging on cutting or bruising. Partial veil superior, soft, cottony, white, easily collapsed or detachable. Bulb 70-88 × 25-41 mm, napiform to rooting, covered with brownish-grey (6F2) to dark grey (1F1) universal veil remnants, often upper part covered with grey (4B1) to dark grey (1F1) recurving scales. Odour indistinct, taste not observed. Spore deposit white.
Basidiospores [300/15/10] (8.5 –)9–13(– 13.5) × (5.8 –)6–8(– 8.5) µm, [L = 9.5-11 µm, L' = 10.54 µm; W = 6-7.5 µm, W' = 6.83 µm; Q = (1.29 –)1.40–1.66(– 1.83), Q = 1.38-1.59, Q' = 1.54], broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, hyaline, thin-walled, smooth, amyloid; contents monoguttulate; apiculus lateral to sublateral, up to 1 µm long. Basidia 45 –55(– 65) × 9-14 µm, 2 to 4-spored, thin-walled; sterigmata up to 4 µm long; basal clamp connections absent. Lamellar edge tissue sterile, mainly composed of inflated globose to subglobose cells 20-35 × 15-25 µm and clavate to subclavate cells 40-50 × 15-18 µm. Subhymenium 40-50 μm thick, with 3-4 layers of inflated cells, wst-near = 35-50 μm, wst-far= 50-70 μm, basidia arising from small inflated cells 8-15 × 6-10 μm wide. Hymenophoral trama bilateral, divergent; wcs= 60-80 μm; well rehydrated, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3-8 μm wide; with lateral stratum composed of intercalary inflated cells 66-110 × 12-19 μm wide; vascular hyphae 9-14 μm. Pileipellis 140-195 μm thick, in two layers, with gelatinised colourless suprapellis (45-55 μm) thick, filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae subradially arranged; subpellis (95-140 μm) thick; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2-6 μm wide, densely arranged in subpellis, with yellowish-brown intracellular pigment; vascular hyphae 7-10 μm wide, infrequent. Pileus context filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2-6 μm wide, thin-walled, hyaline, interwoven; broadly clavate to ellipsoid cells 86-130 × 26-45 μm, thin-walled, hyaline. Universal veil on pileus disordered; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2-6 μm wide, branched, thin-walled, infrequent to scattered, with pale yellow vacuolar pigments; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 25-88 × 22-70 µm, infrequent broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid or pyriform 40-60 × 10-13 μm, often in chains of 2-3, with brownish to pale yellow vacuolar pigments; vascular hyphae 6-12 μm wide, frequent. Universal veil on stipe base disordered; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 2-5 μm wide, branched, thin-walled, scattered, with pale yellow vacuolar pigments; inflated cells dominantly globose to subglobose 30-70 × 25-65 µm, infrequent broadly ellipsoid to elongated cells 30-90 × 12-18 μm, with brownish to pale yellow vacuolar pigments; vascular hyphae 10-14 μm wide, often present. Partial veil abundant inflated cells broadly clavate to clavate 50-120 × 16- 29 µm, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline, sometimes with yellowish-brown vacuolar pigments; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 3-7 µm wide, dominant, thin walled, hyaline, colourless or sometimes with yellowish-brown pigments; vascular hyphae 4-8 μm wide. Stipe context longitudinally acrophysalidic; filamentous, undifferentiated hyphae 5-7 µm wide; acrophysalides 150-230 × 35-56 µm, thin-walled, colourless, hyaline, vascular hyphae not found. Clamp connections not observed in any tissues.
Macrochemical tests on fresh basidiomata.
5% KOH - negative on pileus, 2% phenol - negative and FeSO4 crystals - negative on pileus and in stipe context.
Habitat and distribution.
Additional specimens examined.
INDIA, Uttarakhand, Rudraparyag district, Baniyakund, 26 August 2014, T. Mehmood, TM 14-486 (GUH-M-27001); same location, 14 July 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-624 (GUH-M-27002); same location, 1 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-786 (GUH-M-27003); same location, 2 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-815 (GUH-M-27004); same location, 8 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-891 (GUH-M-27005); same location, 30 August 2015, T. Mehmood, TM 15-1017 (GUH-M-27006); same location, 22 July 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1123 (GUH-M-27007); same location, 26 August 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1369 (GUH-M-27008); Nainital district, Mukteshwar 24 August 2016, T. Mehmood, TM 16-1338 (GUH-M-27009).
