Miocora aurea (Ris, 1918)

Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo & Bota-Sierra, Cornelio Andrés, 2022, Description of the final larval stadium of Miocora aurea (Ris, 1918) (Odonata: Polythoridae), Zootaxa 5182 (3), pp. 279-287 : 280-285

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Miocora aurea (Ris, 1918)


Miocora aurea (Ris, 1918)

Figures 1–8 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 View FIGURE 6 View FIGURE 7 View FIGURE 8

Material. One exuvia (1 ♀, reared), 9 F-0 larvae (6 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀). COLOMBIA: Risaralda Department, Tatamá National Park, Pueblo Rico Municipality , Monte Bello Township , Montenegro stream, 5.2273°N, 76.0830°W, elev. 1363 m, 12 February 2019, C. Bota, R. Novelo, R.W. Sites leg, 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀ (1 ♀ emerged on 13 February 2019) GoogleMaps ; same data but 2 nd order tributary stream of Río Taibá , 5.2164°N, 76.0883°W, elev. 1600 m, 13 February 2019, C. Bota, R. Novelo, R.W. Sites leg., 3 ♂♂ GoogleMaps ; same data but Minas de Cristal de Cuarzo stream, 5.2286°N, 76.0981°W, elev. 1480, 14 February 2019, C. Bota, R. Novelo leg., 1 ♀ GoogleMaps .

Description. Larva robust ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ), dorsally yellowish-brown anteriorly, dark brown posteriorly, ventrally yellow anteriorly, grayish-violet posteriorly. Abdomen strongly convex dorsally, flat ventrally; digitiform, coiled, ventrolateral gills on S2–7; caudal gills petiolate, inflated, and scaly.

Head: Wider than long, posterior margin widely concave, dorsal color yellowish-brown with darker areas in a complex color pattern ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ). Labrum mostly yellowish-brown, sides brown, covered with minute spiniform setae, distally setose, ventrally flat ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ); clypeus yellowish-brown, with a pair of parallel, white narrow lines along middle third. Frons reddish-brown, vertex yellowish-brown, both flat and granulose, with three large pale ocelli on vertex. Antennae 7-segmented ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ), longer than head, scape and pedicel brown beset with small scalelike setae, flagellomeres yellowish-brown becoming paler on tip, with minute scale-like setae; size proportion of antennomeres (from basal to apical): 0.70, 1.0, 0.75, 0.50, 0.45, 0.30, 0.20. Compound eyes large, strongly bulging ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ), with a row of large, dark brown scale-like setae arranged in palisade following the ventral margin of eyes ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ). Occiput shorter than compound eye dorsal length; cephalic lobes rounded, yellowish-brown dorsally, dark brown posteriorly, beset with small scale-like setae ( Fig. 2a View FIGURE 2 ); subocular areas of head yellow, with a well-developed, longitudinal carina which extends to posterior margin of cephalic lobes ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ). Mandibles ( Figs. 3a–d View FIGURE 3 ) with molar crest, with following formula: L 1’1 2 3 4 0 a b / R 1’1 2 3 4 y a (m 1–5 or 6) b, both mandibles fringed with a ventral and dorsal, transverse, row of long, stiff setae; basal-external surface shallowly concave. Ventral pad of hypopharynx creamy-pale ( Fig. 2b View FIGURE 2 ), subpentagonal, posterior margin concave, anterolateral margins setose. Maxilla: galeolacinia ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ) with seven teeth, three dorsal teeth moderately incurved ( Fig. 4a View FIGURE 4 ), approximately same size and longest, three ventral teeth of different sizes and shortest ( Fig. 4b View FIGURE 4 ), apical tooth stoutest, a row of 8–10 reddish-brown, stout, long, incurved setae preceding ventral teeth a row of long, white, delicate setae preceding dorsal teeth; maxillary palp shorter than galeolacinia, setose, ending in a robust blunt spine. Labium yellow. Prementum-postmentum articulation reaching anterior margin of mesosternum ( Fig. 1b View FIGURE 1 ). Prementum subpentagonal ( Fig. 5a View FIGURE 5 ), yellow ventrally with a subquadrate gray spot on each side of midline just below of ligula, 0.20x longer than its widest part, lateral margins sinuose and smooth; ligula convex, moderately developed ( Fig. 5b View FIGURE 5 ), 0.18–0.20 as long as its basal width measured dorsally, distal margin serrulate with a small, narrow, v-shaped, median cleft, a small, submarginal tooth on each side of median cleft but rather far from it. Premental palp reddish-yellow, smooth ( Fig. 5b View FIGURE 5 ) with three end hooks shorter than movable hook, the ventral (mesal) one shortest and truncated, internal margin of palp finely serrate; movable hook reddish, smooth, incurved, sharply-pointed, shorter than palpal lobe.

