Aguapanela Perafán & Cifuentes

Perafán, Carlos, Cifuentes, Yeimy & Estrada-Gomez, Sebastián, 2015, Aguapanela, a new tarantula genus from the Colombian Andes (Araneae, Theraphosidae), Zootaxa 4033 (4), pp. 529-542 : 530-534

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Aguapanela Perafán & Cifuentes


Aguapanela Perafán & Cifuentes gen. nov.

Type species: Aguapanela arvi Perafán, Cifuentes & Estrada sp. nov.

Etymology. Aguapanela is a noun taken in apposition and refers to a non-alcoholic drink, traditionally from the northern Andes of South America, mostly popular in Colombia. Aguapanela literally means "panela water" that refers to a sweet tea-type drink made from evaporated sugarcane pulp.

Diagnosis. Aguapanela gen. nov. differs from other theraphosid genera by the combined presence of plumose stridulatory setae on the coxae, trochanters and femora of legs I and II ( Figs 1–12 View FIGURES 1 – 6 View FIGURES 7 – 12 ), and types III and IV urticating setae and also by the reduced number of labial cuspules ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 13 – 16 ), the scopula is wide and divided only on tarsal IV, and scopula are absent on metatarsus IV. Males differ from those of other Theraphosinae by lacking a tibial apophysis on leg I ( Figs 21–22 View FIGURES 17 – 27 ) and having a palpal bulb with the subtegulum less extended than usual in Theraphosinae , an elongated curved embolus, ventrally concave, with two prolateral keels (PI and PS) very flat and developed on the dorsal edge ( Figs 17 –20, 24– 25 View FIGURES 17 – 27 ). PI sub-apically truncated ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 17 – 27 ). Females differ from those of other Theraphosinae by having spermathecae with two digitiform elongated and granulated seminal receptacles, distally wide and rounded, attached to a semicircular wide membranous base ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 13 – 16 ).

Composition. Known only from its type species, Aguapanela arvi sp. nov.

Affinities. (See Table 1 View TABLE 1 ) Based on a phylogenetic hypothesis of Theraphosinae by Pérez-Miles et al. (1996), Perafán (2010) and Bertani & Guadanucci (2013), types I and IV urticating setae are synapomorphies for two distinct groups within the subfamily, with some reversions/homoplasies. The presence of type IV urticating setae on Aguapanela gen. nov. indicates a relationship with the basal group of Theraphosinae ( Pérez-Miles et al. 1996; Perafán 2010), which is composed by Bumba Pérez-Miles, Bonaldo & Miglio 2014 , Cyriocosmus Simon 1903 , Euathlus Ausserer 1875 , Grammostola Simon 1982 , Homoeomma Ausserer 1871 , Kochiana Fukushima, Nagahama & Bertani 2008 , Magulla Simon 1892 , Phrixotrichus Simon 1889 , Melloleitaoina Gerschman & Schiapelli 1960 , Plesiopelma Pocock 1901 , Thrixopelma Schmidt 1994 and Tmesiphantes Simon 1892 . Concurrently, those characters also suggest a relationship with the recently described genera Agnostopelma Pérez- Miles & Weinmann 2010 and Munduruku Miglio, Bonaldo & Pérez-Miles 2013 .

The male palpal bulb of Aguapanela gen. nov. is similar to that in one of the internal clades of the basal group of Theraphosinae proposed by Perafán (2010), including Bumba , Phrixotrichus and Euathlus ; untwisted embolus with a curvature forming a ventral concavity and prolateral keels developed on the dorsal edge of the embolus. Aguapanela gen. nov. could be placed within this clade. In contrast, the other internal clade, along with Agnostopelma and Munduruku , has an embolus straight or with a hard or soft twist on its axis, which generates a dorsal concavity and prolateral keels developed on prolateral side and ventral edge.

Characters Genera Untwisted embolus, with ventral concavity X O X O X O O O and PK on dorsal edge

Underdeveloped prolateral keels X X O O ( E. truculentus ) X O O O Males without tibial apophysis X X O O O O O O Spermathecae with fused receptacles at base X X O O O O O O Female with normal tarsus X (very short) O X X X X X X Spermathecae with fused receptacles at base O O O O O O O O Female with normal tarsus (very short) O X X X X X X X

Another distinctive character shared with some genera of the basal group of Theraphosinae is the reduced number of labial cuspules, present in Agnostopelma , Bumba , Magulla , Melloleitaoina , Phrixotrichus , Tmesiphantes and some Euathlus species.

The absence of a male tibial apophysis, underdeveloped prolateral keels and the general morphology of the spermathecae, with two divergent digitiform receptacles, is reminiscent of Agnostopelma . However, it differs by the presence of scopula on tarsus IV (absent in Agnostopelma ), stridulatory setae on legs I and II, the general morphology of the male palpal bulb, female with normal tarsal (very short in Agnostopelma ), and spermathecae with seminal receptacles attached to a semicircular wide membranous base.

Description. See description of the type species.

Distribution. Central Cordillera of the Colombian Andes, Antioquia Department, Medellin (Corregimientos San Cristobal and Santa Elena) and Caldas cities, between 2100 and 2400 masl ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 28 – 29. 28 ).

TABLE 1. Comparison of diagnostic characters from Aguapanela gen. nov. with the morphologically related genera. x = character present; o = absent.

  Aguapanela Agnostopelma Bumba Cyriocosmus Euathlus Grammostola Homoeomma Kochiana
- Urticating setae type IV - Urticating setae type III - Plumose stridulatory setae on forelegs X X X X X O X X O X X O X X O X X O X X O X X O
- Reduced number of labial cuspules - Scopulae on tarsus IV X X X O X X O X (some) X X O X O X O X