Stephanotheca monoecensis ( Calvet, 1927 )

Reverter-Gil, Oscar, Souto, Javier & Fernández-Pulpeiro, Eugenio, 2012, A new genus of Lanceoporidae (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata), Zootaxa 3339, pp. 1-29: 19-22

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Stephanotheca monoecensis ( Calvet, 1927 )

n. comb.

Stephanotheca monoecensis ( Calvet, 1927)  n. comb.

( Figs 5, 8View FIGURES 1 – 8, 40–49View FIGURES 40 – 44View FIGURES 45 – 49; Table 6)

Schizoporella ambita  var. monoecensis Calvet, 1927: 503  , fig. 3.

Schizomavella monoecensis (Calvet)  : Gautier 1962: 145; Zabala 1986: 477, figs. 163, 164 b; Zabala & Maluquer 1988: 132, fig. 298.

Schizomavella ochracea (Hincks)  : Hayward & Ryland 1999, fig. 132 B.

Not Schizomavella monoecensis (Calvet)  : Poluzzi & Rosso 1988: 91, pl. 4, fig. 3.

Material examined. Lectotype (designated here): MOMAbout MOM 42-1421: St. 140, Cap d’Ail, 30–40 m; Coll. Calvet. Paralectotypes (designated here): MOMAbout MOM 42-1515: St. I, environs de Monaco; Coll. Calvet; MOMAbout MOM 42-1276: St. 60, near Cap Martin, 50–60 m; Coll. Calvet; MNHNAbout MNHN 5946: Cap d’Ail, 30–40 m; Coll. Calvet. Other Material Examined: MNHNAbout MNHN 2356 (part: two small colonies): Bonifacio Travailleur, 1881, D. 24 (2 ª ser.) 55– 77 m. Coll. Calvet; MNHNAbout MNHN 2378: Nice. Travailleur, 11 / 7 / 1881, 49 m. Coll. Jullien; MNHNAbout MNHN 2383: Marseille, Coll. Jullien; MNHNAbout MNHN 4103: no other data, Coll. Calvet; MNHNAbout MNHN 11143, MNHNAbout MNHN 11151, MNHNAbout MNHN 11153, MNHNAbout MNHN 11192, MNHNAbout MNHN 11216 (part): Marseille, Coll. Gautier; MNHNAbout MNHN 11190: Villefranche, Coll. Gautier; NHMUKAbout NHMUK 1888.11.9.29: Capri (figured by Hayward & Ryland, 1999, fig. 132 B).

Description. Colony forming broad irregular crusts, multilaminar, often large, orange. Autozooids in regular series in basal layer, losing orientation in successive layers. Rectangular to irregularly shaped in successive layers, separated by fine raised sutures. Frontal shield flat, covered by small rounded nodules, those near the orifice forming a weak proximolateral peristomial ridge. Frontal shield evenly perforated by small, circular pseudopores; marginal pores elongate and more conspicuous in older zooids. Uniporous septula. Primary orifice with the same characters as S. ochracea  but larger. Large central avicularium, semielliptical to rounded-rectangular or subtriangular, in almost every zooid; placed in a central depression; crossbar complete, oval palatal foramen; mandible proximally directed. Gigantic avicularia lacking. Ovicell globular, frontally flattened, subimmersed. A wide, flat, circular area of ectooecium with rounded, elongate or irregular pseudopores, these larger at the periphery; secondary calcification of distal zooid forming a crown of prominent conical nodules encircling the exposed ectooecial area, frequently interrupted just over the orifice, showing a fine longitudinal suture; ovicell can also become covered by secondary calcification encroaching from adjacent zooids. Primary orifice of ovicellate zooids dimorphic, wider than orifice in non-ovicellate zooids and with smaller sinus; concealed by the concave proximal margin of the ovicell that extends to the proximolateral corners of the orifice; ovicell cleithral. Ancestrula unknown.

