Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ecuadorica Cockerell, 1909

Villamizar, Germán, Fernández, Fernando & Vivallo, Felipe, 2020, Synopsis of the carpenter bee subgenus Xylocopa (Schonnherria) Lepeletier, 1841 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Colombia, with designation of lectotypes and the description of two new species, Zootaxa 4789 (2), pp. 301-347: 310-313

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4789.2.1

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scientific name

Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ecuadorica Cockerell, 1909
status

 

Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ecuadorica Cockerell, 1909 

( Figures 19–26View FIGURES 19–22View FIGURES 23–26, 71, 72View FIGURES 71–76, 77View FIGURE 77)

Xylocopa varians ecuadorica Cockerell, 1909: 403  .

Xylocopa trautmanni Dusmet-Alonso, 1924: 55  . (Synonymized by Hurd & Moure, 1963).

Xylocopa varians rufotegularis Michener, 1954: 157  . (Synonymized by Hurd, 1959).

Diagnosis. Females can be recognized by the following combination of characters: small body size (body length 15–16.5 mm); integument brown to black with blue and violet highlights on head, bluish on mesosoma and greenish on metasoma; pale hairs on dorsal surface of hind tibia basally, dorsal surface of mid and hind basitarsus and sides of T1–T5; pale, tomentose, plumose hairs on laterodistal margins of T2–T5; terga with coarse, dense, circular punctures and short, black, simple hairs on disc. Males can be recognized by the following combination of characters: compound eyes enlarged, slightly convergent dorsally (3.4–3.6x OD); paraocular and supraclypeal area, clypeus, labrum, dorsal surfaces of F1–F3 and mandible with yellowish pale coloration; distinct bluish and greenish metallic highlights mainly on vertex, mesoscutellum and metasomal terga; pubescence mostly yellowish pale on mesosoma and black on metasoma. The female of this species is very similar to X. varians  (recorded for Colombia but not found, see comments below). However, X. ecuadorica  differs by the less robust body size (mesosoma width 5.4–6 mm; metasoma width 6.5–7 mm), the tegula dark brown and the pubescence ferruginous to black predominantly on mesosoma and T1 (robust body size (mesosoma width ~ 7mm; metasoma width ~ 8mm), tegula reddish brown and whitish pubescence on mesepisternum, propodeum and T 1 in X. varians  ). By the pale hairs on laterodistal margins of T2–T5 and the greenish highlights on metasoma, X. ecuadorica  is similar to X. viridis  but the female and male of the former species have legs with mostly black hairs except on dorsal surface of mid and hind basitarsus and hind tibia (legs with yellowish hairs in X. viridis  ).

Morphology. Female ( Figs. 19–22View FIGURES 19–22). Measurements (mm): Approximate body length: 15–16.5; head width: 4.8–5.5; mesosoma width: 5.4–6; metasoma width: 6.5–7; forewing length: 12.3–12.9. Coloration: Integument brown to black with distinct blue and violet highlights on head, mainly on vertex, bluish on mesosoma and greenish on metasoma. Tegula dark brown without highlights. Wings hyaline with weak gold iridescence. Pubescence: Predominantly black except ferruginous on labrum, ventral surface of basitarsi basally, and apex of T6; yellowish pale on basal dorsal surface of hind tibia, dorsal surface of mid and hind basitarsus, laterodistal margins of T2–T5 and lateral sides of T2–T5 and S2–S5; paraocular area, gena and mesosoma with whitish and black hairs inter-mixed giving a grayish appearance. Vertex with scattered plumose hairs; paraocular area with dense, simple and plumose hairs inter-mixed with similar length than those on vertex (0.8–1.3x OD); long simple hairs on lower half of clypeus and gena (1.5–4x OD). Mesosoma with sparse, simple and plumose hairs of medium length (1.5–3x OD), denser near tegula and sparser or nearly glabrous on mesoscutal disc and anterior half of mesoscutellum. Metasoma with long simple hairs on lateral sides (2–5x OD), longer and denser progressively towards the apex; short, semi erect, simple hairs (0.5–1.2x OD) on discs of T1–T4; laterodistal margins of T2–T5 with tomentose, plumose hairs; T5 with simple hairs longer than those on anterior terga (1.2–2x OD); sterna with long, simple hairs distally (1–1.5x OD). Surface sculpture: Head with coarse and uniform punctures (1–2x puncture width), denser on paraocular area and clypeus and scattered on gena; impunctate areas near ocellus and smooth on upper margin of clypeus as a “T” shape and basal margin. Mesoscutum with coarse and uniform punctures (1–2x puncture width), denser towards tegula and smooth on disc of mesoscutum; mesonotal line conspicuous, shorter than half of mesoscutum length and parapsidial lines poorly defined; mesoscutellum with coarse and uniform punctures posteriorly. Metasoma terga with coarse, uniform, circular punctures (1–2x puncture width), denser on lateral sides; sterna with elongated punctures mainly on postterior area. Structures: Head broader than long (1.3–1.2: 1); inner orbits of compound eyes relatively parallel; ratio of upper and lower interocular distances 0.6–0.8: 1; maximum interocular distance similar than eye length (0.8–0.9: 1); clypeus broader than long (2–1.9: 1) with the length almost equal to clypeocellar distance (0.9–1: 1); interalveolar distance similar than alveolocular distance (1.3–1.1: 1); interalveolar distance almost equal to alveolocellar distance (1.1–1: 1); vertex broad, lateral ocellus below supraorbital line (0.9–1x OD); interocellar distance almost equal to ocellocular distance (0.9–1: 1); frontal carina at the same level of antennal sockets with similar size than scape length (0.2–0.3x OD); length of F1 longer than the summed length of F2 and F3 and shorter than length of F2–F4 (0.8–0.9: 0.6–0.7: 1–1.1); upper clypeus slightly elevated compared to the paraocular area. Labrum broader than long, with three basal protuberances, all tubercles with similar length, slightly longer on sublateral tubercles. Mesoscutellum slightly convex (lateral view). Metanotum and propodeum vertical (lateral view).