The grey to brownish-grey universal veil, the absence of clamp connections, disordered inflated cells intermixed with scattered filamentous hyphae, together with broadly ellipsoid to cylindrical basidiospores are the key features of sect. Lepidella stirps Cinereoconia ( Bas 1969). Based on the Bas’ key, the new taxon could be placed in Amanita [sect. Lepidella subsect. Solitariae ] stirps Cinereoconia .
In stirps Cinereoconia , A. griseofarinosa Hongo, A. lutescens Hongo, A. pelioma Bas, A. odorata Beeli, A. vestita Corner & Bas, A. griseovelata D.A. Reid, A. pallidoflavescens Dav. T. Jenkins and A. viridissima Wartchow are all species that should be compared to the morphology of the present taxon. Amanita griseofarinosa , originally described from Japan, has a pale yellowish-grey pileus covered with dark coloured, farinose to tomentose universal veil remnants; and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores 8.5-10 × 7-9 μm, with a lower Q' value = 1.2 ( Bas 1969) than the basidiospores of the present taxon. Amanita lutescens , originally described from Japan, differs from A. tullossiana by its small to medium-sized basidiomata 35-60 mm broad, context turning yellowish when cut or bruised and relatively smaller basidiospores 8 –10(– 10.5) × 5.5-6.5 μm ( Bas 1969). Amanita pelioma , originally described from the USA, has a greyish-olive to pale brownish pileus, distinctive brown gills, a volva that bruises a distinctive blue-green and ellipsoid to elongate basidiospores 10-12.5 × 6.5-8 µm, with a higher Q' value = 1.65 ( Bas 1969) than in the new species. Amanita odorata , originally described from the Democratic Republic of Congo, has a greyish olivaceous brown pileus, pinkish-white lamellae and elongate to cylindric basidiospores 9.5-13 × 4.5-5.5 µm, with a Q value ranges = 1.55-2.05 ( Bas 1969). Amanita vestita , originally described from Singapore, has a pale greyish-white pileus covered with small micaceous umber particles, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid basidiospores 7.5-9 × 5.5-6.5 µm, with a Q value ranges = 1.3-1.35 ( Bas 1969) lower than in the new taxon. Amanita griseovelata , originally described from Victoria, Australia, has a slate-grey pileus covered pale grey, felty-pruinose universal veil remnants and subglobose to broadly ellipsoid basidiospores 7 –10(– 11.5) × 6.8-8.5 μm ( Reid 1980). Amanita pallidoflavescens , originally described from the USA, has a white to silvery white pileus and bears elongate to cylindric basidiospores 8.6-10.2 × 4.7-5.5 µm (Jenkins 1980). Amanita viridissima , originally described from Brazil, has a green pileus and stipe, pale lamellae and elongate to cylindric basidiospores 9.8-13 × 5.7-8.3 µm, with a higher Q' value =1.82 ( Wartchow 2016).
Amanita cinereopannosa , A. cinereoconia and A. griseoverrucosa are the phylogenetically closely related species to the new species (Fig. 1). However, all of them are distinguished morphologically. Amanita cinereopannosa , originally described from USA, has a white to silvery sheen pileus covered with subfelted to subpyramidal warts, abundant filamentous hyphae and ellipsoid to elongated basidiospores (8 –)8.8–10(– 14.1) × (4.9 –)5–6.7(– 8.3) µm ( Tulloss and Yang 2018). Furthermore, this species is considered endemic to eastern North America and has not been recorded in other parts of the world ( Davison et al. 2013). Bas (1969) clearly held A. cinereopannosa to be distinct from the species of stirps Cinereoconia because he placed it in his stirps Strobiliformis . Amanita cinereoconia , originally described from the USA, has a white to greyish pileus covered with grey, pulverulent to small warted universal veil remnants and bears elongate to cylindric basidiospores 7.8-10.9 × 4.7-6.2 µm, with a Q value = 1.72 ( Jenkins 1986). In addition, A. cinereoconia has a peculiar smell like "chloride of lime" [meaning the smell of an outdoor pit toilet into which CaCl2 has been added; hence, an odour of decaying protein] or faintly of “chlorine” ( Bas 1969; Jenkins 1986). Bas proposed a variety croceescens of A. cinereoconia ; however, Tulloss had the opportunity to observe the transition of a single specimen from the "type variety" to "var. croceescens" and attributed the yellow colouration to the Amanita "yellowing syndrome" (Tulloss, pers. comm.). Amanita griseoverrucosa , originally described from China and reported here from India (see below), has a dirty white to greyish pileus, verrucose to conical universal remnants, a white to greyish-white stipe, a ventricose to clavate bulb and relatively smaller spores measuring 8-11 × 5.5-7 μm ( Yang 2004) in comparison to A. tullossiana 9-13 × 6-8 μm.
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