Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (= A. agallocha Roxb.)

DeFilipps, Robert A. & Krupnick, Gary A., 2018, The medicinal plants of Myanmar, PhytoKeys 102, pp. 1-341: 162-163

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Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (= A. agallocha Roxb.)


Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (= A. agallocha Roxb.) 


Myanmar: akyaw, klaw (Kayin), thit-hmwe. English: agarwood, aloewood, eaglewood.


Southeast Asia: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Indonesia, Iran, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. In Myanmar, grows naturally along the Tanintharyi Yomas, and on islands in Beik district; found in Chin, Kachin, Mandalay, Mon, and Sagaing.

Conservation status.

Vulnerable [VU A1cd] ( IUCN 2017).


Preparations made from parts of this tree are used to control coughs and leprosy, stimulate weight gain, alleviate indigestion, treat eye and ear ailments, promote urinary flow, resolve liver and intestinal problems, and eliminate bad breath. Sap: Applied topically to make the body feel light and agile. Wood: Grated and used in various preparations, both external and internal, especially for illness during and after childbirth, but also to treat rheumatism, smallpox, abdominal illnesses, and other body pains; additionally, used as a cosmetic. The scented wood is employed as a stimulant, tonic, and carminative. It is also a constituent of medicine for heart palpitation, and other illnesses.

Inner wood is made into a paste which is inhaled, or burned to produce fumes for inhaling as a remedy for excessive dizziness; applied topically or ingested to cure vomiting, stop bleeding, and alleviate swollen joints; and applied at frequent intervals as a remedy for skin disorders and conditions arising from lack of hygiene. The paste, mixed with the root bark from kyet-hsu ( Ricinus communis  ), is applied topically to alleviate stomachaches; ingested to treat asthma and vomiting; made from the wood of the black akyaw variety, is mixed with oil and applied topically to cure shooting stomach pains. The wood powder- mixed with honey, and ingested by licking, is considered a cure for heart disease and long-lasting fevers; rolled in thanat-pet ( Cordia dichotama  ) leaves and smoked like a cigarette or in a pipe, is used to strengthen the heart and stomach. To stimulate proper healing, a mixture of the wood and sap from Oh-htane-pin (the scientific name of this plant could not be ascertained per Thi Thi Ta, personal communication) is placed on embers to produce smoke directed toward sores that have not healed, infected sores, and sores infested with maggots.


In India the wood is an aphrodisiac, carminative, stimulant, and tonic; also used for snakebite, and as an astringent for treating vomiting and diarrhea ( Jain and DeFilipps 1991). In China the leaf is used for malaria; the stem bark is used as an astringent and antidysenteric; and the root is also astringent ( Duke and Ayensu 1985).

In East and Southeast Asia medicinal uses of this species are given as follows: In Mongolia “Bezoar” from the bark is employed to "remove the poison" of feverish illnesses; in China it is used as an aphrodisiac, a diuretic, and for the purposes mentioned in the previous paragraph; in Indo-China the heartwood is thought to be antifebrile and antimalarial, also a decoction of it is given for paralysis, and alcohol from macerating it is used as a remedy for vomiting, cholera, cough, anuria, and indigestion; on the Malay Peninsula an infusion from the grated root is given to treat general dropsy or anasarca, finely ground leaves are rubbed over swollen hands and legs of a someone with dropsy, and resin from the wood is an ingredient in sedatives; and in Indonesia the leaves, mixed with vinegar, salt, and charcoal, are used to treat vomiting ( Perry 1980).

From the grated wood of A. agallocha  (i.e., A. malaccensis  ) comes a drug with great antiquity, referred to in the Scriptures and all works dealing with Eastern Materia Medica. This drug has several current uses, both external and internal. It is used in various preparations for illness during and after childbirth; to treat rheumatism, smallpox, abdominal ills, and other body pains. The the scented wood is also said to have the properties of a stimulant, tonic, and carminative; as well as being a constituent of medicines for the heart palpitation ( Perry 1980).


Agricultural Corporation (1980), Perry (1980).