Male ( Figs. 23–26View FIGURES 23–26). As the female, except as follows: Measurements (mm): Approximate body length: 14.5 (14.7–17); head width: 4.5 (4.4–5); mesosoma width: 5.7 (5.3–6); metasoma width: 6 (6.3–6.8); forewing length: 12 (11.7–12.5). Coloration: Clypeus, paraocular and supraclypeal area, labrum, anterior surfaces of F1– F3 and mandible yellowish pale. Pubescence: Yellowish hairs predominantly on mesoscutum, mesepisternum, dorsal surface of basitarsi, mesoscutellum and anterior half of T1; whitish and black hairs inter-mixed giving a grayish appearance on vertex and frons. S urface sculpture: Smooth on clypeus, labrum, supraclypeal and paraocular area. Mesoscutellum and metasomal terga with denser and coarser punctures than female (0.5–1x puncture width). Structures: Upper interocular distance short (3.4–3.6x OD); ratio of upper and lower interocular distances 0.7–0.8: 1; maximum interocular distance shorter than eye length (0.4–0.6: 1); clypeus broader than long (1.5–1.4: 1) with the length almost equal to clypeocellar distance (0.9–1: 1); interalveolar distance longer than alveolocular distance (1.7–1.6: 1); interalveolar distance almost equal to alveolocellar distance (0.9-1: 1); vertex broad, lateral ocellus below supraorbital line (0.6–0.7x OD); interocellar distance longer than ocellocular distance (1.5–1.4: 1); frontal carina at the same level of antennal sockets with similar size than scape length (0.2–0.3x OD); length of F1 longer than the summed length of F2 and F3 and shorter than length of F2–F4 (0.9–1: 0.7–0.8: 1–1.1). Male genitalia as in Figs. 71 and 72View FIGURES 71–76.

Floral records. Unknown.

Type material. Xylocopa varians ecuadorica  : Syntype female ( NHMUK, not examined). Xylocopa trautmanni  : Holotype male (according to Dusmet-Alonso,1924; MNCN, examined). Xylocopa varians rufotegularis  : Holotype female (according to Michener, 1954; AMNH, not examined).

Type localities. Xylocopa varians ecuadorica  : ECUADOR: Guayas: Guayaquil. Xylocopa trautmanni  : EC- UADOR. Xylocopa varians rufotegularis  : PANAMA: Canal Zone: Culebra-Arraiján trail.

Distribution in Colombia ( Fig. 77View FIGURE 77). Antioquia: Itagüí, La Estrella, Medellín, Turbo. Caldas: Viterbo. Cauca. Nariño: Tumaco. Risaralda: Mistrató.