Thorax: Pronotal disk subtrapezoid ( Fig. 1a View FIGURE 1 ), mostly yellowish-brown with abundant, minute, scale-like setae, anterior lobe large and subtriangular, anterior margin straight, lateral margins concave at middle, slightly reflexed and rimmed, anterolateral corners produced as a blunt, triangular process, posterior margin straight, all margins beset with scale-like setae; propleura reddish-brown, propleural apophyses short and roundly-pointed, beset with scale-like setae, proepimeral apophysis largest. Pterothorax mostly dark brown ( Figs. 1a, c View FIGURE 1 ), covered with minute scale-like setae, ventral margin of mesothorax straight, that of metathorax sinuose. Wing sheaths mostly yellowishbrown, with basal and costal areas reddish-brown ( Figs. 1a, c View FIGURE 1 ), anterior pair reaching basal half of S7, posterior pair reaching posterior margin of S7, both in individuals with abdomen not relaxed. A blunt, conical, median, dorsal protuberance on posterior margin of metanotum. Legs long ( Fig. 1a View FIGURE 1 ) (i.e., tip of metatibiae surpassing well S10 when fully extended), beset with scale-like setae of different sizes excepting on tarsi; all tibiae longer than respective femora. Femora largely light-brown, laterally compressed; tibiae and tarsi light-yellowish-brown; apicalinternal margin of tibiae with 4–5 thick, robust, reddish, spine-like setae ( Fig. 5c View FIGURE 5 ); tarsi with abundant, stiff setae on ventral surface; pretarsal claws simple, widely separated each other, hooked on apex, with pulvilliform empodium. Thoracic sternum light yellowish-brown, beset with dark scale-like setae; metasternum divided into four sternites, with laterosternites produced medially as large ovoid plates ( Fig. 1b View FIGURE 1 ).

Abdomen: Subcylindrical, strongly convex dorsally, flat ventrally, wider at base, narrowing caudally ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ). Tergites brown to dark brown, usually light yellowish-brown on midline of S8–10 ( Fig. 6a View FIGURE 6 ),, beset with small scale-like setae on S3–10 including posterior margins; posterior margin of S10 with a middle, deep, U-shaped emargination. Dorsal protuberances well-developed, caudally-directed, and roundly-tipped on S2–9 ( Fig. 6b View FIGURE 6 ). Lateral margins of S1–8 ventrolaterally expanded, those of S7–8 more developed covered with abundant scale-like setae. Sternum mostly light brown, sterna beset with small scale-like setae. A pair of ventrolateral, grayish-violet, digitiform, tapering, coiled fleshy gills on S2–7 ( Fig. 6c View FIGURE 6 ). Male gonapophyses ( Fig. 6d View FIGURE 6 ) small, with an obtuse tip that reaches the posterior margin of S9, with scale-like setae. Female gonapophyses ( Figs. 7a, b View FIGURE 7 ) well-developed, surpassing by much posterior margin of S10 ( Fig. 7a View FIGURE 7 ); lateral valves densely covered with dark brown scale-like setae on basal 0.80, distal 0.20 smooth, digitiform, and roundly-poited ( Fig. 7a View FIGURE 7 ), central and dorsal valves smooth, 0.21x longer than lateral valves ( Fig. 7b View FIGURE 7 ). Male cerci creamy pale ( Figs. 7c, d View FIGURE 7 ), with dark brown scale-like setae on dorsal surface, in lateral view subquadrate ( Fig. 7d View FIGURE 7 ), dorsal margin slightly convex, ventral margin shallowly concave, distal margin straight, distoventral corner slightly produced ventrally ( Fig. 7d View FIGURE 7 ), in dorsal ( Fig. 7c View FIGURE 7 ) and ventral view appearing digitiform. Female cerci as in male but conical and roundly-pointed in lateral view ( Fig. 8a View FIGURE 8 ). Caudal gills petiolate and inflated ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 6a, d View FIGURE 6 , 7d View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ), densely covered with scale-like setae, with 4–5 small, conical, roundly-pointed projections ( Figs. 6a View FIGURE 6 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ); central gill (epiproct), in caudal view ( Fig. 8b View FIGURE 8 ), laterally compressed, with five projections ( Fig. 8a View FIGURE 8 ); lateral gills (paraprocts) larger and more inflated than central gill, with four projections, the mesal and ventral surfaces grayish-violet, largely smooth, apparently concave but becoming inflated in alcoholic specimens.

Measurements [averages in brackets]: F-0 larvae: Total length (without caudal lamellae) 10.1–13.7 [12.2; N=9]; maximum width of head 3.1–3.8 [3.62; N=9]; hind femur 3.0–3.4 [3.07; N=9]; abdomen 4.0–6.3 [5.55; N=9]; paraprocts 2.8–3.0 [2.9; N=8]; epiproct 1.8–2.2 [1.98; N=7]. Exuvia: TL 11.5; MWh 3.9; Hf 3.2; Ab 5.0; Pp 2.8.

Diagnosis. The larva of M. aurea is very similar to the larva of M. chirripa , but with the following differences [in square brackets M. chirripa ]: pedicel 0.25x longer than 3 rd antennomere [0.35]; prementum 0.20x longer than its widest part [0.18x]; posterior margin of tergite 10 with a moderate incision [with a deep incision].

Habitat. Larvae of M. aurea inhabit small shallow forested streams, crawling among sand, gravel, small stones where the water flow is moderate.