Xylocopa (Schonnherria) viridis Smith, 1854,

Villamizar, Germán, Fernández, Fernando & Vivallo, Felipe, 2020, Synopsis of the carpenter bee subgenus Xylocopa (Schonnherria) Lepeletier, 1841 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Colombia, with designation of lectotypes and the description of two new species, Zootaxa 4789 (2), pp. 301-347: 331-334

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4789.2.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:6A579FAE-47CB-46FF-9A36-DD1C59DC0DBD

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/242487D0-FFA1-5206-FF6E-FA0AFC49CD17

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Xylocopa (Schonnherria) viridis Smith, 1854
status

 

Xylocopa (Schonnherria) viridis Smith, 1854 

( Figures 63–70View FIGURES 63–66View FIGURES 67–70, 75, 76View FIGURES 71–76, 79View FIGURE 79)

Xylocopa viridis Smith, 1854: 360  .

Note. A complete morphological description of both sex of this species can be found in Lucia et al. (2015). Here are indicated only some diagnostic features for the recognition of this species.

Diagnosis. Females can be recognized by the following combination of characters ( Figs. 63–66View FIGURES 63–66): small body size (body length 14.8–16.7 mm); integument black to dark brown with strong green and bluish highlights mainly on mesoscutum, mesoscutellum and metasomal terga; tegula reddish brown; hyaline brown wings with weak golden iridescence; vertex with coarse and dense punctures (1–3x puncture width), sparser on upper gena; clypeus with the upper margins of epistomal suture weakly differentiate in edges; labrum with three basal protuberances, slightly longer the middle tubercle; pubescence predominantly whitish except yellowish on dorsum of mesosoma and T1, and ferruginous on labrum, ventral surface of basitarsi and apex of T6; mesoscutellum with coarse and sparse circular punctures (3–6x puncture width), denser on posterior half, and with scattered plumose hairs on disc; metasoma imbricate (0.5–1x puncture width), sparser medially on terga and on anterior half of sterna; metasomal terga with dense, semi erected, short, simple hairs on disc (0.3–0.5x OD) and tomentose, plumose hairs on laterodistal mar- gins of T2–T5. Males can be recognized by the following combination of characters ( Figs. 67–70View FIGURES 67–70): compound eyes enlarged, slightly convergent dorsally (4.2–4.6x OD); clypeus, labrum, supraclypeal and paraocular area, anterior surfaces of F1–F3 and mandible yellowish pale; tegula reddish brown; greenish and bluish highlights mainly on mesoscutum, mesoscutellum and metasomal terga; pubescence predominantly yellowish to whitish; metasomal terga with coarse, dense, circular to elliptical punctures (1–2x puncture width). Male genitalia as in Figs. 75 and 76View FIGURES 71–76. The female of this species is closely related to X. anthophoroides  (species recorded for Colombia by Smith-Pardo, 2003 and Brazil by Moure, 2012) and X. subvirescens Cresson, 1879  (species recorded in Costa Rica, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama). Nonetheless, X. viridis  has tomentose, plumose hairs restricted to laterodistal margins of T2–T5, while X. anthophoroides  and X. subvirescens  have tomentose, plumose and simple hairs across the distal margins of T1–T5.

Floral records. Unknown.

Type material. Smith (1854) did not specify the number of specimens he used to describe this species. A single male specimen collected in Pará, Brazil, housed in the NHMUK and cited by Moure (2012) and Lucia et al. (2015) as holotype, is here recognized as part of the type series and subsequently designated as the lectotype following the recommendation 73F and article 74.7of the ICZN (1999). The specimen has the following data label: Type [circular label with red border]\ Bras Tapajos[circular label,Smith’s handwriting, obverse] 53 27 [Smith’s handwriting, reverse]\ B. M. TYPE HYM [printed] 17B. 186. [handwriting]\ Xylocopa viridis  TYPE Smith [handwriting]\ viridis  Type. Sm [Smith’s handwriting] ( NHMUK). The lectotype is coded NHMUK 014022426 in the NHMUK data portal.

Type locality. BRAZIL: Pará: Rio Tapajós.

Distribution in Colombia ( Fig. 79View FIGURE 79). Antioquia: Mutatá, Porce. Boyacá: Puerto Boyacá. Cundinamarca: La Mesa, Puerto Salgar. Huila: Palestina. Meta: Puerto López, Cumaral. Risaralda: Mistrató. Valle del Cauca: Buga.