Material examined (n = 14♀, 7♂). COLOMBIA: Antioquia  : 1 female: Itagüí , N6°11’, W75°35′, 1553 m, Jan-1975, J. Cano, 31377 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: La Estrella , N6°9’, W75°38′, 1887 m, Dic-1974, G. Ortíz, 31383 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: La Estrella , N6°9’, W75°38′, 1887 m, Mar-1982, C.I. Arango, 31382 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 3 males: Me- dellín, N6°15’, W75°33′, 1500 m, Jan-1984, F. Díaz, 31360, 31361, 31376 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: Medellín, Normal de Varones , N6°15’6”, W75°33′48”, 1500 m, Dic-1975, A. Cárdenas, 31384 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Medellín, Jardín Botánico , N6°15’6”, W75°33′48”, 1500 m, Nov-1975, J. Cano, 3401–2 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Medellín, Universi- dad Nacional de Colombia , N 6°15’41”, W 75°34′39”, 1500 m, Sep-1947, Gallego, 3398–1 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Medellín , N 6°15’, W 75°33′, 1500 m, Jan-1984, F. Díaz, 31372 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 female: Medellín, Jardín Botánico , N 6°16’34”, W75°35′49”, 1500 m, Jun-1976, J. Morales, 31378 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 2 females: Medellín, Jardín Botáni- co, N6°16’34”, W75°35′49”, 1500 m, Nov-1976, L. Escobar, 31379, 31380 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  1 female: Medellín, Jardín Botánico , N6°16’34”, W75°35′49”, 1500 m, Nov-1976, J. Morales, 31381 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male: Turbo , N8°5’43”, W76°44′0”, 2 m, Nov-1947, Gallego, 3401–1 ( MEFLG)GoogleMaps  . Caldas: 1 female: Viterbo, Vereda La Alsacia, Finca El Tapao , N5°2’42”, W75°55′9”, 900 m, 30-Oct-2003, J.M. Peláez, LABUN006383, 17860 ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  . Cauca: 1 female: Cauca, Xylocopa varians Sm    . ♀, Acaso var. ecuadorica Ckll.  ( MNCN)  . Nariño: 1 female: Tumaco, Capitanía de Puerto de Tumaco , N1°47’, W78°48′, 7 m, 09-Sep-2015, Taxonomía Animal ( ICN)GoogleMaps  ; 1, female: Tumaco, Hacienda Mar Agrícola , N1°41’, W78°45′, 10 m, 09-Sep-2015, Taxonomía Animal ( ICN)GoogleMaps  . Risaralda: 1 female: Mistrató, Puerto de Oro, Río de Oro Totumo , N5°28’, W76°01′, 900 m, 03-Sep-1991, F. Fernández ( LABUN)GoogleMaps  . Without information  : 1 male: 31375 ( MEFLG)  .

Comments. Xylocopa ecuadorica  was considered one of several subspecies allied to X. varians  . Initially, Smith (1874) described X. varians  based on an undetermined number of specimens from southern Brazil. Cockerell (1909) described X. ecuadorica  as a subspecies of X. varians  based on material from Guayaquil, Ecuador. Later, Cockerell (1911) described the subspecies X. varians incarum  based on a female and a male from Piura, Peru and X. varians piurensis  based on a female from the same locality. Finally, Cockerell (1912) proposed a key for the females of the four subspecies of X. varians  and Hurd (1978) listed the above names as subspecies in his catalog. We followed Moure (2012) who proposed all these subspecies as distinct species.

The identity of this species was through the comparison of male specimens with the holotype of X. trautmanni  (junior synonym of X. ecuadorica  ) housed in MNCN and subsequently were associated the females. A specimen from the type series of X. varians  housed in NHMUK was studied and it diverges superficially from the females of X. ecuadorica  by the robust body size, tegula reddish brown and whitish pubescence predominantly on mesosoma and T1. This latter feature is the most evident for separate those species, although the variations of X. varians  are still unknown.

Despite not having examined the type specimens of X. incarum  and X. piurensis  , the distinction of the subspecies described by Cockerell seems to be very ambiguous because he proposed the coloration of the metatarsus to differentiate them (hind tarsus with reddish hair in X. incarum  and only ventral surface of hind tarsus with reddish hair in X. piurensis  ). In addition, we found Colombian specimens of X. ecuadorica  with both states, the descriptions are very similar and their localities are nearby (all occur in the Pacific dominion sensu Morrone, 2014). The distribution of X. ecuadorica  in Colombia is restricted to the provinces of Cauca and Chocó-Darién. This is also useful to distinguish it from X. varians  because its distribution is wider in the Chacoan and Parana dominion.

This group of species needs to be re-evaluated and the record of X. varians  in the country must be clarified.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

MNCN

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

MEFLG

Museo Entomologico Francisco Luis Gallego

ICN

Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Apidae

Genus

Xylocopa

Loc

Xylocopa (Schonnherria) ecuadorica Cockerell, 1909

Villamizar, Germán, Fernández, Fernando & Vivallo, Felipe 2020
2020
Loc

Xylocopa varians ecuadorica

Cockerell, T. D. A. 1909: 403
Loc

Xylocopa trautmanni

Dusmet-Alonso, J. M. 1924: 55
Loc

Xylocopa varians rufotegularis

Michener, C. D. 1954: 157