SD, Standard deviation; N, number of measurements.

Remarks. Stephanotheca monoecensis  was described by Calvet (1927) as a variety of Schizoporella ambita  (= S. watersi  ), from material collected off Monaco. The original label has ‘ var. monaecensis  ’, which would be the logical name; however, when published, it appeared as monoecensis  , which is therefore the valid spelling. Later, Gautier (1962) raised the variety to species level, placing it in the genus Schizomavella  . This author also added new data characterizing the species, but considered that its orifice is similar to S. rudis  (= S. watersi  ) and could instead be a variety of this species. We have revised Calvet’s (1927) original material held in MOMAbout MOM and MNHNAbout MNHN and have chosen a lectotype and paralectotypes. SEM proves that the primary orifice of S. monoecensis  and S. watersi  are actually very different. In contrast, the primary orifice of the type material of S. monoecensis  is similar that observed in the type material of S. ochracea  , except for its larger size. However, the position, shape and size of the suboral avicularium are different in both species. In the holotype of S. ochracea  it is small, oval to lanceolate and placed near the orifice, and is sometimes substituted by a gigantic avicularium; in the type material of S. monoecensis  it is larger, subrectangular, placed in a depression in the centre of the zooid, and never gigantic. However, the shape of the avicularium in this species seems to vary considerably, from that exhibited in the types to others that are subtriangular, rounded or even oval. In a photograph of material collected in the area of Marseille ( Fig. 47View FIGURES 45 – 49), sent to us by J.-G. Harmelin, two avicularia of a noticeably different size in two contiguous zooids can be seen, one of them being closer to the type of monoecensis  and another more similar to the type of ochracea  . Also, in the record by Zabala (1986) the avicularia are noticeably smaller than in the type material. Finally, in the material illustrated in the Synopsis of the British Fauna ( Hayward & Ryland 1999), actually from Capri (P.J. Hayward, pers. comm.), the avicularium is smaller and oval. Ovicell characters are equivocal. The holotype of S. ochracea  has only one ovicell, globular and prominent, while in the material cited by López de la Cuadra (1991) the ovicell is rather immersed. Similar variation also appears in different material of S. monoecensis  . Finally, zooids and primary orifices are clearly larger in S. monoecensis  .

Stephanotheca barrosoi  , a species also exhibiting multilaminar colonies, differs from S. monoecensis  in its oval primary orifice, the small avicularium close to the orifice, and the sporadic presence of vicarious avicularia.

TABLE 6. Measurements (in mm) of Stephanotheca monoecensis (Calvet, 1927) n. comb. (lectotype and three other colonies).

  Mean SD Minimum Maximum N
Autozooid length 0.577 0.0549 0.454 0.694 40
Autozooid width 0.434 0.0535 0.325 0.569 40
Orifice length 0.141 0.0088 0.122 0.156 40
Orifice width 0.138 0.0072 0.125 0.152 40
Adventitious avicularium length 0.141 0.0124 0.119 0.182 40
Adventitious avicularium width 0.116 0.0141 0.084 0.143 40
Ovicell length 0.307 0.0180 0.277 0.325 8
Ovicell width 0.385 0.0167 0.366 0.411 8
Ovicell orifice length 0.140 0.0021 0.138 0.142 4
Ovicell orifice width 0.164 0.0042 0.161 0.169 4
Pseudorous area length 0.200 0.0359 0.150 0.245 8
Pseudorous area width 0.246 0.0186 0.219 0.277 8

Musee Oceanographique Monaco


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Natural History Museum, London














Stephanotheca monoecensis ( Calvet, 1927 )

Reverter-Gil, Oscar, Souto, Javier & Fernández-Pulpeiro, Eugenio 2012


Schizomavella monoecensis

Poluzzi 1988: 91


Schizomavella monoecensis

Zabala 1988: 132
Zabala 1986: 477
Gautier 1962: 145


Schizoporella ambita

Calvet 1927: 503