Material examined (n= 22♀, 10♂) COLOMBIA: Antioquia  : 2 females: Mutatá , N7°14’38”, W76°26′8”, 170 m, Sep-1972, RGoogleMaps  . Vélez , 3595–2, 3595–3 ( MEFLG)  ; 2 males: Porce, Fosforito P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 11-Jul-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31353, 31356 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: Porce, La Calandria , N 7° 26’, W74°54′, 940 m, 31-Oct-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31355 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Porce, Fosforito P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 11-Jul- 1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31345 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: Porce, Cancana R  . B, N7°26’, W74°54′, 940 m, 26-Sep-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31357 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Porce, Fosforito , N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 11-Jul-1997, M. Delgado, Z. Gil ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: Porce, Santa Lucía P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 940 m, 24-Apr-1997, A. Smith-Pardo ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 2 females: Porce, Fosforito P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 24-Sep-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31349, 31351 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Porce, Santa Lucía. P, N7°26’, W74°54′, 940 m, 16-Sep-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31344 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 3 females: Porce, Fosforito P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 26-Aug-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31346, 31348, 31352 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Porce, Santa Lucía R  . B, N7°26’, W74°54′, 940 m, 11-Jun-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31347 ( MEFLG); 1, female: Porce, Cancana RGoogleMaps  . B, N7°26’, W74°54′, 940 m, 14-Aug-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31350 ( MEFLG); 1, male: Porce, Fosforito P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 28-Aug-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31358 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: Porce, Fosforito P., N7°26’, W74°54′, 945 m, 29-Oct-1997, A. Smith-Pardo, 31354 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  . Boyacá: 1 female: Puerto Boyacá, Campamento Technit , N6°0’, W74°25′, 320 m, 24-Apr-1997, VGoogleMaps  . H. González , LABUN006375, 12357  , VHG015 ( LABUN); 1, female: Puerto Boyacá, Puerto Romero , N5°50’15”, W74°20′27”, 320 m, 19-Apr-1977, VGoogleMaps  . H. González , LABUN007365, 12358 ( LABUN)  . 1 female: Puerto Boyacá , N6°0’, W74°25′, 320 m, 04-Nov-2003, A. Díaz, Captura Jama, Al vuelo, CE5146, 4313 UNAB ( UNAB)GoogleMaps  . Cundinamarca: 1 female: La Mesa , N4°40’0”, W74°30′0”, 888 m, Feb-1940, F.L. Gallego, 3595-4 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Puerto Salgar , N5°30’, W74°35′, 497 m, 01-Apr-1983, G. Nates, LABUN006378 ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  ; Huila: 1 male: Palestina, Vereda Santa Bárbara, Finca Lourdes , N3°21’15”, W74°46′4”, 1619 m, 21-Sep-2005, A. Parra, LABUN007563, 18450 ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Palestina, Vereda Santa Bárbara, Finca Lourdes , N3°21’15”, W74°46′4”, 1619 m, 21-Sep-2005, A. Parra, LABUN007562, 18449 ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  . Meta: 1 female: Puerto López, Remolinos, Cafam Llanos , N4°6’, W73°8′, 250 m, 30-Mar- 1996, MPUJ _ ENT 0046825 ( MPUJ)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Cumaral, Caney Medio , N4°15’, W73°20′, 300 m, 16-Sep-1977, A. Liévano, LABUN006364, 8948 ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Cumaral, Caney Medio , N4°15’, W73°20′, 900 m, 19-Sep- 1977, A. Villa, LABUN006382, 3457 ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  . Risaralda: 1 female: Mistrató, Puerto de Oro, Río de Oro Totumo , N5°28’, W76°01′, 900 m, 29-Sep-1991, F. Fernández ( ICN)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Puerto de Oro, Puente Rio Totumo , N 5°28’, W76°01′, 900 m, 23-Aug-1991, F. Fernandez, SEMC1233003View MaterialsGoogleMaps  , GBIFid894567755 ( SEMC). Valle del Cauca: 1 male: Buga , N3°54’3”, W76°17′52”, 757 m, Feb-1981, 3401–3 ( MEFLG). Without informationGoogleMaps  : 1 male: 3595–1 ( MEFLG)  .

Comments. This species also shares with the female of X. anthophoroides  and X. subvirescens  the similar body length, the dense punctation on vertex and metasoma, and the tomentose plumose hairs on laterodistal margins of T2–T5. Unfortunately, we did not study additional material to make a clearer distinction of the aforementioned species, only differences are stated from type specimens.

The syntype female of X. anthophoroides  housed at NHMUK differs by the black integument without evident highlights, the ferruginous pubescence on vertex and dorsal surface of mesosoma and the dense, simple and plumose hairs across the distal margins of T2–T5, scattered on T2 and T3 medially, and more abundant on T4 and T5. The holotype of Xylocopa pervirescens Cockerell, 1931  (junior synonym of X. subvirescens  ) deposited in MCZ differs by the integument dark brown to black with slightly bluish highlights on head, being green on mesosoma and metasoma, and the dense simple and plumose hairs across the apical margins of T2–T5.

Additionally, some Colombian specimens of X. viridis  from the departments of Huila and Meta vary with respect to the lectotype here designated by having the highlights predominantly blue and the hairs of the dorsal surface of mesosoma and T1 yellowish to ferrugineous. This species is widely distributed (from Mexico to Argentina) and according to Lucia et al. (2015), it appears to be composed by multiple species due to the intraspecific variations and their similarity with other species such as those previously mentioned  .

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

MEFLG

Museo Entomologico Francisco Luis Gallego

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

UNAB

Universidad Nacional, Facultad de Agronomia

ICN

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural

SEMC

University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa

Loc

Xylocopa (Schonnherria) viridis Smith, 1854

Villamizar, Germán, Fernández, Fernando & Vivallo, Felipe 2020
2020
Loc

Xylocopa viridis

Smith, F. 1854: 360